ویلیام جیمز (William James، ۱۸۴۲–۱۹۱۰) فیلسوف آمریکایی و بنیانگذار مکتب پراگماتیسم بود. وی در زمینه روانشناسی و فلسفه مطالعات عمیقی داشت و به عنوان پزشک نیز به فعالیت مشغول بودهاست. فلسفه پراگماتیسم وی را «عملگرایی» یا «اصالت دادن به عمل» در زبان فارسی ترجمه کردهاند؛ ولی در یک نگاه اجمالی ویلیام جیمز منشأ حقیقت را در «سودمند بودن» یک امر یا قضیه میدانست. حقیقت به چیزی اطلاق میشود که «سودمند» یا «عملی» باشد. چیزی که «سودمند» نیست نمیتواند «حقیقت» باشد. به همین منظور طرفداران این مسلک را امروزه «عملگرا»ها مینامند. در زبان روزمره به چیز یا کسی که به منافع قابل دسترسی کوشش میکند عادتاً «پراگماتیست» میگویند.
اوان زندگی و خانواده[ویرایش]
ویلیام جیمز در نیویورک سیتی به دنیا آمد. پدرش هنری جیمز (بزرگ) عالم روحانی و پیرو فلسفه سوئدنبرگ بود. ویلیام، بزرگترین فرزند از پنج فرزند خانواده بهشمار میآمد. یک خواهر و سه برادر داشت. یکی از برادرانش موسوم به جیمز (کوچک) رماننویس مشهوری شد. خانواده او خانوادهای بااستعداد، استثنائی و فعال بودند. ویلیام جیمز به همراه برادر کوچکتر خود هنری جیمز موفقیتهای بسیاری را کسب کردند.
تحصیلات رسمی ویلیام جیمز بهطور منظم صورت نگرفت. دانشاندوزی واقعی او در محیط خانواده آغاز شد زیرا دوستان هوشمند و فاضل پدرش غالباً به خانه آنان میآمدند و دربارهٔ موضوعهای گوناگونی بحث و گفتگو میکردند. ویلیام جیمز در مدارس سوئیس، آلمان، فرانسه و انگلستان تحصیل کرد و علاقه خاصی به علوم طبیعی و نقاشی در او بیدار شد. در سال ۱۸۶۰ آموزش رسمی را برای نقاش شدن آغاز کرد ولی دشواری کار به او فهماند که نقاش شدن کار او نیست؛ لذا پس از یک سال وارد دانشکده «علوم لارنس» در هاروارد شد؛ اما در سال ۱۸۶۴ تغییر رشته داد و به دانشکده پزشکی رفت.
در مأموریتی به برزیل، دچار بیماری آبله شد و از آن زمان تا اواخر عمرش این بیماری بارها عود کرد. درجه دکترای پزشکیاش را در سال ۱۸۶۹ دریافت کرد و پس از گذراندن یک دوره عود بیماری آبله، کار تدریس در دانشگاه هاروارد را آغاز کرد؛ ابتدا آناتومی و فیزیولوژی، سپس روانشناسی و بالاخره در سال ۱۸۷۹ فلسفه تدریس کرد.
هنگامی که در سال ۱۸۷۸ ازدواج کرد، به نظر میرسید که تندرستی و روحیه فعال خود را نه تنها حفظ کرده، بلکه سالمتر و فعالتر شدهاست. او تدریس کرد، به شاگردانش دانش آموخت، سفرها کرد، به شهرت و آوازه رسید، و انگیزش فکری عظیمی را در محفلی از دوستان و همکاران برجسته و فاضل خود پدیدآورد و نیز از محضر آنان نیز بهرهها برد. فیلسوف بزرگ عصر و زمانهاش بود. وی فلسفه پراگماتیسم را که از سوی همشهری آمریکاییاش چارلز ساندرز پیرس باب شده بود، پذیرا شد و آن را بسط و توسعه داد. در واقع ویلیام جیمز بنیانگذار مکتب پراگماتیسم میباشد.
پذیرش کثرت، سیلان و صیرورت و نامتعین بودن همه چیزها و یک دیدگاه واقعبینانه و مبتنی بر عقل موجود - نسبت به همه جنبههای تجربه بشری - در کانون تفکر او قرار دارد. اما این هرگز موجب نمیشود که فلسفه وی یکنواخت و دنیوی شود. او معتقد بود که اگر فکر و اندیشهای مؤثر واقع شود، از نوع فکر و اندیشه واقعی است؛ و مادامی که سببساز دگرگونی در زندگی شود، پرمعنا و ارزشمند خواهد بود. از نگاه او، حقیقت یک امر مطلق ثابت و تغییرناپذیر نیست بلکه در اثر فعالیت انسان ابداع یا ایجاد میشود. علاوه بر آن، بین حقیقت و خیر پیوندی تنگاتنگ وجود دارد: آنچه حقیقت است تبدیل به خیر میشود.
دغدغه نهایی او یک امر اخلاقی است. او میخواهد روشی فلسفی را برای زندگی و نیز انسانها ارائه دهد. شیوه زنده و با روح کلام و نوشتارش، وی را در نزد همگان محبوب کرد.
پراگماتیسم (مذهب اصالت عمل)، اصالت عمل نامی تازه برای برخی طرق اندیشیدن، مطالعات همگانی در فلسفه [Prognatism, a New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking: Popular Lectures on Philosphy] این کتاب، که در ۱۹۰۷ انتشار یافت، مجموعهای از سخنرانیهایی است که ویلیام جیمز، در ۱۹۰۶–۱۹۰۷ ایراد کردهاست. (پراگماتیسم از کلمه یونانی «پراگما» به معنای عمل است، و کلمهای است که نخستین بار چارلز پیرس انگلیسی در مقاله معروفش با عنوان چگونه میتوان افکار خود را روشن ساخت، به کار بردهاست. پیرس در این مقاله ثابت میکند که برای شکافتن یک فکر کافی است که به تعیین رفتاری که این فکر برمیانگیزد، بپردازیم). این اصل که بیست سال بعد ویلیام جیمز بحث دربارهٔ آن را از سر میگیرد در اندک زمان به نحو گستردهای رواج مییابد. دقیقتر بگوییم، اصطلاح «پراگماتیسم» فقط به این جریان که در دهههای آخر قرن نوزدهم مخصوصاً به همت جیمز و دیویی اروپا را فرا گرفت اطلاق میشود. جیمز از این اصل آغاز میکند که هیچیک از نظامهای فلسفی که تا این زمان پیشنهاد شدهاست، قانعکننده نیست، زیرا مذهب اصالت تجربه غیرانسانی و غیردینی است و مذهب اصالت عقل از صفت عینی عالم واقع غافل است. «هیچ نظریهای نسخه مطلق واقعیت نیست»؛ همه نظریهها جنبه سودمندی دارند و بیشتر صورتهای ذهنی سازگاری با واقعیتاند تا جلوهها و پاسخ به معمایی که از سوی الوهیت طرح شدهاست. مذهب اصالت عمل تنها فلسفهای است که در دسترس آدمی است، زیرا سعی ما در راه شناخت در هر قدم بر اثر ترجیحات و منافع و نیازهای ما تحریض و هدایت میشود. به همین جهت، جیمز به جای اینکه اصل فکری و عقلی کاملاً غیرشخصی را ملاک حقیقت انگارد، فلسفهای را میپذیرد که با احتیاجات و تمنیات ما مطابقت دارد. برطبق اصول مذهب اصالت عمل، هرگاه نتایج فرضیهای در زندگی سودمند باشد نمیتوان آن را طرد کرد. بدین ترتیب در شیوه تفکر ما، امر حقیقی و درست تنها آن چیزی است که در شیوه عمل مناسب باشد. حقیقت یک تصور صفتی از این تصور نیست، بلکه حقیقت بر تصور ما «فرود میآید»، و آنگاه تصور حقیقی میشود و حقیقت خود را از حوادث میگیرد؛ بنابراین، فلسفه امر حقیقی را مشاهده نمیکند، بلکه آن را خلق میکند: «ما قطعهای از سنگ مرمر را دریافت میکنیم، اما مجسمه را ما خود میتراشیم.» ملاحظه میکنیم که در این شرایط، جیمز در تاریخ فلسفه تنها میان مزاجهای فردی تعارضی میبیند که از ظریف (مذهب اصالت عقل) به وحشی (مذهب اصالت تجربه) ادامه دارد؛ بنابراین، مذهب اصالت عمل به جای جستن انسجام مطلقی سعی دارد که برخوردهای میان مکاتب مختلف را تعدیل کند. این فلسفه توانستهاست نوعی عرفان ملموس باشد که معرفت را صورت سادهای از سازگاری حیاتی میبیند؛ با این همه، هدف آن عالیتر است و میخواهد ضابطه عمل را به مقام ضابطه عینی ارتقاء دهد. به همین جهت، فلسفه عملی به نوعی فلسفه انسانی (اومانیسم) تعبیر میشود که فرق دقیق آن برحسب آرمان زندگی فلاسفه مختلف که مبلغ آناند، متغیر است. در نظر جیمز، این مکتب رنگ فلسفه روحی (اسپیریتوئالیسم) به خود گرفتهاست.
در سال ۱۸۹۹ که ویلیام جیمز سرگرم بالا رفتن از کوهی در نزدیکی خانهاش در نیوهمپشایر بود، راه بازگشت خود را گم کرد. تلاش شدید او برای یافتن راه بازگشت از کوه مزبور، موجب تشدید ناراحتی قلبیاش شد. در طول دو سال آینده، تقریباً زمینگیر بود. اما به ناگهان و در کمال حیرت، بهبود یافت و توانست به هاروارد برگردد و شغل پرمشغله تدریس را از سر گیرد.
در سال ۱۹۰۷ بازنشسته شد و در ۱۹۰۹ کتاب یک جهان کثرتگرا را انتشار داد؛ وی در این اثر به طرز درخشانی به آثار هگل، فخنر و برگسون پرداختهاست. پس از چند ماه، ناراحتی قلبی او دوباره بروز کرد و در ۲۶ اوت ۱۹۱۰ در خانهاش، واقع در نیوهمپشایر، درگذشت.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 27, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential U.S. philosophers, and has been labeled the "Father of American psychology".
Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place, after Wilhelm Wundt, who is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. James also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty, and has even influenced former US President Jimmy Carter.
Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr. and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James. James trained as a physician and taught anatomy at Harvard, but never practiced medicine. Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and then philosophy. James wrote widely on many topics, including epistemology, education, metaphysics, psychology, religion, and mysticism. Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology, a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical Empiricism, an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of Religious Experience, an investigation of different forms of religious experience, including theories on mind-cure.
William James was born at the Astor House in New York City on January 11, 1842. He was the son of Henry James Sr., a noted and independently wealthy Swedenborgian theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several of its members have made them a subject of continuing interest to historians, biographers, and critics.
William James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education, developing fluency in both German and French. Education in the James household encouraged cosmopolitanism. The family made two trips to Europe while William James was still a child, setting a pattern that resulted in thirteen more European journeys during his life. His early artistic bent led to an apprenticeship in the studio of William Morris Hunt in Newport, Rhode Island, but he switched in 1861 to scientific studies at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University.
In his early adulthood, James suffered from a variety of physical ailments, including those of the eyes, back, stomach, and skin. He was also tone deaf. He was subject to a variety of psychological symptoms which were diagnosed at the time as neurasthenia, and which included periods of depression during which he contemplated suicide for months on end. Two younger brothers, Garth Wilkinson (Wilky) and Robertson (Bob), fought in the Civil War. The other three siblings (William, Henry, and Alice James) all suffered from periods of invalidism.
He took up medical studies at Harvard Medical School in 1864 (according to his brother Henry James, the author). He took a break in the spring of 1865 to join naturalist Louis Agassiz on a scientific expedition up the Amazon River, but aborted his trip after eight months, as he suffered bouts of severe seasickness and mild smallpox. His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867. He traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until November 1868; at that time he was 26 years old. During this period, he began to publish; reviews of his works appeared in literary periodicals such as the North American Review.
James finally earned his M.D. degree in June 1869 but he never practiced medicine. What he called his "soul-sickness" would only be resolved in 1872, after an extended period of philosophical searching. He married Alice Gibbens in 1878. In 1882 he joined the Theosophical Society.
James's time in Germany proved intellectually fertile, helping him find that his true interests lay not in medicine but in philosophy and psychology. Later, in 1902 he would write: "I originally studied medicine in order to be a physiologist, but I drifted into psychology and philosophy from a sort of fatality. I never had any philosophic instruction, the first lecture on psychology I ever heard being the first I ever gave".
In 1875–1876, James, Henry Pickering Bowditch (1840–1911), Charles Pickering Putnam (1844–1914), and James Jackson Putnam (1846–1918) founded the Putnam Camp at St. Huberts, Essex County, New York.
James interacted with a wide array of writers and scholars throughout his life, including his godfather Ralph Waldo Emerson, his godson William James Sidis, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce, Bertrand Russell, Josiah Royce, Ernst Mach, John Dewey, Macedonio Fernández, Walter Lippmann, Mark Twain, Horatio Alger, G. Stanley Hall, Henri Bergson, Carl Jung, and Sigmund Freud.
James spent almost all of his academic career at Harvard. He was appointed instructor in physiology for the spring 1873 term, instructor in anatomy and physiology in 1873, assistant professor of psychology in 1876, assistant professor of philosophy in 1881, full professor in 1885, endowed chair in psychology in 1889, return to philosophy in 1897, and emeritus professor of philosophy in 1907.
James studied medicine, physiology, and biology, and began to teach in those subjects, but was drawn to the scientific study of the human mind at a time when psychology was constituting itself as a science. James's acquaintance with the work of figures like Hermann Helmholtz in Germany and Pierre Janet in France facilitated his introduction of courses in scientific psychology at Harvard University. He taught his first experimental psychology course at Harvard in the 1875–1876 academic year.
During his Harvard years, James joined in philosophical discussions and debates with Charles Peirce, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Chauncey Wright that evolved into a lively group informally known as The Metaphysical Club in 1872. Louis Menand (2001) suggested that this Club provided a foundation for American intellectual thought for decades to come. James joined the Anti-Imperialist League in 1898, in opposition to the United States annexation of the Philippines.
Among James's students at Harvard University were luminaries such as Boris Sidis, Theodore Roosevelt, George Santayana, W. E. B. Du Bois, G. Stanley Hall, Ralph Barton Perry, Gertrude Stein, Horace Kallen, Morris Raphael Cohen, Walter Lippmann, Alain Locke, C. I. Lewis, and Mary Whiton Calkins. Antiquarian bookseller Gabriel Wells tutored under him at Harvard in the late 1890s.
Following his January, 1907 retirement from Harvard, James continued to write and lecture, publishing Pragmatism, A Pluralistic Universe, and The Meaning of Truth. James was increasingly afflicted with cardiac pain during his last years. It worsened in 1909 while he worked on a philosophy text (unfinished but posthumously published as Some Problems in Philosophy). He sailed to Europe in the spring of 1910 to take experimental treatments which proved unsuccessful, and returned home on August 18. His heart failed on August 26, 1910, at his home in Chocorua, New Hampshire. He was buried in the family plot in Cambridge Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He was one of the strongest proponents of the school of functionalism in psychology and of pragmatism in philosophy. He was a founder of the American Society for Psychical Research, as well as a champion of alternative approaches to healing. He challenged his professional colleagues not to let a narrow mindset prevent an honest appraisal of those beliefs.
In an empirical study by Haggbloom et al. using six criteria such as citations and recognition, James was found to be the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.
William James was the son of Henry James (Senior) of Albany, and Mary Robertson Walsh. He had four siblings: Henry (the novelist), Garth Wilkinson, Robertson, and Alice. William became engaged to Alice Howe Gibbens on May 10, 1878; they were married on July 10. They had 5 children: Henry (born May 18, 1879), William (born June 17, 1882), Herman (born 1884, died in infancy), Margaret (born March, 1887) and Alexander (the artist) (born December 22, 1890).
He gained widespread recognition with his monumental The Principles of Psychology (1890), totaling twelve hundred pages in two volumes, which took twelve years to complete. Psychology: The Briefer Course, was an 1892 abridgement designed as a less rigorous introduction to the field. These works criticized both the English associationist school and the Hegelianism of his day as competing dogmatisms of little explanatory value, and sought to re-conceive the human mind as inherently purposive and selective.
President Jimmy Carter's Moral Equivalent of War Speech, on April 17, 1977, equating the United States' 1970s energy crisis, oil crisis and the changes and sacrifices Carter's proposed plans would require with the "moral equivalent of war," may have borrowed its title, much of its theme and the memorable phrase from James' classic essay "The Moral Equivalent of War" derived from his last speech, delivered at Stanford University in 1906, and published in 1910, in which "James considered one of the classic problems of politics: how to sustain political unity and civic virtue in the absence of war or a credible threat ..." and which "... sounds a rallying cry for service in the interests of the individual and the nation."  
James defined true beliefs as those that prove useful to the believer. His pragmatic theory of truth was a synthesis of correspondence theory of truth and coherence theory of truth, with an added dimension. Truth is verifiable to the extent that thoughts and statements correspond with actual things, as well as the extent to which they "hang together," or cohere, as pieces of a puzzle might fit together; these are in turn verified by the observed results of the application of an idea to actual practice.
"The most ancient parts of truth . . . also once were plastic. They also were called true for human reasons. They also mediated between still earlier truths and what in those days were novel observations. Purely objective truth, truth in whose establishment the function of giving human satisfaction in marrying previous parts of experience with newer parts played no role whatsoever, is nowhere to be found. The reasons why we call things true is the reason why they are true, for 'to be true' means only to perform this marriage-function," he wrote.
James held a world view in line with pragmatism, declaring that the value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person who held it. Additional tenets of James's pragmatism include the view that the world is a mosaic of diverse experiences that can only be properly interpreted and understood through an application of "radical empiricism." Radical empiricism, not related to the everyday scientific empiricism, asserts that the world and experience can never be halted for an entirely objective analysis; the mind of the observer and the act of observation affect any empirical approach to truth. The mind, its experiences, and nature are inseparable. James's emphasis on diversity as the default human condition—over and against duality, especially Hegelian dialectical duality—has maintained a strong influence in American culture. James's description of the mind-world connection, which he described in terms of a "stream of consciousness", had a direct and significant impact on avant-garde and modernist literature and art, notably in the case of James Joyce.
In What Pragmatism Means, James writes that the central point of his own doctrine of truth is, in brief, that "Truths emerge from facts, but they dip forward into facts again and add to them; which facts again create or reveal new truth (the word is indifferent) and so on indefinitely. The 'facts' themselves meanwhile are not true. They simply are. Truth is the function of the beliefs that start and terminate among them." Richard Rorty made the contested claim that James did not mean to give a theory of truth with this statement and that we should not regard it as such. However, other pragmatism scholars such as Susan Haack and Howard Mounce do not share Rorty's instrumentalist interpretation of James.
In The Meaning of Truth, James seems to speak of truth in relativistic terms: "The critic's [sc., the critic of pragmatism] trouble...seems to come from his taking the word 'true' irrelatively, whereas the pragmatist always means 'true for him who experiences the workings.' " However, James responded to critics accusing him of relativism, scepticism or agnosticism, and of believing only in relative truths. To the contrary, he supported an epistemological realism position.
Pragmatism and "cash value"
Pragmatism is an approach to philosophy which holds that the truth or meaning of a statement is to be measured by its practical consequences.
From the introduction to William James's Pragmatism by Bruce Kuklick (1981, p. xiv):
James's book of lectures on Pragmatism is arguably the most influential book of American Philosophy. The lectures inside depict his position on the subject. In his sixth lecture he starts off by defining truth as "agreement with reality". With this, James warns that there will be disagreements between pragmatics and intellectualists over the concepts of "agreement" and "reality", the last reasoning before thoughts settle and become autonomous for us. However, he contrasts this by supporting a more practical interpretation that: a true idea or belief is one that we can blend with our thinking so that it can be justified through experiences.
For James, "the 'reality' with which truths must agree has three dimensions: (1) matters of fact, (2) relations of ideas, and (3) the entire set of other truths to which we are committed."
According to William James' pragmatic approach to belief, knowledge is commonly viewed as a justified and true belief. James will accept a view if its conception of truth is analyzed and justified through interpretation, pragmatically. As a matter of fact, James' whole philosophy is of productive beliefs.
Belief in anything involves conceiving of how it is real, but disbelief is the result when we dismiss something because it contradicts another thing we think of as real. In his "Sentiment of Rationality", saying that crucial beliefs are not known is to doubt their truth, even if it seems possible. James names four "postulates of rationality" as valuable but unknowable: God, immorality, freedom, and moral duty.
In contrast, the weak side to pragmatism is that the best justification for a claim is whether it works. However, a claim that does not have outcomes cannot be justified, or unjustified, because it will not make a difference.
Will to believe doctrine
In William James's lecture of 1896 titled "The Will to Believe", James defends the right to violate the principle of evidentialism in order to justify hypothesis venturing. This idea foresaw 20th century objections to evidentialism and sought to ground justified belief in an unwavering principle that would prove more beneficial. Through his philosophy of pragmatism William James justifies religious beliefs by using the results of his hypothetical venturing as evidence to support the hypothesis' truth. Therefore, this doctrine allows one to assume belief in a god and prove its existence by what the belief brings to one's life.
This was criticized by advocates of skepticism rationality, like Bertrand Russell in Free Thought and Official Propaganda and Alfred Henry Lloyd with The Will to Doubt. Both argued that one must always adhere to fallibilism, recognizing of all human knowledge that "None of our beliefs are quite true; all have at least a penumbra of vagueness and error", and that the only means of progressing ever-closer to the truth is to never assume certainty, but always examine all sides and try to reach a conclusion objectively.
In his search for truth and assorted principles of psychology, William James developed his two-stage model of free will. In his model, he tries to explain how it is people come to the making of a decision and what factors are involved in it. He firstly defines our basic ability to choose as free will. Then he specifies our two factors as chance and choice. "James's two-stage model effectively separates chance (the in-deterministic free element) from choice (an arguably determinate decision that follows causally from one's character, values, and especially feelings and desires at the moment of decision)."
Chance is, as previously said, the "free element" it is that part of the model we have no control over, the wild stallion if you will. James says that in the sequence of the model, chance comes before choice. In the moment of decision we are given the chance to make a decision and then the choice is what we do (or do not do) regarding the decision.
When it comes to choice, James says we make a choice based on different experiences. It comes from our own past experiences, the observations of others or as James himself says "A supply of ideas of the various movements that are ... left in the memory by experiences of their involuntary performance is thus the first prerequisite of the voluntary life." What James describes is that once you've made a decision in the past, the experience is stockpiled into your memory where it can be referenced the next time a decision must be made. And will be drawn from as a positive solution. But in his development of the design, James also struggled with being able to prove that free will is actually free or predetermined.
People can make judgements of regret, moral approval and moral disapproval, and if those are absent, then that means our will is predetermined. An example of this is "James says the problem is a very "personal" one and that he cannot personally conceive of the universe as a place where murder must happen." Essentially, if there were no regrets or judgements then all the bad stuff would not be considered bad, only as predetermined because there are no options of "good" and "bad". "The free will option is pragmatically truer because it better accommodates the judgements of regret and morality." Overall James uses this line of reasoning to prove that our will is indeed free: because of our morality codes, and the conceivable alternate universes where a decision has been regarded different than what we chose.
In The Will to Believe, James simply asserted that his will was free. As his first act of freedom, he said, he chose to believe his will was free. He was encouraged to do this by reading Charles Renouvier, whose work convinced James to convert from monism to pluralism. In his diary entry of April 30, 1870, James wrote,
In 1884 James set the terms for all future discussions of determinism and compatibilism in the free will debates with his lecture to Harvard Divinity School students published as "The Dilemma of Determinism". In this talk he defined the common terms hard determinism and soft determinism (now more commonly called compatibilism).
James called compatibilism a "quagmire of evasion", just as the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and David Hume—that free will was simply freedom from external coercion—were called a "wretched subterfuge" by Immanuel Kant.
James asked the students to consider his choice for walking home from Lowell Lecture Hall after his talk.
With this simple example, James laid out a two-stage decision process with chance in a present time of random alternatives, leading to a choice of one possibility that transforms an ambiguous future into a simple unalterable past. James' two-stage model separates chance (undetermined alternative possibilities) from choice (the free action of the individual, on which randomness has no effect). Subsequent thinkers using this model include Henri Poincaré, Arthur Holly Compton, and Karl Popper.
Philosophy of religion
James did important work in philosophy of religion. In his Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh he provided a wide-ranging account of The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) and interpreted them according to his pragmatic leanings. Some of the important claims he makes in this regard:
James investigated mystical experiences throughout his life, leading him to experiment with chloral hydrate (1870), amyl nitrite (1875), nitrous oxide (1882), and peyote (1896). James claimed that it was only when he was under the influence of nitrous oxide that he was able to understand Hegel. He concluded that while the revelations of the mystic hold true, they hold true only for the mystic; for others, they are certainly ideas to be considered, but can hold no claim to truth without personal experience of such. American Philosophy: An Encyclopedia classes him as one of several figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world."
William James provided a description of the mystical experience, in his famous collection of lectures published in 1902 as The Varieties of Religious Experience. These criteria are as follows
Like Sigmund Freud, James was influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. At the core of James' theory of psychology, as defined in The Principles of Psychology (1890), was a system of "instincts". James wrote that humans had many instincts, even more than other animals. These instincts, he said, could be overridden by experience and by each other, as many of the instincts were actually in conflict with each other. In the 1920s, however, psychology turned away from evolutionary theory and embraced radical behaviorism.
Theory of emotion
James is one of the two namesakes of the James–Lange theory of emotion, which he formulated independently of Carl Lange in the 1880s. The theory holds that emotion is the mind's perception of physiological conditions that result from some stimulus. In James's oft-cited example, it is not that we see a bear, fear it, and run; we see a bear and run; consequently, we fear the bear. Our mind's perception of the higher adrenaline level, heartbeat, etc. is the emotion.
This way of thinking about emotion has great consequences for the philosophy of aesthetics as well as to the philosophy and practice of education. Here is a passage from his great work, The Principles of Psychology, that spells out those consequences:
The theory of emotion was also independently developed in Italy by the anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi. In order to give due credit, it should be called the James-Lange-Sergi theory of emotion.
William James' bear
Philosophy of history
One of the long-standing schisms in the philosophy of history concerns the role of individuals in social change.
One faction sees individuals (as seen in Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities and Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution, A History) as the motive power of history, and the broader society as the page on which they write their acts. The other sees society as moving according to holistic principles or laws, and sees individuals as its more-or-less willing pawns. In 1880, James waded into this controversy with "Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment", an essay published in the Atlantic Monthly. He took Carlyle's side, but without Carlyle's one-sided emphasis on the political/military sphere, upon heroes as the founders or overthrowers of states and empires.
A philosopher, according to James, must accept geniuses as a given entity the same way as a biologist accepts as an entity Darwin's "spontaneous variations". The role of an individual will depend on the degree of its conformity with the social environment, epoch, moment, etc.
James introduces a notion of receptivities of the moment. The societal mutations from generation to generation are determined (directly or indirectly) mainly by the acts or examples of individuals whose genius was so adapted to the receptivities of the moment or whose accidental position of authority was so critical that they became ferments, initiators of movements, setters of precedent or fashion, centers of corruption, or destroyers of other persons, whose gifts, had they had free play, would have led society in another direction.
View on spiritualism and associationism
James studied closely the schools of thought known as associationism and spiritualism. The view of an associationist is that each experience that one has leads to another, creating a chain of events. The association does not tie together two ideas, but rather physical objects. This association occurs on an atomic level. Small physical changes occur in the brain which eventually form complex ideas or associations. Thoughts are formed as these complex ideas work together and lead to new experiences. Isaac Newton and David Hartley both were precursors to this school of thought, proposing such ideas as "physical vibrations in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are the basis of all sensations, all ideas, and all motions..." James disagreed with associationism in that he believed it to be too simple. He referred to associationism as "psychology without a soul" because there is nothing from within creating ideas; they just arise by associating objects with one another.
On the other hand, a spiritualist believes that mental events are attributed to the soul. Whereas in associationism, ideas and behaviors are separate, in spiritualism, they are connected. Spiritualism encompasses the term innatism, which suggests that ideas cause behavior. Ideas of past behavior influence the way a person will act in the future; these ideas are all tied together by the soul. Therefore, an inner soul causes one to have a thought, which leads them to perform a behavior, and memory of past behaviors determine how one will act in the future.
James had a strong opinion about these schools of thought. He was, by nature, a pragmatist and thus took the view that one should use whatever parts of theories make the most sense and can be proven. Therefore, he recommended breaking apart spiritualism and associationism and using the parts of them that make the most sense. James believed that each person has a soul, which exists in a spiritual universe, and leads a person to perform the behaviors they do in the physical world. James was influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg, who first introduced him to this idea. James stated that, although it does appear that humans use associations to move from one event to the next, this cannot be done without this soul tying everything together. For, after an association has been made, it is the person who decides which part of it to focus on, and therefore determines in which direction following associations will lead. Associationism is too simple in that it does not account for decision-making of future behaviors, and memory of what worked well and what did not. Spiritualism, however, does not demonstrate actual physical representations for how associations occur. James combined the views of spiritualism and associationism to create his own way of thinking.
James was a founding member and vice president of the American Society for Psychical Research. The lending of his name made Leonora Piper a famous medium. In 1885, the year after the death of his young son, James had his first sitting with Piper at the suggestion of his mother-in-law. He was soon convinced that Piper knew things she could only have discovered by supernatural means. He expressed his belief in Piper by saying, "If you wish to upset the law that all crows are black, it is enough if you prove that one crow is white. My white crow is Mrs. Piper." However, James did not believe that Piper was in contact with spirits. After evaluating sixty-nine reports of Piper's mediumship he considered the hypothesis of telepathy as well as Piper obtaining information about her sitters by natural means such as her memory recalling information. According to James the "spirit-control" hypothesis of her mediumship was incoherent, irrelevant and in cases demonstrably false.
James held séances with Piper and was impressed by some of the details he was given; however, according to Massimo Polidoro a maid in the household of James was friendly with a maid in Piper's house and this may have been a source of information that Piper used for private details about James. Bibliographers Frederick Burkhardt and Fredson Bowers who compiled the works of James wrote "It is thus possible that Mrs. Piper's knowledge of the James family was acquired from the gossip of servants and that the whole mystery rests on the failure of the people upstairs to realize that servants [downstairs] also have ears."
James was convinced that the "future will corroborate" the existence of telepathy. Psychologists such as James McKeen Cattell and Edward B. Titchener took issue with James's support for psychical research and considered his statements unscientific. Cattell in a letter to James wrote that the "Society for Psychical Research is doing much to injure psychology".
James' theory of the self
James' theory of the self divided a person's mental picture of self into two categories: the "Me" and the "I". The "Me" can be thought of as a separate object or individual a person refers to when describing their personal experiences; while the "I" is the self that knows who they are and what they have done in their life. Both concepts are depicted in the statement; "I know it was me who ate the cookie." He called the "Me" part of self the "empirical me" and the "I" part "the pure Ego". For James, the "I" part of self was the thinking self, which could not be further divided. He linked this part of the self to the soul of a person, or what is now thought of as the mind. Educational theorists have been inspired in various ways by James's theory of self, and have developed various applications to curricular and pedagogical theory and practice.
James further divided the "Me" part of self into: a material, a social, and a spiritual self, as below.
The material self consists of things that belong to a person or entities that a person belongs to. Thus, things like the body, family, clothes, money, and such make up the material self. For James, the core of the material self was the body. Second to the body, James felt a person's clothes were important to the material self. He believed a person's clothes were one way they expressed who they felt they were; or clothes were a way to show status, thus contributing to forming and maintaining one's self-image. Money and family are critical parts of the material self. James felt that if one lost a family member, a part of who they are was lost also. Money figured in one's material self in a similar way. If a person had significant money then lost it, who they were as a person changed as well.
Our social selves are who we are in a given social situation. For James, people change how they act depending on the social situation that they are in. James believed that people had as many social selves as they did social situations they participated in. For example, a person may act in a different way at work when compared to how that same person may act when they are out with a group of friends. James also believed that in a given social group, an individual's social self may be divided even further. An example of this would be, in the social context of an individual's work environment, the difference in behavior when that individual is interacting with their boss versus their behavior when interacting with a co-worker.
For James, the spiritual self was who we are at our core. It is more concrete or permanent than the other two selves. The spiritual self is our subjective and most intimate self. Aspects of a spiritual self include things like personality, core values, and conscience that do not typically change throughout an individual's lifetime. The spiritual self involves introspection, or looking inward to deeper spiritual, moral, or intellectual questions without the influence of objective thoughts. For James, achieving a high level of understanding of who we are at our core, or understanding our spiritual selves is more rewarding than satisfying the needs of the social and material selves.
What James refers to as the "I" self. For James, the pure ego is what provides the thread of continuity between our past, present, and future selves. The pure ego's perception of consistent individual identity arises from a continual stream of consciousness. James believed that the pure ego was similar to what we think of as the soul, or the mind. The pure ego was not a substance and therefore could not be examined by science.