والده سلطان لقبی بود که در امپراتوری عثمانی به مادر سلطان داده میشد. احتمالاً والده سلطان پس از خود سلطان، دارای بالاترین جایگاه در امپراتوری عثمانی بوده و نفود فراوانی در امور کشوری داشتهاست. به طور خاص، در سدهٔ هفدهم، در دورهای که به دورهٔ سلطنت زنان مشهور شد، با روی کار آمدن گروهی از سلطانهای بیکفایت یا نابالغ، نقش و دخالت والده سلطان در امور سلطنتی افزایش چشمگیری یافت.
Valide Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: والده سلطان) was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The title was first used in the 16th century for Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, consort of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent, superseding the previous title of mehd-i ülya ("cradle of the great"). Normally, this title was held by the living mother of a reigning sultan. The mothers who died before their sons' accession to the throne were never bestoed with the title of valide sultan. In special cases, there were grandmothers, stepmothers, or even sisters of a reigning sultan who assumed the title valide sultan.
The Meaning of Valide Sultan
Sultan (سلطان) is a word Arabic origin, originally meaning "authority" or "dominion". By the beginning of the 16th century, this title, carried by both men's and women's of the Ottoman dynasty, was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably khatun for women and bey for men). This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.
Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but Ottomans themselves used "padişah" (emperor) or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor’s formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan" (for example, Sultan Suleiman Khan). In formal address, the sultan’s children were also entitled "sultan", with imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman’s mother and first valide sultan, and Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman’s chief consort and first haseki sultan. The evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially between Sultanate of Women, as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".
Role and position
Valide sultan was perhaps the most important position in the Ottoman Empire after the sultan himself. As the mother to the sultan, by Islamic tradition ("A mother's right is God's right"), the valide sultan would have a significant influence on the affairs of the empire. She had great power in the court and her own rooms (always adjacent to her son's) and state staff. Valide sultan also traditionally had access to considerable economic resources and often funded major architectural projects. In particular during the 17th century, in a period known as the "Sultanate of Women", a series of incompetent or child sultans raised the role of the valide sultan to new heights.
The Sultanate of Women began with Hürrem Sultan (1502–1558) and was continued by Mihrimah Sultan (1522-1578) and then Nurbanu Sultan (1525–1583), mother of Murad III. The most powerful and well-known of all valide sultans and haseki sultans in the history of the Ottoman Empire were Hürrem Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan, Nurbanu Sultan and Kösem Sultan (1589–1651).
List of Valide Sultans
The list does not include the complete list of mothers of the Ottoman sultans. Most who held the title of valide sultan were the biological mothers of the reigning sultans. The mothers who died before their sons' accession to throne, never assumed the title of valide sultan, like Hürrem (Khurram) Haseki, Hatice (Khadija) Muazzez, Emine (Aminā) Mihr-î-Şâh, Râbi'a Sharmi, Tîr-î-Müjgan, Gül-Cemâl, and Gülistan Münire. In special cases, there were grandmothers, stepmothers, or even sisters of the reigning sultans who assumed the title of valide sultan, like Nakş-î-Dil (Naksh-î-Dil), Kösem Sultan, Mihrimah Sultan, and Rahîme Piristû (Perestû).