نوربخشیه

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خانقاه شاه حمدان سرینگر، کشمیر مرکز بسیاری از مسلمانان نوربخش در کشمیر بوده است.

نهضت نوربخشیه شاخه‌ای شیعی از سلسله کبرویه بود که در دوره حکومت تیموریان توسط محمد قاینی معروف به سید محمد نوربخش خراسانی موجودیت یافت.[۱]نوربخشیه همانند حروفیه یک گرایش انقلابی را با شعار مهدویت در افق سیاسی تیموریان نمایان کرد. این نهضت توسط عده‌ای از کبرویهُ خراسان و علیه شاهرخ تیموری شکل گرفت. در طی این قیام سید محمد ادعای مهدویت کرد اما بلافاصله توسط نیروهای شاهرخ شاه سرکوب شدند.[۲]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

میر سید علی همدانی

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. «نوربخشیه حامدالگار ترجمه محمودرضا اسفندیار ـ جمشیدجلالی شیجانی». اطلاعات حکمت و معرفت. دریافت‌شده در ۳ فوریه ۲۰۱۳.
  2. عبدالحسین زرین‌کوب، روزگاران، ۶۳۱.

منابع[ویرایش]

زرین‌کوب، عبدالحسین (۱۳۹۰). روزگاران. تهران: مهارت. شابک ۹۶۴۹۷۸-۹۶۴-۶۹۶۱-۱۱-۱ مقدار |شابک= را بررسی کنید: length (کمک). تاریخ وارد شده در |تاریخ بازبینی= را بررسی کنید (کمک); پارامتر |تاریخ بازیابی= نیاز به وارد کردن |پیوند= دارد (کمک)

Noorbakhshia Islam is Sufi tradition (tariqa) and a school of Islamic jurisprudence that emphasizes Muslim unity.[1][2] It is named after a 15th-century Iranian mystic Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani who belonged to the Kubrawiya Sufi order.

Doctrine

The most important sources of Noorbakhshi doctrines are included within three books: Al-Fiqh al-Ahwat and Kitab al-Aitiqadia, both written by Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, and Dawat-e-Sofia-Imamia, written by Ameer Kabir Syed Ali Hamdani, a Sufi preacher.[3]

History

In its country of origin, Iran, the order became outright Shi'a some decades after the Safavid dynasty made Twelver Shi'ism the religion of the state in 1501. The same occurred in Kashmir either during the lifetime of Shams ud-Din Iraqi, who died in 1527, or in the following decades, during the brief interlude of the Chak dynasty's reign. In Baltistan, the Sufia imamia Nurbakhshiya still survive as a sect with doctrines of its own that combine elements of both Shi'ism and Sunni Islam.[4]

Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani was the 15th-century Sufi master to whom researchers have paid less attention. Although Nurbakhsh had many scholar-disciples, including Assiri lahiji, none of his disciples made any serious effort to write Nurbakhsh's biography and to preserve his teachings. However, hundreds of thousands of his followers are still present in the most remote areas of Pakistan. They practise his teachings and are still the custodians of his works and teachings five centuries later.[5][better source needed]

Nurbakhshis believe that the practices are not an assemblage of his personal views but were originally conceived by him from Muhammad through the masters of the spiritual chain. They state that anyone who questions this connection is invited to travel on the long road through the history of mysticism and to compare it with that of Nurbakhsh's teachings.[6]

Massacre of Nurbakshi in Kashmir

Khanqah Shah Hamdan Srinagar, Kashmir was an important centre of Noorbakshi Muslims in Kashmir for many centuries.

The dominance of Sunni Islam in Kashmir, after the period of Nurbakshi influence, was restored by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat when he conquered Kashmir[when?]. Dughlat sent Fiqh al-Ahwat to a Sunni council for its analysis, which resulted in a condemnatory fatwa by the council to end the Nurbakshi order and convert them to Sunni Islam.

Mir Danial Shaheed and other prominent figures were killed during the resulting clashes.[when?] The onslaught against the Nurbakshi led to bloodshed and the end of the once-popular Sufi order.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Aggarwal, Ravina. Beyond Lines of Control: Performance and Politics on the Disputed.
  2. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia Of Untouchables : Ancient Medieval And Modern. p. Page 345.
  3. ^ Bashir, S: "Messianic Hope and Mystical Vision: The Nurbakhshiya Between Medieval and Modern Islam (Studies in Comparative Religion), "University of South Carolina Press", October 2003
  4. ^ Reick Andreas: "The Sofia Nurbakhshis of Baltistan- Revival of the Oldest Muslim Community in the Northern Areas (Gilgit Baltistan) of Pakistan", Paper read at the International Conference "Karakurum-Himalaya-Hindukush-Dynamics of Change", Islamabad, National Library, 29.9-2.10.1995 and published in The Monthly Nawa-i-sufia Islamabad, Issue No. 28, March 1997.
  5. ^ Dr. Naeem, G: "Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh and Nurbakhshiya Sect", Shah-e-Hamadan Publications, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2000
  6. ^ Balghari S.H."Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani", Monthly Nawa-i-Sufia Islamabad, Issue No. 28, 1996
  7. ^ Hanif, N. (2002-01-01). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: Central Asia and Middle East. ISBN 9788176252669.