# هزینه نهایی

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در اقتصاد هزینه نهایی (به انگلیسی:marginal cost) به میزان تغییرات هزینهٔ کل بر اثر افزایش تولید به اندازهٔ یک واحد گفته می‌شود. اگر بخواهیم به صورت دیفرانسیلی بیان کنیم، هزینهٔ نهایی برابر است با میزان تغییرات هزینهٔ کل بر اثر تغییر یک واحدی خروجی.

$MC={\frac {\ dTC}{\ dQ}}$ ## تعریف هزینه نهایی

هزینه نهایی(MC) عبارت است از تغییر در هزینه کل در ازای تغییر یک واحد اضافی تولید در هر واحد زمان.

در این هزینه، فقط هزینه‌های متغیّر دخالت دارند؛ به‌عنوان مثال، تولید یا عدم تولید یک واحد اضافی محصول، تغییری در هزینه‌های ثابت ندارد. یعنی به ازای یک واحد تغییر در تولید هزینه ثابت تغییری نمی‌کند. اما برای تولید یک واحد اضافی کالا، باید مواد اولیه اضافی داشته باشیم؛ که این خود، موجب بالا رفتن هزینه متغیر می‌شود.

## تابع هزینه نهایی

بر اساس آنچه در بالا توضیح داده شد رابطه ریاضی هزینه نهایی به شکل زیر خواهد بود:

$MC={\frac {\Delta TC}{\Delta Q}}$ اگر تغییرات تولید نسبتاً زیاد باشد، در این صورت مقدار تقریبی هزینه نهایی برابر است با:

$MC={\frac {\operatorname {(} TC_{2}-TC_{1})}{(Q_{2}-Q_{1})}}={\frac {\operatorname {(} TVC_{2}-TVC_{1})}{(Q_{2}-Q_{1})}}$ ## منحنی هزینه نهایی

مکان هندسی شیب کلیه خطوطی است که در هر نقطه از منحنی هزینه کل (TC) (یا هزینه متغیّر (TVC)) بر منحنی TC (یاTVC) مماس می‌گردند. این منحنی نیز اصولاً U شکل است یعنی منحنی هزینه نهایی ابتدا کاهش یافته و بعد به حداقل خود می‌رسد، آنگاه شروع به افزایش می‌نماید. سطح تولیدی که هزینه نهایی کمترین مقدار خود را دارد، نقطه عطف منحنی هزینه کل می‌باشد و شیب منحنی هزینه کل در این نقطه حداقل است.

## رابطه هزینه نهایی (MC) و تولید نهایی نیروی کار (MPL)

هزینه تولید به هزینه نیروی کار، این نیروی کار یک بهروزی نهایی دارد می‌خواهید ببینید آخرین نفری که استخدام کردید چقدر برایش هزینه کردید یعنی W) MC هزینه آخرین محصول ماست یعنی آخرین میزی که ساخته شده چقدر برای ما هزینه داشته. MC در حقیقت هزینه آخرین واحد محصول است به عبارت دیگر می‌خواهیم بگوییم آخرین کالایی که تولید شده‌است چه هزینه‌ای داشته‌است می‌دانیم که این کالا آخرین واحد محصول مربوط به آخرین نفری است که استخدام کردیم بهروزی نهایی آخرین نفر استخدامی (MPL) مقدار تولیدی است که این فرد تولید کرده‌است کل هزینه‌ای که بابت این فرد پرداخت شده‌است. دستمزد او می‌باشد اگر این فرد به اندازه (MPL) محصول تولید کرده باشد و مابازای او W را پرداخته باشیم هزینه نهایی تولید یعنی هزینه آخرین کالای تولید شده برابر است با.

با فرض آنکه تنها نهاده تولیدی نیروی کار (L) بوده و ارزش هر واحد نهاده (L) یعنی دستمزد برابر با (W) باشد تولید نهایی برابر خواهد بود با ${\frac {\Delta Q}{\Delta L}}$ در این صورت خواهیم داشت

$MC={\frac {\Delta VC}{\Delta Q}}$ $\Delta VC={w\Delta L}$ $MC={\frac {w\Delta L}{\Delta Q}}$ رابطه هزینه نهایی (MC)وتولید نهایی نیروی کار(MPL)برابر خواهد بود با

$MC={\frac {w}{MPL}}$ ## مقیاس اقتصادی

مقیاس اقتصادی در بلند مدت اتفاق می‌افتد. بلند مدت بازه زمانی است که هزینه ثابت نداریم و تمام هزینه‌ها متغیر هستندو تولید ممکن است تحت تأثیر مقیاس اقتصادی یا مقیاس غیر اقتصادی قرار بگیرد. مقیاس اقتصادی زمانی خواهیم داشت که هزینه نهایی بلند مدت کمتر از هزینه متوسط بلند مدت باشد بنابر هزینه متوسط نزولی خواهد بود و برعکس زمانی که هزینه نهایی بیشتر از هزینه متوسط بلند مدت باشد مقیاس غیر اقتصادی داریم و هزینه متوسط بلند مدت صعودی خواهد بود.

## منحنی عرضه دربازار

آن بخش از هزینه نهایی کوتاه مدت (SMC) که بالاتر از هزینه متغیر کوتاه مدت (AVC) است یا آن قسمت از هزینه نهایی بلند مدت (LMC) که بالاتر از هزینه کل بلند مدت (LAC) است منحنی عرضه بازار خواهد بود. بنابراین در بازار رقابتی شرکت‌ها سطح تولید خود را براساس منحنی هزینه نهایی و خط قیمت تعیین می‌کنند. و اگر هزینه نهایی بالاتر از قیمت باشد شرکت تولید نمی‌کند چون برایش سودآور نیست. بنابراین تولید در جایی اتفاق می‌افتد که هزینه نهایی برابر با قیمت باشد. اما اگر ساختار بازار انحصاری باشد انحصار گردارای منحنی عرضه نخواهد بوددر واقع آنچه منحنی عرضه نشان می‌دهد این است که در مقابل هر سطح از قیمت یک مقدار از تولید وجود دارد که سود را به حداکثر می‌رساند. انحصار گر در جایی تولید می‌کند که هزینه نهایی برابر با درآمد نهایی شود.

## پانویس

1. Tucker, Irvin B (2010). "Production Costs". Microeconomics for Today. Cengage Learning. p. ۱۹۱. ISBN 9780538469418.
2. فرجی، یوسف، اقتصاد خرد1، ص 196
3. http://www.pajoohe.com/fa/index.php?Page=definition&UID=43135
4. فرجی، یوسف، اقتصاد خرد1، ص 198
5. نظری، =محسن، اقتصاد خرد، ص 126
6. نظری، محسن، اقتصاد خرد، ص 127
7. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marginal_cost
8. {شاکری، عباس، اقتصاد خرد2، 192
9. عبادی، جعفر، مباحثی در اقتصاد خرد، ص 98

## منابع

• فرجی، یوسف. تئوری "اقتصاد خرد". ناشر شرکت چاپ و نشر بازرگانی.۱۳۷۸.
• عبادی، جعفر." مباحثی در اقتصاد خرد". سازمان مطالعه و تدوین کتب علوم انسانی دانشگاه‌ها (سمت).۱۳۷۵.
• نظری، محسن. اقتصاد خرد". نگاه دانش.۱۳۸۵
• شاکری، عباس ."اقتصاد خرد۲". نشر نی.۱۳۸۵

A conventional marginal cost is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. Intuitively, marginal cost at each level of production includes the cost of any additional inputs required to produce the next unit. At each level of production and time period being considered, marginal costs include all costs that vary with the level of production, whereas other costs that do not vary with production are fixed and thus have no marginal cost. For example, the marginal cost of producing an automobile will generally include the costs of labor and parts needed for the additional automobile but not the fixed costs of the factory that have already been incurred. In practice, marginal analysis is segregated into short and long-run cases, so that, over the long run, all costs (including fixed costs) become marginal. Where there are economies of scale, prices set at marginal cost will fail to cover total costs, thus requiring a subsidy. Marginal cost pricing is not a matter of merely lowering the general level of prices with the aid of a subsidy; with or without subsidy it calls for a drastic restructuring of pricing practices, with opportunities for very substantial improvements in efficiency at critical points.

If the cost function $C$ is continuous and differentiable, the marginal cost $MC$ is the first derivative of the cost function with respect to the output quantity $Q$ :

$MC(Q)={\frac {\ dC}{\ dQ}}.$ The marginal cost can be a function of quantity if the cost function is non-linear. If the cost function is not differentiable, the marginal cost can be expressed as follows:

$MC={\frac {\Delta C}{\Delta Q}},$ where $\Delta$ denotes an incremental change of one unit.

## Cost functions and relationship to average cost

In the simplest case, the total cost function and its derivative are expressed as follows, where Q represents the production quantity, VC represents variable costs, FC represents fixed costs and TC represents total costs.

Fixed costs represent the costs that do not change as the production quantity changes. Fixed costs are costs incurred by things like rent, building space, machines, etc. Variable costs change as the production quantity changes, and are often associated with labor or materials. The derivative of fixed cost is zero, and this term drops out of the marginal cost equation: that is, marginal cost does not depend on fixed costs. This can be compared with average total cost (ATC), which is the total cost (including fixed costs, denoted C0) divided by the number of units produced:

$ATC={\frac {C_{0}+\Delta C}{Q}}.$ For discrete calculation without calculus, marginal cost equals the change in total (or variable) cost that comes with each additional unit produced. Since fixed cost does not change in the short run, it has no effect on marginal cost.

For instance, suppose the total cost of making 1 shoe is $30 and the total cost of making 2 shoes is$40. The marginal cost of producing the second shoe is $40 –$30 = $10. Marginal cost is not the cost of producing the "next" or "last" unit. The cost of the last unit is the same as the cost of the first unit and every other unit. In the short run, increasing production requires using more of the variable input — conventionally assumed to be labor. Adding more labor to a fixed capital stock reduces the marginal product of labor because of the diminishing marginal returns. This reduction in productivity is not limited to the additional labor needed to produce the marginal unit – the productivity of every unit of labor is reduced. Thus the cost of producing the marginal unit of output has two components: the cost associated with producing the marginal unit and the increase in average costs for all units produced due to the "damage" to the entire productive process. The first component is the per-unit or average cost. The second component is the small increase in cost due to the law of diminishing marginal returns which increases the costs of all units of sold. Marginal costs can also be expressed as the cost per unit of labor divided by the marginal product of labor. Denoting variable cost as VC, the constant wage rate as w, and labor usage as L, we have $MC={\frac {\Delta VC}{\Delta Q}}$ $\Delta VC={w\Delta L}$ $MC={\frac {w\Delta L}{\Delta Q}}={\frac {w}{MPL}}.$ Here MPL is the ratio of increase in the quantity produced per unit increase in labour: i.e. ΔQ/ΔL, the marginal product of labor. The last equality holds because ${\frac {\Delta L}{\Delta Q}}$ is the change in quantity of labor that brings about a one-unit change in output. Since the wage rate is assumed constant, marginal cost and marginal product of labor have an inverse relationship—if the marginal product of labor is decreasing (or, increasing), then marginal cost is increasing (decreasing).  ## Empirical data on marginal cost While neoclassical models broadly assume that marginal cost will increase as production increases, several empirical studies conducted throughout the 20th century have concluded that the marginal cost is either constant or falling for the vast majority of firms. Most recently, former Federal Reserve chair Alan Blinder and colleagues conducted a survey of 200 executives of corporations with sales exceeding$10 million, in which they were asked, among other questions, about the structure of their marginal cost curves. Strikingly, just 11% of respondents answered that their marginal costs increased as production increased, while 48% answered that they were constant, and 41% answered that they were decreasing.:106 Summing up the results, they wrote:

...many more companies state that they have falling, rather than rising, marginal cost curves. While there are reasons to wonder whether respondents interpreted these questions about costs correctly, their answers paint an image of the cost structure of the typical firm that is very different from the one immortalized in textbooks.

— Asking About Prices: A New Approach to Understanding Price Stickiness, pg. 105

Many Post-Keynesian economists have pointed to these results as evidence in favor of their own heterodox theories of the firm, which generally assume that marginal cost is constant as production increases.

## Economies of scale

Economies of scale apply to the long run, a span of time in which all inputs can be varied by the firm so that there are no fixed inputs or fixed costs. Production may be subject to economies of scale (or diseconomies of scale). Economies of scale are said to exist if an additional unit of output can be produced for less than the average of all previous units— that is, if long-run marginal cost is below long-run average cost, so the latter is falling. Conversely, there may be levels of production where marginal cost is higher than average cost, and the average cost is an increasing function of output. Where there are economies of scale, prices set at marginal cost will fail to cover total costs, thus requiring a subsidy. For this generic case, minimum average cost occurs at the point where average cost and marginal cost are equal (when plotted, the marginal cost curve intersects the average cost curve from below).

## Perfectly competitive supply curve

The portion of the marginal cost curve above its intersection with the average variable cost curve is the supply curve for a firm operating in a perfectly competitive market (the portion of the MC curve below its intersection with the AVC curve is not part of the supply curve because a firm would not operate at a price below the shutdown point). This is not true for firms operating in other market structures. For example, while a monopoly has an MC curve, it does not have a supply curve. In a perfectly competitive market, a supply curve shows the quantity a seller is willing and able to supply at each price – for each price, there is a unique quantity that would be supplied.

## Decisions taken based on marginal costs

In perfectly competitive markets, firms decide the quantity to be produced based on marginal costs and sale price. If the sale price is higher than the marginal cost, then they produce the unit and supply it. If the marginal cost is higher than the price, it would not be profitable to produce it. So the production will be carried out until the marginal cost is equal to the sale price.

## Relationship to fixed costs

Marginal costs are not affected by the level of fixed cost. Marginal costs can be expressed as ∆C∕∆Q. Since fixed costs do not vary with (depend on) changes in quantity, MC is ∆VC∕∆Q. Thus if fixed cost were to double, the marginal cost MC would not be affected, and consequently, the profit-maximizing quantity and price would not change. This can be illustrated by graphing the short run total cost curve and the short-run variable cost curve. The shapes of the curves are identical. Each curve initially increases at a decreasing rate, reaches an inflection point, then increases at an increasing rate. The only difference between the curves is that the SRVC curve begins from the origin while the SRTC curve originates on the positive part of the vertical axis. The distance of the beginning point of the SRTC above the origin represents the fixed cost – the vertical distance between the curves. This distance remains constant as the quantity produced, Q, increases. MC is the slope of the SRVC curve. A change in fixed cost would be reflected by a change in the vertical distance between the SRTC and SRVC curve. Any such change would have no effect on the shape of the SRVC curve and therefore its slope MC at any point.

## Private versus social marginal cost

Of great importance in the theory of marginal cost is the distinction between the marginal private and social costs. The marginal private cost shows the cost borne by the firm in question. It is the marginal private cost that is used by business decision makers in their profit maximization behavior. Marginal social cost is similar to private cost in that it includes the cost of private enterprise but also any other cost (or offsetting benefit) to parties having no direct association with purchase or sale of the product. It incorporates all negative and positive externalities, of both production and consumption. Examples include a social cost from air pollution affecting third parties and a social benefit from flu shots protecting others from infection.

Externalities are costs (or benefits) that are not borne by the parties to the economic transaction. A producer may, for example, pollute the environment, and others may bear those costs. A consumer may consume a good which produces benefits for society, such as education; because the individual does not receive all of the benefits, he may consume less than efficiency would suggest. Alternatively, an individual may be a smoker or alcoholic and impose costs on others. In these cases, production or consumption of the good in question may differ from the optimum level.

### Negative externalities of production

Much of the time, private and social costs do not diverge from one another, but at times social costs may be either greater or less than private costs. When the marginal social cost of production is greater than that of the private cost function, there is a negative externality of production. Productive processes that result in pollution or other environmental waste are textbook examples of production that creates negative externalities.

Such externalities are a result of firms externalizing their costs onto a third party in order to reduce their own total cost. As a result of externalizing such costs, we see that members of society who are not included in the firm will be negatively affected by such behavior of the firm. In this case, an increased cost of production in society creates a social cost curve that depicts a greater cost than the private cost curve.

In an equilibrium state, markets creating negative externalities of production will overproduce that good. As a result, the socially optimal production level would be lower than that observed.

### Positive externalities of production

When the marginal social cost of production is less than that of the private cost function, there is a positive externality of production. Production of public goods is a textbook example of production that creates positive externalities. An example of such a public good, which creates a divergence in social and private costs, is the production of education. It is often seen that education is a positive for any whole society, as well as a positive for those directly involved in the market.

Such production creates a social cost curve that is below the private cost curve. In an equilibrium state, markets creating positive externalities of production will underproduce their good. As a result, the socially optimal production level would be greater than that observed.