نهنگ (صورت فلکی)
نَهَنگ (برابر عربی: قَیطُس؛ به انگلیسی Whale از Cetus لاتین) از صورتهای فلکی است.
معادل انگلیسی:Cet مساحت:۱۲۳۱ درجه مربع (چهارمین صورت فلکی)
در تمدنهای اولیه بین النهرین، این ستارگان را تحت نام تیامات به معنای اژدهای کیهانی که به وسیلهٔ مردوک کشته شد.در اساطیر کلاسیک قیطس همان هیولای دریایی است که آندرو مدا را تهدید کرد
در این صورت فلکی ستاره اویکرو به نام شگفتاختر (میرا یا اعجوبه) خوانده میشود که ستارهای آغازین از نوع متغیر تپشی دراز مدت است که در سال ۱۵۹۶ به عنوان اولین متغیر کشف گردید. این کشف باعث افزایش اعتبار انقلاب کوپرنیکی شد. طیف و قدر ستاره میرا در طول مدت ۳۳۰ روز از نوع M۵ III و قدر ۳٫۴ (تا قدر دو هم رسیدهاست) به طیف M۹ III و قدر۹٫۳ میرسد و مجدداً به حالت اول بر میگردد. فاصله ما از میرا ۱۳۰ سال نوری است.
اجرام عمقی آسمان[ویرایش]
صور فلکی همسایه[ویرایش]
Cetus (//) is a constellation. Its name refers to Cetus, a sea monster in Greek mythology as both Perseus and Heracles needed to slay, sometimes in English called 'the whale'. Cetus is in the region of the sky that contains other water-related constellations such as Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus.
Although Cetus is not generally considered part of the zodiac, the ecliptic passes less than a quarter of a degree from its constellation boundary, and thus the moon, planets and part of the sun will enter Cetus in most of their successive orbits for brief periods of time. This holds stronger for many asteroids since their orbits usually have a greater inclination to the ecliptic than the moon and planets.
As seen from Mars, the ecliptic passes into Cetus, with the sun appearing in Cetus for around six days shortly after the northern summer solstice. Mars's orbit is tilted by 1.85° with respect to Earth's.
Mira ("the Wonderful"), designated Omicron Ceti, was the first variable star to be discovered and the prototype of its class. Over a period of 332 days, it reaches a maximum apparent magnitude of 3 - visible to the naked eye - and dips to a minimum magnitude of 10, invisible to the unaided eye. Its seeming appearance and disappearance gave it its common name, which means "the amazing one". Mira pulsates with a minimum size of 400 solar diameters and a maximum size of 500 solar diameters. 420 light-years from Earth, it was discovered by David Fabricius in 1596.
α Ceti, traditionally called Menkar ("the nose"), is a red-hued giant star of magnitude 2.5, 220 light-years from Earth. It is a wide double star; the secondary is 93 Ceti, a blue-white hued star of magnitude 5.6, 440 light-years away. β Ceti, also called Deneb Kaitos and Diphda is the brightest star in Cetus. It is an orange-hued giant star of magnitude 2.0, 96 light-years from Earth. The traditional name "Deneb Kaitos" means "the whale's tail". γ Ceti, Kaffaljidhma ("head of the whale") is a very close double star. The primary is a yellow-hued star of magnitude 3.5, 82 light-years from Earth, and the secondary is a blue-hued star of magnitude 6.6. Tau Ceti is noted for being the nearest Sun-like star at a distance of 11.9 light-years. It is a yellow-hued main-sequence star of magnitude 3.5.
AA Ceti is a triple star system; the brightest member has a magnitude of 6.2. The primary and secondary are separated by 8.4 arcseconds at an angle of 304 degrees. The tertiary is not visible in telescopes. AA Ceti is an eclipsing variable star; the tertiary star passes in front of the primary and causes the system's apparent magnitude to decrease by 0.5 magnitudes. UV Ceti is an unusual binary variable star. 8.7 light-years from Earth, the system consists of two red dwarfs. Both of magnitude 13. One of the stars is a flare star, which are prone to sudden, random outbursts that last several minutes; these increase the pair's apparent brightness significantly - as high as magnitude 7.
Cetus lies far from the galactic plane, so that many distant galaxies are visible, unobscured by dust from the Milky Way. Of these, the brightest is Messier 77 (NGC 1068), a 9th magnitude spiral galaxy near Delta Ceti. It appears face-on and has a clearly visible nucleus of magnitude 10. About 50 million light-years from Earth, M77 is also a Seyfert galaxy and thus a bright object in the radio spectrum. Recently, the galactic cluster JKCS 041 was confirmed to be the most distant cluster of galaxies yet discovered.
NGC 246 (Caldwell 56), also called the Cetus Ring, is a planetary nebula with a magnitude of 8.0, 1600 light-years from Earth. Among some amateur astronomers, NGC 246 has garnered the nickname "Pac-Man Nebula" because of the arrangement of its central stars and the surrounding star field.
History and mythology
Cetus may have originally been associated with a whale, which would have had mythic status amongst Mesopotamian cultures. It is often now called the Whale, though it is most strongly associated with Cetus the sea-monster, who was slain by Perseus as he saved the princess Andromeda from Poseidon's wrath. Cetus is located in a region of the sky called "The Sea" because many water-associated constellations are placed there, including Eridanus, Pisces, Piscis Austrinus, Capricornus, and Aquarius.
Cetus has been depicted in many ways throughout its history. In the 17th century, Cetus was depicted as a "dragon fish" by Johann Bayer. Both Willem Blaeu and Andreas Cellarius depicted Cetus as a whale-like creature in the same century. However, Cetus has also been variously depicted with animal heads attached to a piscine body.
In global astronomy
The Brazilian Tukano and Kobeua people used the stars of Cetus to create a jaguar, representing the god of hurricanes and other violent storms. Lambda, Mu, Xi, Nu, Gamma, and Alpha Ceti represented its head; Omicron, Zeta, and Chi Ceti represented its body; Eta Eri, Tau Cet, and Upsilon Cet marked its legs and feet; and Theta, Eta, and Beta Ceti delineated its tail.