یگان ۸۲۰۰

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
(تغییرمسیر از واحد 8200)
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

یگان ۸۲۰۰ یکی از یگان‌های نیروی اطلاعاتی ارتش اسرائیل است و مسئولیت گردآوری سیگنال‌های اطلاعاتی و رمزگشایی آن‌ها را به عهده دارد.[۱][۲] یوسی ملمن نویسنده، روزنامه‌نگار و کارشناس نظامی-امنیتی اسرائیلی با انتشار کتابی در سال به نام «جاسوسی علیه آرماگدون: جنگ مخفی در داخل اسرائیل» در سال ۲۰۱۲ شرحی از این واحد ارائه نموده است. به گفته‌ی وی، هیچ عملیات اطلاعاتی در اسرائیل وجود ندارد که یگان ۸۲۰۰ در آن حضور نداشته باشد و در هر عملیات نظامی دور از مرزها پوشش اطلاعاتی از سوی یگان ۸۲۰۰ است. نقش یگان ۸۲۰۰ استراق سمع و هشدار به نیروهای خودی درباره‌ی وجود خطر است.[۳]

تاریخچه[ویرایش]

از زمان شروع فعالیت این یگان اطلاع دقیقی در دست نیست. برخی منابع آغاز فعالیت آن را در دهه ۱۹۳۰ می‌دانند[۴] اما برخی بر این عقیده‌اند که این یگان در سال ۱۹۵۲، یعنی چهارسال پس از تأسیس اسرائیل با استفاده از تجهیزات آمریکایی راه‌اندازی شده و دو سال بعد در مقر دائمی خود در گیلوت، منطقه‌ای واقع در شمال تل‌آویو مستقر شد. گفته می‌شود یگان ۸۲۰۰، بزرگترین واحد در وزارت دفاع اسراییل از نظر تعداد نیروها است.[۵]

فعالیت‌های انجام داده[ویرایش]

  • در سال ۲۰۱۰ روزنامه فرانسوی لوموند دست به افشاگری زد و واحد ۸۲۰۰ را به عنوان اداره کنندهٔ یک شبکه جاسوسی عظیم معرفی کرد که در مرکز آن یک پایگاه عظیم اطلاعات آشکار در صحرای نگب (یکی از بزرگترین پایگاه‌های شنود در جهان) است و قابلیت زیر نظر گرفتن تماس‌های تلفنی، ایمیل‌ها و دیگر ارتباطات در سرتاسر خاورمیانه، اروپا، آسیا و آفریقا و حتی ردگیری کشتی‌ها را دارد. واحد ۸۲۰۰ همین‌طور بنا به گزارشها شغل‌های شنود مخفیانه در سفارتخانه‌های اسرائیلی در خارج ایجاد کرده‌است، جاسوسی با استفاده از کابل‌های زیردریایی، برای شنود مخفیانه در قلمروهای فلسطینی واحدهایی ایجاد کرده و همچنین این یگان ارتش اسرائیل جت‌های گلف استریمی مجهز به تجهیزات نظارتی الکترونیکی در اختیار دارد.
  • رونن برگمن در سال ۲۰۰۹ حزب‌الله لبنان را مسؤل بمب‌گذاری به وسیله یک تلفن همراه معرفی کرد، این بمب پس از کشف شدن به واحد ۸۲۰۰ تحویل داده می‌شود اما در حین تحقیقات منفجر شده و دو افسر را مجروح می‌کند.
  • در سال ۲۰۱۰، نیویورک تایمز به واسطهٔ «یک عضو سابق جامعه اطلاعاتی ایالات متحده» سندی منتشر کرد که بنابر آن واحد۸۲۰۰ طی عملیاتی به نام «باغ میوه» برای غیرفعال کردن پدافند هوایی سوریه وارد عمل شده بود.[۶]
  • در یازدهم سپتامبر ۲۰۱۳، گاردین یک سند لو رفته که توسط ادوارد اسنودن ارائه شده بود، منتشر و آشکار کرد که چطور واحد ۸۲۰۰، اطلاعات بدون فیلتر و خام شهروندان آمریکایی به عنوان قسمتی از یک توافق نامه مخفیانه از آژانس امنیت ملی آمریکا دریافت کرده‌است. این اطلاعات شامل تماس‌های تلفنی و ایمیل‌های شهروندان آمریکایی بوده و این قرارداد هیچ محدودیتی در مورد نحوه استفاده از اطلاعات برای اسرائیل نداشته‌است.[۷]
  • الکس گیبنی در مستندی که به نام روزهای صفر ساخته است نشان داده که چگونه واحد ۸۲۰۰ در ساخت ویروس استاکس‌نت علیه فعالیت‌های هسته‌ای ایران نقش داشته‌است.[۸] همچنین یوسی ملمن بر این عقیده است که استاکس نت یک کار مشترک از سوی ایالات متحده آمریکا و اسرائیل بوده که در این حمله یگان ۸۲۰۰ نیز به همراه آژانس امنیت ملی آمریکا و موساد و سیا حضور داشته‌است.[۹]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. http://irartesh.ir/post/1064/واحد-8200.html
  2. http://www.mashreghnews.ir/news/397405/یگان-8200-مرکز-فرماندهی-خرابکاری-سایبری-رژیم-اسرائیل-تصاویر
  3. https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardbehar/2016/05/11/shadow-wars-in-missions-stretching-from-iran-to-syria-israels-unit-8200-can-be-not-seen/2/#3c81c5206fab
  4. https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardbehar/2016/05/11/inside-israels-secret-startup-machine/#35180cb71a51
  5. Amir Kidon (1 September 2008). "Unit 8200: In the Beginning". Israel Defense Forces. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009.
  6. Stuxnet Worm is remarkable for its lack of subtlety, by John Markoff, New York Times 27 September 2010
  7. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/11/nsa-americans-personal-data-israel-documents
  8. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2016/jul/08/alex-gibney-zero-days-cyberweapons-stuxnet
  9. "Stuxnet worm is the 'work of a national government agency'". The Guardian. 24 September 2010.

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Unit 8200 (Hebrew: יחידה 8200‎, Yehida shmonae -Matayim- "Unit eight - two hundred") is an Israeli Intelligence Corps unit responsible for collecting signal intelligence (SIGINT) and code decryption. Military publications include references to Unit 8200 as the Central Collection Unit of the Intelligence Corps, and it is sometimes referred to as Israeli SIGINT National Unit (ISNU).[1] It is subordinate to Aman, the military intelligence directorate.

The unit is composed primarily of 18–21 year olds. As a result of the youth of the soldiers in the unit, and the shortness of their service period, the unit relies on selecting recruits with the ability for rapid adaptation and speedy learning.[2] Afterschool programs for 16–18 year olds, teaching computer coding and hacking skills, also serve as a feeder programs for the unit.[3] Former Unit 8200 soldiers have, after completing their military service, gone on to founding and occupying top positions in many international IT companies and in Silicon Valley.[4][5]

According to the Director of Military Sciences at the Royal United Services Institute, "Unit 8200 is probably the foremost technical intelligence agency in the world and stands on a par with the NSA in everything except scale."[6]

History

Unit 8200 was established in 1952 using primitive surplus American military equipment. Originally, it was called the 2nd Intelligence Service Unit and then the 515th Intelligence Service Unit. In 1954, the unit moved from Jaffa to its current base at the Glilot junction.[7]

According to Peter Roberts, the Director of Military Sciences at the Royal United Services Institute, “Unit 8200 is probably the foremost technical intelligence agency in the world and stands on a par with the NSA in everything except scale. They are highly focused on what they look at — certainly more focused than the NSA — and they conduct their operations with a degree of tenacity and passion that you don’t experience elsewhere.”[8]

Overview

Unit 8200 is the largest unit in the Israel Defense Forces, comprising several thousand soldiers.[9] It is comparable in its function to the United States' National Security Agency and is a Ministry of Defense body just as the NSA is part of the United States Department of Defense.

Subordinate to Unit 8200 is Unit Hatzav (Hebrew name for Drimia (Hebrew: יחידת חצב‎)), responsible for collecting OSINT intelligence. The unit monitors and collects military intelligence–related information from television, radio, newspapers, and the internet. The translation of various items accounts for part of what is termed "basic intelligence", which is collected by the units. According to media reports, the unit provides over half of the overall intelligence information for the Israeli Intelligence Community.[citation needed]

The IDF's most important signal intelligence–gathering installation is the Urim SIGINT Base, a part of Unit 8200. Urim is located in the Negev desert approximately 30 km from Beersheba.[10] In March 2004, the Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq recommended turning the unit into a civilian national SIGINT agency, as is in other Western countries, but this proposal was not implemented.[citation needed]

Unit 8200 is staffed primarily by 18–21 year old conscripts. Selection and recruitment to the unit usually occurs at age 18 through the IDF screening process after high school. However, the unit also scouts potential younger recruits through after-school computer classes.[11] These after-school computer classes, teaching 16–18 year olds computer coding and hacking skills, sometimes act as a feeder program for the unit, with students receiving invitation letters from the IDF.[12]

The 18 year olds selected for the unit are primarily chosen for their ability to teach themselves and to learn very quickly as the unit will only have access to their services for a short time before their military service period ends.[13]

Political activities

On 11 September 2013, The Guardian released a leaked document provided by Edward Snowden which reveals how Unit 8200, referred to as ISNU, receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens, as part of a secret agreement with the U.S. National Security Agency[14]

In 2010, the French newspaper Le Monde diplomatique wrote that Unit 8200 operates a large SIGINT base in the Negev, one of the largest listening bases in the world, capable of monitoring phone calls, emails, and other communications, throughout the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as tracking ships. Unit 8200 also reportedly maintains covert listening posts in Israeli embassies abroad, taps undersea cables, maintains covert listening units in the Palestinian territories, and has Gulfstream jets equipped with electronic surveillance equipment.[10]

Ronen Bergman says in a 2009 book that a Hezbollah bomb, disguised as a cell phone, was picked up by agents, and taken for investigation to Unit 8200's headquarters in February 1999. Inside the laboratory the cell phone exploded. Two Unit 8200 soldiers were injured.[15]

In 2010, the New York Times cited "a former member of the United States intelligence community" alleging that this unit used a secret kill switch to deactivate Syrian air defenses during Operation Orchard.[16]

In 2014, 43 veterans of Unit 8200 signed a protest letter decrying what they called the electronic surveillance unit's abusive gathering of Palestinians' private information.[17][18][19] In response, 200 other reservists signed a counter-protest letter.[20][21][22]

According to the New York Times, the Unit 8200's hack of Kaspersky Lab allowed them to watch in real time as Russian government hackers searched computers around the world for American intelligence programs.[23] Israelis who had hacked into Kaspersky’s own network alerted the United States to the broad Russian intrusion of US systems.[24]

Computer activities

Stuxnet

Many media reports alleged that Unit 8200 was responsible for the creation of the Stuxnet computer worm that in 2010 infected industrial computers, including Iranian nuclear facilities.[25]

Duqu

Duqu is a collection of computer malware discovered on 1 September 2011. It is alleged to be the creation of Unit 8200.[26]

Duqu 2.0

Duqu 2.0, alleged to be the most sophisticated computer virus ever developed, compromised Kaspersky Lab in 2014. Duqu 2.0 used at least three zero-day exploits. The virus remained for months on Kaspersky Lab's systems, undetected by them. Aside from targeting Kaspersky, it was used to spy on the negotiations for the Iran Nuclear Deal, and detected only in the computers of the hotels hosting the Iran nuclear negotiations. It was unprecedented in that the code existed only in operative memory (RAM) and almost didn't leave a trace.[27] According to Kaspersky, "the philosophy and way of thinking of the 'Duqu 2.0' group is a generation ahead of anything seen in the advanced persistent threats world."[28]

Companies founded by alumni

Former soldiers of Unit 8200 have gone on to found many IT companies, among them:[29][30][31]

See also

References

  1. ^ חשיפה: ארה"ב העבירה ל-8200 מידע סודי (in Hebrew). Ynet. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  2. ^ "8200 graduates aren't like 23 year-olds in Texas or Norway" 5 Jun, 2017, Tali Tsipori
  3. ^ Inside Israel's Secret Startup Machine Richard Behar , CONTRIBUTOR, MAY 11, 2016
  4. ^ Inside Israel's Secret Startup Machine Richard Behar , CONTRIBUTOR, MAY 11, 2016
  5. ^ From The Israeli Army Unit 8200 To Silicon Valley Posted Mar 20, 2015 by Idan Tendler
  6. ^ Unit 8200: Israel's cyber spy agency, Former insiders and whistle-blowers provide a view of the formidable military intelligence outfit JULY 10, 2015 by John Reed, Financial Times
  7. ^ Amir Kidon (1 September 2008). "Unit 8200: In the Beginning". Israel Defense Forces. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009.
  8. ^ Unit 8200: Israel’s cyber spy agency, Former insiders and whistle-blowers provide a view of the formidable military intelligence outfit JULY 10, 2015 by John Reed, Financial Times
  9. ^ "IDF Record Book 2010". Bamahane (in Hebrew). No. 3052. September 8, 2010. p. 83.
  10. ^ a b Le Monde Diplomatique, 2010 September, "Israel’s Omniscient Ears: Israel’s Urim Base in the Negev Desert is among the most important and powerful intelligence gathering sites in the world. Yet, until now, its eavesdropping has gone entirely unmentioned". http://mondediplo.com/2010/09/04israelbase
  11. ^ Inside Israel's Secret Startup Machine Richard Behar , CONTRIBUTOR, MAY 11, 2016
  12. ^ Inside Israel's Secret Startup Machine Richard Behar , CONTRIBUTOR, MAY 11, 2016
  13. ^ "8200 graduates aren't like 23 year-olds in Texas or Norway" 5 Jun, 2017, Tali Tsipori
  14. ^ Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill (September 11, 2013). "NSA shares raw intelligence including Americans' data with Israel". The Guardian. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  15. ^ Book: Hezbollah got inside MI's inner sanctum Ynet, 13 Sept 2009
  16. ^ Stuxnet Worm is remarkable for its lack of subtlety, by John Markoff, New York Times 27 September 2010
  17. ^ Bamfordset, James (September 16, 2014). "Israel's N.S.A. Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
  18. ^ Williams, Doug (12 Sep 2014). "Wiretaps against Palestinians are wrong, Israeli ex-spies tell Netanyahu". Reuters. Retrieved 12 Sep 2014.
  19. ^ Beaumont, Peter (12 Sep 2014). "Israeli intelligence veterans refuse to serve in Palestinian territories". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 Oct 2017.
  20. ^ http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/185051
  21. ^ Netanyahu backs intel unit, as Ya'alon slams intel officers' letter Ynet, 13 Sept 2014
  22. ^ IDF condemns objectors, promises ‘sharp’ punishment Times of Israel, 14 Sept 2014
  23. ^ How Israel Caught Russian Hackers Scouring the World for U.S. Secrets By NICOLE PERLROTH and SCOTT SHANEOCT. 10, 2017
  24. ^ How Israel Caught Russian Hackers Scouring the World for U.S. Secrets By NICOLE PERLROTH and SCOTT SHANEOCT. 10, 2017
  25. ^ "Stuxnet worm is the 'work of a national government agency'". The Guardian. 24 September 2010.
  26. ^ NSA, Unit 8200, and Malware Proliferation Jeffrey CarrFollow Principal consultant at 20KLeague.com; Founder of Suits and Spooks; Author of “Inside Cyber Warfare (O’Reilly Media, 2009, 2011), Aug 25, 2016
  27. ^ The Duqu 2.0 Targeted Attacks
  28. ^ The Duqu 2.0 Targeted Attacks
  29. ^ The Unit – Forbes.com
  30. ^ Beyond Israeli Army Unit 8200
  31. ^ From The Israeli Army Unit 8200 To Silicon Valley Posted Mar 20, 2015 by Idan Tendler

External links