واژهٔ نماز واژهای از زبان پهلوی ساسانی است که تلفظ درست آن نماژ میباشد و نیایش زرتشتیان بوده و ایرانیان آن را برای واژهٔ «صلاة» عربی به کار بردند. این واژه در واژهنامهٔ پارسی به معنای خم شدن، سر فرودآوری برای ستایش پروردگار، ارج نهادن و بیان بندگی و پیروی از یزدان است. واژهٔ نماز نامواژهای از فعل نمیدن فارسی به معنی تعظیمکردن است.
«صلاة» اعراب که در لسان شرع برای فعل عبادی خاصی یعنی همان «نماز» به کار برده شدهاست، در لغت به معنای دعا، استغفار، رحمت و مغفرت، عبادت، سلام و تعظیم است واگر به الله نسبت داده شود، به معنای رحمت و ثنای بر بندگان میباشد و در اصطلاح نیز به عملی عبادی اطلاق میشود که متّشکل از اجزاء و شرایط خاصّی است و باید با قصد قربت به پروردگار هر روز در چند نوبت به زبان عربی به جا آورده شود.
نماز به عنوان فعلی عبادی که به منظور دعا و نیز تعظیم الهی انجام میشود، یکی از مشترکات ادیان الهی است، هرچند شکل و نحوهٔ انجام آن در ادیان مختلف متفاوت میباشد. از همین روست که در کتاب مقدس مسلمانان به شکل «صلاة» آمده و در معنای واژه نماز است: «نماز معروف است و یکی از واجبات دینیه هر روز تمام ملل و مذاهب است، چه منفرداً و چه جماعتاً…» و پس از آن به شرح معنای نماز بر مبنای تورات و انجیل پرداخته تا آنکه مینویسد: «احدی جز منکرین خدا منکر نماز و دعا نیست…».
در نوشتار حاضر نیز از «نماز» همین معنای فوق اراده شدهاست و حقیقت شرعیهٔ آن که در اسلام از این اصطلاح اراده میشود، مدّ نظر نمیباشد.
محمد مسعود نوروزی معتقد است کلمه نماز از ریشه نماچ که در پارسی میانه (پهلوی زمان ساسانیان) است گرفته شده و فعل نماچ پورتن به معنای نماز بردن و تعظیم کردن به کار رفتهاست؛ و قبل از آن در ایران باستان از ریشه نم به معنای خم شدن و سر فرو آوردن مشتق شدهاست. در اوستا نماز به صورت نِمَنگه یا نِمَه به معنای دعا و درود آمدهاست. این واژه در زبان پهلوی به صورت نماژ یا نماچ آمدهاست که پس از حملهٔ اعراب به ایران به دلیل کمبود حرف پایانی این واژه در الفبای عربی، حرف پایانی آن تبدیل به ز گشته و کل واژه به شکل نماز درآمده است.
نماز در اسلام[ویرایش]
در این عبادت در رکعتهای اول و دوم سورهٔ حمد و معمولاً آیه یا سورهٔ کوتاهی از قرآن ـ مثل سورهٔ توحید ـ و در رکعتهای بعدی تعدادی اذکار به زبان عربی خوانده میشود. جزئیات این عبادت در فرقههای مختلف اسلام با هم تفاوت دارد. نماز یک فرهنگ جهانی میباشد. نماز در قرآن با واژه صلاة مشخص شدهاست که به همراه مشتقاتش ۹۹ بار در قرآن تکرار شدهاست. ریشه صلاة میتواند دارای سه معنی باشد:
خواندن نماز به صورت دست بسته: اهل سنت در قیام نماز دست راست خود را روی دست چپ میگذاردند و هر دو دست را روی ناف یا بالای آن قرار میدهند البته در این مسئله میان مذاهب چهارگانه اهل سنت اختلاف نظر وجود دارد حنیفه شافعیه و حنبلیه این کار را لازم و یکی از سنتهای نماز میدانند ولی مالکیه آن را لازم و سنت نمیدانند برگرداندن صورت به چپ و راست در حال خواند سلام: شافعیها و حنفیها و حنبلیها عقیده دارند که مستحب است نمازگزار در حال خواندن سلام نماز در سلام اول صورت خود را به طرف راست و در سلام دوم به طرف چپ برگرداند آن هم به اندازهای که از پشت سر صورت او دیده شود. مالکیها نیز این کار را مستحب میدانند ولی آن را به سلام آخر اختصاص دادهاند. از نظر شیعه نمازگزار هنگام سلام نماز نباید صورتش از قبله منحرف شود. عبور از مقابل نمازگزار: از نظر اهلسنت عبور کردن از مقابل نمازگزار حرام است حتی در بعضی از کتابهای حدیثی آنان آمدهاست که نمازگزار باید مانع عبور عابر از مقابل خود باشد به همین جهت وقتی در مکه یا مدینه از مقابل کسی که نماز میگذارد عبور کنید با اعتراض شدید او و دیگران روبرو میشوید اما از نظر شیعه عبور از مقابل نمازگزار حرام نیست
انواع نماز در اسلام[ویرایش]
در اسلام انواع نماز متعدد است. از جمله نماز روزانه است که ۱۷ رکعت در پنج وقت دارد: دو رکعت صبح، چهار رکعت ظهر، چهار رکعت عصر، سه رکعت در غروب و چهار رکعت قبل از خواب(صَلوةالْعَتَمَه)(عَتَمَة به معنی ثلث اول شب، تاریکی شب، تأخیر و اهمال است ). دیگر نمازهای نافله است که تعداد رکعات و کیفیت آنها در بین شیعه و سنی متفاوت است.این نمازها همراه نمازهای روزانه خوانده میشود : دو رکعت به نیت نافله قبل از نماز صبح، هشت رکعت به نیت نافله بعد از اذان ظهر و قبل از نماز ظهر، نافله نماز ععر همانند نافله ظهر قبل از نماز عصر و هشت رکعت است، نافله نماز مغرب چهار رکعت و بعد از نمازمغرب خوانده میشود، نافله عشاء دو رکعت است و بعد از نماز عشاء خوانده میشود، نماز نافله شب (نماز شب): یازده رکعت است. هشت رکعت از آن به عنوان نماز شب، دو رکعت نماز شَفع و یک رکعت نماز وِتر است. وقت نافله شب از نصف شب تا اذان صبح است.دیگر صَلوة قَصْر است یعنی نماز کوتاه برای مسافر که آن را نماز شکسته نیز میگویند. در این نماز چهار رکعتهای ظهر و عصر و عشاء نیز دو رکعتی میگردد و نتیجه میشود:دو رکعت صبح، دو رکعت ظهر، دو رکعت عصر، سه رکعت غروب و دو رکعت عشاء. دربارهٔ حدّ سفر بین مذاهب مختلفه اتفاق نیست.دیگر نماز جمعه و نماز اعیاد فطر و قربان و نماز میت و نماز خسوف و کسوف و آیات (در حوادث سمائیه و ارضیه ) و نماز حاجت و نماز تسبیح و نماز جعفر و نماز استسقاء (طلب باران) که بعضی واجب است و بعضی مستحب و متفاوت در نظر شیعه و اهل سنت .
سابقه تاریخی نماز[ویرایش]
۱- نماز آدم: از صُحُف ادریس نقل شده که در نخستین روز اقامت آدم و حوا در زمین، خداوند، نماز عصر و مغرب و عشاء را مجموعاً ۵۰ رکعت به آدم واجب کرد.
۲- نماز شیث: وقتی آدم فوت کرد شیث او را غسل داد و بر وی نماز خواند.
۳- نماز ادریس: در روایت امام صادق به یکی از یاران خود سفارش میفرمایند: وقتی به مسجد کوفه شرفیاب شدی به مسجد سهله نیز برو در آنجا نماز بخوان و از خدا طلب حاجت کن زیرا مسجد سهله خانهٔ ادریس است که در آن خیاطی میکرد و در آن نماز میخواند.
۵- نماز شعیب: در آیهٔ 87 سوره هود آمدهاست: (قَالُواْ یا شُعَيْبُ أَصَلاَتُكَ تَأْمُرُكَ أَن نَّتْرُكَ مَا يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا أَوْ أَن نَّفْعَلَ فی أَمْوَالِنَا مَا نَشَاء إِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرشیدُ) ﴿۸۷﴾«گفتند ای شعیب آیا نمازت به تو دستور میدهد که ما آنچه را پدرانمان میپرستیدند ترک گوییم و آنچه را میخواهیم، در اموالمان انجام ندهیم؟ که همانا تو مرد بردبار و رشیدی هستی.»
این جمله گفتار مردم مدین در ردّ حجّت شعیب است. اهل مدین دعوت شعیب را مستند به نماز او کردند، چون در نماز دعوت به معارضهٔ با آن قوم در بتپرستی و کم فروشی آنهاست و این همان سرّی است که آنها از آن اینگونه تعبیر کردهاند؛ «اَصَلاَتُک تَامُرُکَ اَن نَترُک...» یعنی آیا نمازت، تو را امر کرده که ما بتپرستی را ترک کنیم.
۶- نماز الیاس: روزی الیاس به گریه و زاری درآمد. خداوند به فرشته مرگ فرمود: از الیاس سؤالی کن که سبب گریهات چیست؟ برای دنیا است یا مرگ؟ الیاس جواب داد نه این است و نه آن است، بلکه گریهٔ من بخاطر این است که دیگر زنده نخواهم بود تا به ذکر و مناجات خدا پردازم. خداوند به فرشتهاش فرمود: از او دست بردار و روح او را قبض نکن چرا که او زندگی را برای بندگی و ذکر میخواهد.
نماز در مسیحیت[ویرایش]
نماز در مسیحیت برای ارتباط با پدر یا خداوند یا دیگر عناصر تثلیث یعنی پسر یا روح القدس برگزار میشود. در میان فرقههای مختلف مسیحیت نماز به صورتهای مختلف گزارده میشود. همچنین نمازها میتواند به صورت جمعی (نیایش سرایی) باشد مانند مراسم عشای ربانی یا به صورت فردی برگزار شود. دربارهٔ مسیح آیاتی درسوره مریم، نشانگر انجام این عبادت الهی، توسّط اوست. خود عیسی گفت: «و اوصانی بالصلوة و الزکاة» یعنی خالق متعال مرا به نماز سفارش کرده که نه تنها نماز بخوانم بلکه نماز را در جامعه گسترش دهم.
مسیح در جای دیگر میفرمایند: درست به شما میگویم: چیزی به شرف آخرت رسانندهتر و در برابر حوادث دنیا کمککننده تر از نماز پیوسته نیست و چیزی به خداوند رحمان نزدیکتر از آن نیست. پس آن را بپا دارید و بر آن بیفزایید، نسبت به هر کار خوبی که به خدا نزدیک میکند، باز نماز بدو نزدیکتر و برگزیدهتر است.
دکتر احمد شلبی در کتاب خود میگوید: «مهمترین عبادات نزد مسیحیان روزه و نماز است، ولی محدودهٔ آنها متفّق علیه نیست، بسیاری از مسیحیان معتقدند که انتظامات و قانون در روزه و نماز اختیاری است نه اجباری. مسیحیان هفت نماز در روز و شب دارند که عبارتند از: نماز صبحگاهان (بکور) و نماز ساعت سوم و ششم و نهم و یازدهم و دوازدهم و نیمهٔ شب. و اهتمام و توجه آنها به نماز، بیشتر از روزه است و نماز، ترتیبی خاص ندارد.» همچنین در مورد کیفیت نماز عیسویان آمدهاست که هیئت خاصّی در قیام و قعود نزد آنها مراعات نمیشود بلکه قصد کلّی، نیّت خالص و پاک و طهارت فکر میباشد. و بهترین نماز آن است که مختصر و مفید و با حرارت تقدیم شود.
اگر چه برخی از آداب نماز و نیایش کنونی مسیحیان مانند خطاب به اقنوم ثلاثه در نماز با وحی الهی سازگاری ندارد و تحریفاتی است که توسط کاهنان مسیحی با نظر خود وارد کتاب آسمانی انجیل نموده و به عیسی نسبت دادهاند، اما همین امر ما را به این نتیجه میرساند که اصل نماز در این شریعت الهی وجود داشتهاست.
نماز در یهودیت[ویرایش]
معمولا در هر روز سه نماز میخوانند و در روز شبات شنبه و سایر روزهای مقدس فرقههای ارتدکس و محافظه کار یک نماز اضافی هم به نام موسف خوانده میشود. زمانیکه موسی در جهت انجام رسالت الهی خویش به همراه همسرش از وطن هجرت کردند و دچار سختیها شدند، خداوند برای آرامش او به وی وحی نمود که: «واَقم الصلوة لذکری» یعنی نماز را برای یاد من بپادار. و در آیه دیگری به موسی و هارون دستور داده شده که نماز را به پا دارید.
«وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِیثَاقَ بَنِی إِسْرَائِیلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّـهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَیْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِی الْقُرْبَیٰ وَالْیَتَامَیٰ وَالْمَسَاکِینِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِیمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّکَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّیْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِیلًا مِّنکُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ» (و چون از فرزندان اسرائیل پیمان محکم گرفتیم که: جز خدا را نپرستید، و به پدر و مادر، و خویشان و یتیمان و مستمندان احسان کنید، و با مردم [به زبان] خوش سخن بگویید، و نماز را به پا دارید، و زکات را بدهید؛ آنگاه، جز اندکی از شما، [همگی] به حالت اعراض روی برتافتید) این آیه بطور آشکار، به پا داشتن نماز را به عنوان میثاقی معرفی کرده که از بنی اسرائیل، دوشادوش مسئله عبادت خداوند و نیکی به والدین گرفته شدهاست. که این خود بیانگر اهمیت نماز در شریعت موسی است.
طبری در تفسیر خود، قول محمد باقر را در مورد این آیه نقل میکند که گفت: یهود و منافقین، مردم را به اقامهٔ نماز و دادن زکات فرمان میدادند ولی خود انجام نمیدادند پس خداوند فرمان داد به آنها که با مسلمانان تصدیقکنندهٔ پیامبر باشند و اقامهٔ نماز کنند.
علاوه بر آیات، روایاتی نیز وجود دارد که به این مطلب اشاره دارند. در روایت آمدهاست که خدا به موسی میفرماید: بر تو باد نماز! زیرا آن جایگاهی خاص نزد من دارد و نزد من پیمانی محکم دارد. همینطور در خطابی دیگر به موسی دستور داده میشود در میان مردم خود امامت نمازشان را به عهده بگیرد: «ای موسی در نمازشان و آنچه اختلاف دارند امام باش» از اینرو میتوان نتیجه گرفت که نماز در شریعت موسی نیز وجود داشتهاست و دعا و نیایش اوقات معینی داشته که براساس زمانهای برگزاری مراسم عمومی قربانی در معبد تعیین میشدهاست.
نماز در دین زرتشتی[ویرایش]
نماز یکی از عبادتهای مزدیسنا است که برای داشتن توجه همیشگی به دستورهای دینی و سپاسگزاری خدا گزارده میشود. این دستورها عمدتاً ماهیتی اخلاقی دارند. امروزه نماز پنجگانه را معمولاً موبدان میگزارند و بیشتر زرتشتیان به خواندن دعاهای صبحگاه و شامگاه اکتفا میکنند. نماز در دین زرتشت به اینصورت است که آتشی افروخته میشود و در حالی که دستها به سوی آسمان بلند است و سر نیز به احترام تعظیم الهی خم شده، برگرد اهورا مزدا می چرخند و سرودها و شعرهایی نیز با آوازی رسا و زیبا خوانده میشود.
این نماز، نمازی بیپیرایه و همراه با تفکر در وجود خود و اهورا مزدا است که شخص را به اهورا مزدا نزدیکتر میکند. شخص زرتشتی در هنگام نماز، آتش سوزان مادی را نمیبیند و به آن توجهی نمیکند؛ بلکه چیزی که توجه او را جلب میکند، آتش فروزان مینوی است که در دل همهٔ افراد وجود دارد.
بنابر سنت زرتشتی، پنج بار در شبانه روز نماز خوانده میشود که خواندن آن نیز بر آنها واجب است. هر نماز با این مضامین آغاز میشود: «خشناتره، اهورامزدا» یعنی خشنود میگردانم اهورا مزدا را. و آنگاه ادامه میدهند: «ایمان دارم به کیش مزدا پرستی که آوردهٔ زرتشت است. پیرو آموزههای اهورایی هستم که از دروغ و دوگانه پرستی به دور است».
زرتشتیان هر ۲۴ ساعت را به ۵ گاه تقسیم میکنند و آداب مذهبی تابع این زمانهای مشخّص هستند.
نمازهای پنجگانه به صورت زیر میباشد:
۱- نمازگاه هاون (هاونی، ونگاه): نماز بامداد است و هنگام آن از طلوع آفتاب تا نیمروز است. بعد از مضامینی که در بالا ذکر کردیم در ادامه میگویند: «من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم فرشته پاسبان بامداد پاک و سازنده را. من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم آن سرور دهکده (ویس) را که پاک و دادگستر و سازنده است.
۲- نمازگاه درپتون (رپیتون، رپیتوهنگاه) هنگام آن از نیمروز تا سه ساعت بعدازظهر است. بعد از فقرات ابتدایی میگویند: من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم فرشته پاسبان نیمروز پاک را (رپیتون). من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم آن سرور شهر (نه نتو) را که پاک و دادگستر و سازنده است.
۳- نمازگاه ازیران (ازیرینگاه) موقع آن از سه ساعت بعد از ظهر تا غروب آفتاب است. بعد از فقرات مشترکی که در همهٔ نمازها وجود دارد، میگویند: من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم فرشته پاسبان پیشین پاک را. من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم آن سرور کشور (رفیو) را که پاک و دادگستر و سازنده است.
۴- نمازگاه سروترم: (ایویسروتریم، اویسروتریمگاه) وقت آن از غروب آفتاب تا نیمه شب است. بعد از فقرات مشترک میگویند: من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم فرشته پاسبان شب پاک را. من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم همه رهروان راه اشویی زرتشت را و سرور اشوان را.
۵- نمازگاه اوشهی نا ای (اوشهین، اوشهین گاه) هنگام آن از نیمه شب تا طلوع خورشید است. بعد از مضامین: من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم فرشته پاسبان پگاه پاک را. من ستایش میکنم و ارج مینهم و خشنود میکنم آن سرور خانه که پاک و سازنده و دادگر است.
زرتشتیان، نمازهای دیگری نیز دارند که در شبانه روز میخوانند. معروفترین این نمازها، نماز سروش باج است.
نماز در آثار هنرمندان[ویرایش]
برخی از هنرمندان با موضوع نماز دست به خلق آثاری در زمینههای مختلف هنری زدهاند. از جمله آنها میتوان به تابلوی نقاشی آتش با موضوع نماز اثر یوسف عبدی نژاد اشاره کرد.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity (a god), or a deified ancestor. More generally, prayer can also have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, and in comparative religion is closely associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells.
Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, and it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, incantation, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person.
The act of prayer is attested in written sources as early as 5000 years ago. Today, most major religions involve prayer in one way or another; some ritualize the act, requiring a strict sequence of actions or placing a restriction on who is permitted to pray, while others teach that prayer may be practised spontaneously by anyone at any time.
Scientific studies regarding the use of prayer have mostly concentrated on its effect on the healing of sick or injured people. The efficacy of prayer in faith healing has been evaluated in numerous studies, with contradictory results.
The English term prayer is from Medieval Latin precaria "petition, prayer". The Vulgate Latin is oratio, which translates Greek προσευχή in turn the Septuagint translation of Biblical Hebrew תְּפִלָּה tĕphillah.
Act of prayer
Various spiritual traditions offer a wide variety of devotional acts. There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, and reverent physical gestures. Some Christians bow their heads and fold their hands. Some Native Americans regard dancing as a form of prayer. Some Sufis whirl. Hindus chant mantras. Jewish prayer may involve swaying back and forth and bowing. Muslims practice salat (kneeling and prostration) in their prayers. Quakers keep silent. Some pray according to standardized rituals and liturgies, while others prefer extemporaneous prayers. Still others combine the two.
Friedrich Heiler is often cited in Christian circles for his systematic Typology of Prayer which lists six types of prayer: primitive, ritual, Greek cultural, philosophical, mystical, and prophetic. Some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or purification such as in ghusl and wudhu.
Prayer may be done privately and individually, or it may be done corporately in the presence of fellow believers. Prayer can be incorporated into a daily "thought life", in which one is in constant communication with a god. Some people pray throughout all that is happening during the day and seek guidance as the day progresses. This is actually regarded as a requirement in several Christian denominations, although enforcement is not possible nor desirable. There can be many different answers to prayer, just as there are many ways to interpret an answer to a question, if there in fact comes an answer. Some may experience audible, physical, or mental epiphanies. If indeed an answer comes, the time and place it comes is considered random. Some outward acts that sometimes accompany prayer are: anointing with oil; ringing a bell; burning incense or paper; lighting a candle or candles; See, for example, facing a specific direction (i.e. towards Mecca or the East); making the sign of the cross. One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting.
A variety of body postures may be assumed, often with specific meaning (mainly respect or adoration) associated with them: standing; sitting; kneeling; prostrate on the floor; eyes opened; eyes closed; hands folded or clasped; hands upraised; holding hands with others; a laying on of hands and others. Prayers may be recited from memory, read from a book of prayers, or composed spontaneously as they are prayed. They may be said, chanted, or sung. They may be with musical accompaniment or not. There may be a time of outward silence while prayers are offered mentally. Often, there are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other significant events in the life of a believer, or days of the year that have special religious significance. Details corresponding to specific traditions are outlined below.
Origins and early history
Anthropologically, the concept of prayer is closely related to that of surrender and supplication. The traditional posture of prayer in medieval Europe is kneeling or supine with clasped hands, in antiquity more typically with raised hands. The early Christian prayer posture was standing, looking up to heaven, with outspread arms and bare head. This is the pre-Christian, pagan prayer posture (except for the bare head, which was prescribed for males in Corinthians 11:4, in Roman paganism, the head had to be covered in prayer). Certain Cretan and Cypriote figures of the Late Bronze Age, with arms raised, have been interpreted as worshippers. Their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender. The kneeling posture with clasped hands appears to have been introduced only with the beginning high medieval period, presumably adopted from a gesture of feudal homage.
Although prayer in its literal sense is not used in animism, communication with the spirit world is vital to the animist way of life. This is usually accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and then shows the spirits' thoughts to the people. Other ways to receive messages from the spirits include using astrology or contemplating fortune tellers and healers.
Some of the oldest extant literature, such as the Sumerian temple hymns of Enheduanna (c. 23th century BC) are liturgy addressed to deities and thus technically "prayer". The Egyptian Pyramid Texts of about the same period similarly contain spells or incantations addressed to the gods. In the loosest sense, in the form of magical thinking combined with animism, prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of behavioral modernity, by anthropologists such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor and Sir James George Frazer.
Reliable records are available for the polytheistic religions of the Iron Age, most notably Ancient Greek religion (which strongly influenced Roman religion). These religious traditions were direct developments of the earlier Bronze Age religions. Ceremonial prayer was highly formulaic and ritualized.
In ancient polytheism, ancestor worship is indistinguishable from theistic worship (see also Euhemerism). Vestiges of ancestor worship persist, to a greater or lesser extent, in modern religious traditions throughout the world, most notably in Japanese Shinto and in Chinese folk religion. The practices involved in Shinto prayer are heavily influenced by Buddhism; Japanese Buddhism has also been strongly influenced by Shinto in turn. Shinto prayers quite frequently consist of wishes or favors asked of the kami, rather than lengthy praises or devotions. The practice of votive offering is also universal, and is attested at least since the Bronze Age. In Shinto, this takes the form of a small wooden tablet, called an ema.
Prayers in Etruscan were used in the Roman world by augurs and other oracles long after Etruscan became a dead language. The Carmen Arvale and the Carmen Saliare are two specimens of partially preserved prayers that seem to have been unintelligible to their scribes, and whose language is full of archaisms and difficult passages.
Roman prayers and sacrifices were often envisioned as legal bargains between deity and worshipper. The Roman principle was expressed as do ut des: "I give, so that you may give." Cato the Elder's treatise on agriculture contains many examples of preserved traditional prayers; in one, a farmer addresses the unknown deity of a possibly sacred grove, and sacrifices a pig in order to placate the god or goddess of the place and beseech his or her permission to cut down some trees from the grove.
Celtic, Germanic and Slavic religions are recorded much later, and much more fragmentarily, than the religions of classical antiquity. They nevertheless show substantial parallels to the better-attested religions of the Iron Age. In the case of Germanic religion, the practice of prayer is reliably attested, but no actual liturgy is recorded from the early (Roman era) period. An Old Norse prayer is on record in the form of a dramatization in skaldic poetry. This prayer is recorded in stanzas 2 and 3 of the poem Sigrdrífumál, compiled in the 13th century Poetic Edda from earlier traditional sources, where the valkyrie Sigrdrífa prays to the gods and the earth after being woken by the hero Sigurd. A prayer to Odin is mentioned in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga where King Rerir prays for a child. In stanza 9 of the poem Oddrúnargrátr, a prayer is made to "kind wights, Frigg and Freyja, and many gods In chapter 21 of Jómsvíkinga saga, wishing to turn the tide of the Battle of Hjörungavágr, Haakon Sigurdsson eventually finds his prayers answered by the goddesses Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa. Folk religion in the medieval period produced syncretisms between pre-Christian and Christian traditions. An example is the 11th-century Anglo-Saxon charm Æcerbot for the fertility of crops and land, or the medical Wið færstice. The 8th-century Wessobrunn Prayer has been proposed as a Christianized pagan prayer and compared to the pagan Völuspá and the Merseburg Incantations, the latter recorded in the 9th or 10th century but of much older traditional origins.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology, prayers to the "Great Wit" are performed by the "clever men" and "clever women", or kadji. These Aboriginal shamans use maban or mabain, the material that is believed to give them their purported magical powers. The Pueblo Indians are known to have used prayer sticks, that is, sticks with feathers attached as supplicatory offerings. The Hopi Indians used prayer sticks as well, but they attached to it a small bag of sacred meal.
Approaches to prayer
Atheist arguments against prayer are mostly directed against petitionary prayer in particular. Daniel Dennett argued that petitionary prayer might have the undesirable psychological effect of relieving a person of the need to take active measures.
This potential drawback manifests in extreme forms in such cases as Christian Scientists who rely on prayers instead of seeking medical treatment for family members for easily curable conditions which later result in death.
Christopher Hitchens (2012) argued that praying to a god which is omnipotent and all-knowing would be presumptuous. For example, he interprets Ambrose Bierce's definition of prayer by stating that "the man who prays is the one who thinks that god has arranged matters all wrong, but who also thinks that he can instruct god how to put them right."
In this view, prayer is not a conversation. Rather, it is meant to inculcate certain attitudes in the one who prays, but not to influence. Among Jews, this has been the approach of Rabbenu Bachya, Rabbi Yehuda Halevi, Joseph Albo, Samson Raphael Hirsch, and Joseph B. Soloveitchik. This view is expressed by Rabbi Nosson Scherman in the overview to the Artscroll Siddur (p. XIII).
Among Christian theologians, E.M. Bounds stated the educational purpose of prayer in every chapter of his book, The Necessity of Prayer. Prayer books such as the Book of Common Prayer are both a result of this approach and an exhortation to keep it.
In this view, the ultimate goal of prayer is to help train a person to focus on divinity through philosophy and intellectual contemplation (meditation). This approach was taken by the Jewish scholar and philosopher Maimonides  and the other medieval rationalists. It became popular in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic intellectual circles, but never became the most popular understanding of prayer among the laity in any of these faiths. In all three of these faiths today, a significant minority of people still hold to this approach.
In this approach, the purpose of prayer is to enable the person praying to gain a direct experience of the recipient of the prayer (or as close to direct as a specific theology permits). This approach is very significant in Christianity and widespread in Judaism (although less popular theologically). In Eastern Orthodoxy, this approach is known as hesychasm. It is also widespread in Sufi Islam, and in some forms of mysticism. It has some similarities with the rationalist approach, since it can also involve contemplation, although the contemplation is not generally viewed as being as rational or intellectual. Christian and Roman Catholic traditions also include an experiential approach to prayer within the practice of Lectio Divina, historically a Benedictine practice in which scripture is read aloud; actively meditated upon using the intellect (but not analysis) possibly using the mind to place the listener within a relationship or dialogue with the text that was read; a prayer spoken; and finally concludes with contemplation, a more passive experiential approach than the previous meditation, which is characterized by the Catechism of the Catholic Church as an experience of consciously being attentive, and having a silent love toward God, which the individual experiences without demanding to receive an experience. The experience of God within Christian mysticism has been contrasted with the concept of experiential religion or mystical experience because of a long history or authors living and writing about experience with the divine in a manner that identifies God as unknowable and ineffable, the language of such ideas could be characterized paradoxically as "experiential", as well as without the phenomena of experience.
The notion of "religious experience" can be traced back to William James, who used a term called "religious experience" in his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience.[citation not found] The origins of the use of this term can be dated further back.
In the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, several historical figures put forth very influential views that religion and its beliefs can be grounded in experience itself. While Kant held that moral experience justified religious beliefs, John Wesley in addition to stressing individual moral exertion thought that the religious experiences in the Methodist movement (paralleling the Romantic Movement) were foundational to religious commitment as a way of life.
Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher and Albert Ritschl to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique, and defend the view that human (moral and religious) experience justifies religious beliefs.
Such religious empiricism would be later seen as highly problematic and was — during the period in-between world wars — famously rejected by Karl Barth. In the 20th century, religious as well as moral experience as justification for religious beliefs still holds sway. Some influential modern scholars holding this liberal theological view are Charles Raven and the Oxford physicist/theologian Charles Coulson.
The notion of "experience" has been criticised.[citation not found][citation not found][citation not found] Robert Sharf points out that "experience" is a typical Western term, which has found its way into Asian religiosity via western influences.[citation not found][note 2] The notion of "experience" introduces a false notion of duality between "experiencer" and "experienced", whereas the essence of kensho is the realisation of the "non-duality" of observer and observed.[citation not found][citation not found] "Pure experience" does not exist; all experience is mediated by intellectual and cognitive activity.[citation not found][citation not found] The specific teachings and practices of a specific tradition may even determine what "experience" someone has, which means that this "experience" is not the proof of the teaching, but a result of the teaching.[citation not found] A pure consciousness without concepts, reached by "cleaning the doors of perception",[note 3] would be an overwhelming chaos of sensory input without coherence.[citation not found]
In the Hebrew Bible prayer is an evolving means of interacting with God, most frequently through a spontaneous, individual, unorganized form of petitioning and/or thanking. Standardized prayer such as is done today is non-existent, although beginning in Deuteronomy, the Bible lays the groundwork for organized prayer, including basic liturgical guidelines, and by the Bible's later books, prayer has evolved to a more standardized form, although still radically different from the form practiced by modern Jews.
Individual prayer is described by the Tanakh two ways. The first of these is when prayer is described as occurring, and a result is achieved, but no further information regarding a person's prayer is given. In these instances, such as with Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and Job, the act of praying is a method of changing a situation for the better. The second way in which prayer is depicted is through fully fleshed out episodes of prayer, where a person's prayer is related in full. Many famous biblical personalities have such a prayer, including every major character from Hannah to Hezekiah.
In the New Testament prayer is presented as a positive command (Colossians 4:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:17). The People of God are challenged to include Christian prayer in their everyday life, even in the busy struggles of marriage (1 Corinthians 7:5) as it brings people closer to God.
Jesus encouraged his disciples to pray in secret in their private rooms, using the Lord's Prayer, as a humble response to the prayer of the Pharisees, whose practices in prayer were regarded as impious by the New Testament writers (Matthew 6:6).
Throughout the New Testament, prayer is shown to be God's appointed method by which we obtain what He has to bestow (Matthew 7:7–11; Matthew 9:24–29; Luke 11:13. Further, the Book of James says that the lack of blessings in life results from a failure to pray (James 4:2). Jesus healed through prayer and expected his followers to do so also (Mark 16:17–18; Matthew 10:8).
Observant Jews pray three times a day, Shacharit, Mincha, and Ma'ariv with lengthier prayers on special days, such as the Shabbat and Jewish holidays including Musaf and the reading of the Torah. The siddur is the prayerbook used by Jews all over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. Jewish prayer is usually described as having two aspects: kavanah (intention) and keva (the ritualistic, structured elements).
There are also many other ritualistic prayers a Jew performs during their day, such as washing before eating bread, washing after one wakes up in the morning, and doing grace after meals.
In this view, the ultimate goal of prayer is to help train a person to focus on divinity through philosophy and intellectual contemplation. This approach was taken by Maimonides and the other medieval rationalists. One example of this approach to prayer is noted by Rabbi Steven Weil, who was appointed the Orthodox Union's Executive-Vice President in 2009. He notes that the word "prayer" is a derivative of the Latin "precari", which means "to beg". The Hebrew equivalent "tefilah", however, along with its root "pelel" or its reflexive "l’hitpallel", means the act of self-analysis or self-evaluation. This approach is sometimes described as the person praying having a dialogue or conversation with God.
In this view, prayer is not a conversation. Rather, it is meant to inculcate certain attitudes in the one who prays, but not to influence. This has been the approach of Rabbenu Bachya, Yehuda Halevy, Joseph Albo, Samson Raphael Hirsch, and Joseph Dov Soloveitchik. This view is expressed by Rabbi Nosson Scherman in the overview to the Artscroll Siddur (p. XIII); note that Scherman goes on to also affirm the Kabbalistic view (see below).
Kabbalah uses a series of kavanot, directions of intent, to specify the path the prayer ascends in the dialog with God, to increase its chances of being answered favorably. Kabbalists ascribe a higher meaning to the purpose of prayer, which is no less than affecting the very fabric of reality itself, restructuring and repairing the universe in a real fashion. In this view, every word of every prayer, and indeed, even every letter of every word, has a precise meaning and a precise effect. Prayers thus literally affect the mystical forces of the universe, and repair the fabric of creation.
Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.
Christian prayers are quite varied. They can be completely spontaneous, or read entirely from a text, like the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. The most common prayer among Christians is the Lord's Prayer, which according to the gospel accounts (e.g. Matthew 6:9–13) is how Jesus taught his disciples to pray. The Lord's Prayer is a model for prayers of adoration, confession and petition in Christianity. In medieval England, prayers (particularly the paternoster) were frequently used as a measure of time in medical and culinary recipe books.
Christians generally pray to God or to the Father. Some Christians (e.g., Catholics, Orthodox) will also ask the righteous in heaven and "in Christ," such as Virgin Mary or other saints to intercede by praying on their behalf (intercession of saints). Formulaic closures include "through our Lord Jesus Christ, Your Son, who lives and reigns with You, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, through all the ages of ages," and "in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit."
It is customary among Protestants to end prayers with "In Jesus' name, Amen" or "In the name of Christ, Amen." However, the most commonly used closure in Christianity is simply "Amen" (from a Hebrew adverb used as a statement of affirmation or agreement, usually translated as so be it).
In the Western or Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, probably the most common is the Rosary; In the Eastern Church (the Eastern rites of the Catholic Church and Orthodox Church), the Jesus Prayer. The Jesus Prayer is also often repeated as part of the meditative hesychasm practice in Eastern Christianity.
Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation which do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins of others, e.g. for the repair of the sin of blasphemy performed by others.
Other forms of prayer among Catholics would be meditative prayer, contemplative prayer and infused prayer discussed at length by Catholic Saints St. John of the Cross and St. Theresa of Jesus.
In Pentecostal congregations, prayer is often accompanied by speaking in an unknown tongue, a practice now known as glossolalia. Practitioners of Pentecostal glossolalia may claim that the languages they speak in prayer are real foreign languages, and that the ability to speak those languages spontaneously is a gift of the Holy Spirit. Some people outside of the movement, however, have offered dissenting views. George Barton Cutten suggested that glossolalia was a sign of mental illness. Felicitas Goodman suggested that tongue speakers were under a form of hypnosis. Others suggest that it is a learned behaviour. Some of these views have allegedly been refuted.
Christian Science teaches that prayer is a spiritualization of thought or an understanding of God and of the nature of the underlying spiritual creation. Adherents believe that this can result in healing, by bringing spiritual reality into clearer focus in the human scene. The world as it appears to the senses is regarded as a distorted version of the world of spiritual ideas. Prayer can heal the distortion. Christian Scientists believe that prayer does not change the spiritual creation but gives a clearer view of it, and the result appears in the human scene as healing: the human picture adjusts to coincide more nearly with the divine reality. Christian Scientists do not practice intercessory prayer as it is commonly understood, and they generally avoid combining prayer with medical treatment in the belief that the two practices tend to work against each other. Prayer works through love: the recognition of God's creation as spiritual, intact, and inherently lovable.
The Arabic word for prayer is salah. In Islam, there are five daily obligatory prayers that are considered as one of the pillars of the religion. The command to ritual prayer occurs repeatedly in the Quran. The prayer is performed by the person while they are facing the Kaaba in Mecca. There is the "call for prayer" (adhan), where the muezzin calls for all the followers to stand together for the prayer. The prayer consists of actions such as glorifying and praising God (such as mentioning ‘Allāhu Akbar’ (God is Great)) while standing, recitation of chapters of the Quran (such as the opening chapter of the book (Al-Fatiha)), bowing down then praising God, prostrating (sujud) then again praising God and it ends with the words: "Peace be with you and God’s mercy". During the prayer, a Muslim cannot talk or do anything else besides pray. Once the prayer is complete, one can offer personal prayers or supplications to God for their needs that are known as dua. There are many standard invocations in Arabic to be recited at various times (e.g. after the prayer) and for various occasions (e.g. for one's parents) with manners and etiquette such as before eating. Muslims may also say dua in their own words and languages for any issue they wish to communicate with God in the hope that God will answer their prayers. Certain Shi'a sects pray the five daily prayers divided into three separate parts of the day, providing several Hadith as supporting evidence; although according to Shia Islam, it is also permissible to pray at five times.
Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, and `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote many prayers for general use, and some for specific occasions, including for unity, detachment, spiritual upliftment, and healing among others. Bahá'ís are also required to recite each day one of three obligatory prayers composed by Bahá'u'lláh. The believers have been enjoined to face in the direction of the Qiblih when reciting their Obligatory Prayer. The longest obligatory prayer may be recited at any time during the day; another, of medium length, is recited once in the morning, once at midday, and once in the evening; and the shortest can be recited anytime between noon and sunset. Bahá'ís also read from and meditate on the scriptures every morning and evening.
In both Buddhism and Hinduism, the repetition of mantras is closely related to the practice of repetitive prayer in Western religion (rosary, Jesus prayer). Many of the most widespread Hindu and Buddhist mantras are in origin invocations of deities, e.g. Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Savitr, Pavamana Mantra to Soma Pavamana, and many of the Buddhist Dhāraṇī originate as recitations of lists of names or attributes of deities. Most of the shorter Buddhist mantras originate as the invocation of the name of a specific deity or bodhisattva, such as Om mani padme hum being in origin the invocation of a bodhisattva called Maṇipadma. However, from an early time these mantras were interpreted in the context of mystical sound symbolism. The most extreme example of this is the om syllable, which as early as in the Aitareya Brahmana was claimed as equivalent to the entire Vedas (collection of ritual hymns).
In the earliest Buddhist tradition, the Theravada, and in the later Mahayana tradition of Zen (or Chán), prayer plays only an ancillary role. It is largely a ritual expression of wishes for success in the practice and in helping all beings.[need quotation to verify]
The skillful means (Sanskrit: upāya) of the transfer of merit (Sanskrit: pariṇāmanā) is an evocation and prayer. Moreover, indeterminate buddhas are available for intercession as they reside in awoken-fields (Sanskrit: buddha-kshetra).
The nirmānakāya of an awoken-field is what is generally known and understood as a mandala. The opening and closing of the ring (Sanskrit: maṇḍala) is an active prayer. An active prayer is a mindful activity, an activity in which mindfulness is not just cultivated but is. A common prayer is "May the merit of my practice, adorn Buddhas' Pure Lands, requite the fourfold kindness from above, and relieve the suffering of the three life-journeys below. Universally wishing sentient beings, Friends, foes, and karmic creditors, all to activate the bodhi mind, and all to be reborn in the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss." (願以此功德 莊嚴佛淨土 上報四重恩 下濟三途苦 普願諸眾生 冤親諸債主 悉發菩提心 同生極樂國)
The Tibetan Buddhism tradition emphasizes an instructive and devotional relationship to a guru; this may involve devotional practices known as guru yoga which are congruent with prayer. It also appears that Tibetan Buddhism posits the existence of various deities, but the peak view of the tradition is that the deities or yidam are no more existent or real than the continuity (Sanskrit: santana; refer mindstream) of the practitioner, environment and activity. But how practitioners engage yidam or tutelary deities will depend upon the level or more appropriately yana at which they are practicing. At one level, one may pray to a deity for protection or assistance, taking a more subordinate role. At another level, one may invoke the deity, on a more equal footing. And at a higher level one may deliberately cultivate the idea that one has become the deity, whilst remaining aware that its ultimate nature is śūnyatā. The views of the more esoteric yana are impenetrable for those without direct experience and empowerment.
Pure Land Buddhism emphasizes the recitation by devotees of prayer-like mantras, a practice often called Nembutsu.:190 On one level it is said that reciting these mantras can ensure rebirth into a Sambhogakāya land (Sanskrit: buddha-kshetra) after bodily dissolution, a sheer ball spontaneously co-emergent to a buddha's enlightened intention. According to Shinran, the founder of the Pure Land Buddhism tradition that is most prevalent in the US,:193 "for the long haul nothing is as efficacious as the Nembutsu.":197 On another, the practice is a form of meditation aimed at achieving realization.
But beyond all these practices the Buddha emphasized the primacy of individual practice and experience. He said that supplication to gods or deities was not necessary. Nevertheless, today many lay people in East Asian countries pray to the Buddha in ways that resemble Western prayer—asking for intervention and offering devotion.
Hinduism has incorporated many kinds of prayer (Sanskrit: prārthanā), from fire-based rituals to philosophical musings. While chanting involves 'by dictum' recitation of timeless verses or verses with timings and notations, dhyanam involves deep meditation (however short or long) on the preferred deity/God. Again the object to which prayers are offered could be a persons referred as devtas, trinity or incarnation of either devtas or trinity or simply plain formless meditation as practiced by the ancient sages. These prayers can be directed to fulfilling personal needs or deep spiritual enlightenment, and also for the benefit of others. Ritual invocation was part and parcel of the Vedic religion and as such permeated their sacred texts. Indeed, the highest sacred texts of the Hindus, the Vedas, are a large collection of mantras and prayer rituals. Classical Hinduism came to focus on extolling a single supreme force, Brahman, that is made manifest in several lower forms as the familiar gods of the Hindu pantheon[dubious ]. Hindus in India have numerous devotional movements. Hindus may pray to the highest absolute God Brahman, or more commonly to its three manifestations, a creator god called Brahma, a preserver god called Vishnu and a destroyer god (so that the creation cycle can start afresh) Shiva, and at the next level to Vishnu's avatars (earthly appearances) Rama and Krishna or to many other male or female deities. Typically, Hindus pray with their hands (the palms) joined together in pranam. The hand gesture is similar to the popular Indian greeting namaste.
The Ardās (Punjabi: ਅਰਦਾਸ) is a Sikh prayer that is done before performing or after undertaking any significant task; after reciting the daily Banis (prayers); or completion of a service like the Paath (scripture reading/recitation), kirtan (hymn-singing) program or any other religious program. In Sikhism, these prayers are also said before and after eating. The prayer is a plea to God to support and help the devotee with whatever he or she is about to undertake or has done.
The Ardas is usually always done standing up with folded hands. The beginning of the Ardas is strictly set by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. When it comes to conclusion of this prayer, the devotee uses words like "Waheguru please bless me in the task that I am about to undertake" when starting a new task or "Akal Purakh, having completed the hymn-singing, we ask for your continued blessings so that we can continue with your memory and remember you at all times", etc. The word "Ardās" is derived from Persian word 'Arazdashat', meaning a request, supplication, prayer, petition or an address to a superior authority.
Ardās is a unique prayer based on the fact that it is one of the few well-known prayers in the Sikh religion that was not written in its entirety by the Gurus. The Ardās cannot be found within the pages of the Guru Granth Sahib because it is a continually changing devotional text that has evolved over time in order for it to encompass the feats, accomplishments, and feelings of all generations of Sikhs within its lines. Taking the various derivation of the word Ardās into account, the basic purpose of this prayer is an appeal to Waheguru for his protection and care, as well as being a plea for the welfare and prosperity of all mankind, and a means for the Sikhs to thank Waheguru for all that he has done.
New religious movements
Wiccan prayers can include meditation, rituals and incantations. Wiccans see prayers as a form of communication with the God and Goddess. Such communication may include prayers for esbat and sabbat celebrations, for dinner, for pre-dawn times or for one's own or others' safety, for healing or for the dead.
In Raëlism rites and practises vary from initiation ceremonies to sensual meditation. An initiation ceremony usually involves a Raelian putting water on the forehead of a new member. Such ceremonies take place on certain special days on the Raelian calendar. Sensual meditation techniques include breathing exercises and various forms of erotic meditation.
In Eckankar, one of the basic forms of prayer includes singing the word "HU" (pronounced as "hue"), a holy name of God. ECKists may do this with eyes closed or open, aloud or silently. Practitioners may experience the divine ECK or Holy Spirit.
Practitioners of theurgy and Western esotericism may practice a form of ritual which utilizes both pre-sanctioned prayers and names of God, and prayers "from the heart" that, when combined, allow the participant to ascend spiritually, and in some instances, induce a trance in which God or other spiritual beings may be realized. Very much as in Hermetic Qabalah and orthodox Kabbalah, it is believed that prayer can influence both the physical and non-physical worlds. The use of ritualistic signs and names are believed to be archetypes in which the subconscious may take form as the Inner God, or another spiritual being, and the "prayer from the heart" to be that spiritual force speaking through the participant.
In Thelema (which includes both theist as well as atheist practitioners) adherents share a number of practices that are forms of individual prayer, including basic yoga; (asana and pranayama); various forms of ritual magick; rituals of one's own devising (often based upon a syncretism of religions, or Western Esotericism, such as the Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram and Star Ruby); and performance of Liber Resh vel Helios (aka Liber 200), which consists of four daily adorations to the sun (often consisting of four hand/body positions and recitation of a memorized song, normally spoken, addressing different godforms identified with the sun).
While no dogma within Thelema expresses the purpose behind any individual aspirant who chooses to perform "Resh", note that the practice of "Resh" is not a simple petition toward the sun, nor a form of "worshiping" the celestial body that we call the Sun, but instead uses the positioning of that source of light, which enables life on our planet, as well as using mythological images of that solar force, so that the individual can perform the prayer, possibly furthering a self-identification with the sun, so "that repeated application of the Liber Resh adorations expands the consciousness of the individual by compelling him to take a different perspective, by inducing him to 'look at things from the point of view of the Sun' [...]".
Scientific studies regarding the use of prayer have mostly concentrated on its effect on the healing of sick or injured people. Meta-studies have been performed showing evidence only for no effect or a potentially small effect. For instance, a 2006 meta analysis on 14 studies concluded that there is "no discernable effect" while a 2007 systemic review of studies on intercessory prayer reported inconclusive results, noting that seven of 17 studies had "small, but significant, effect sizes" but the review noted that the most methodologically rigorous studies failed to produce significant findings. Some studies have indicated increased medical complications in groups receiving prayer over those without.
The efficacy of petition in prayer for physical healing to a deity has been evaluated in numerous other studies, with contradictory results. There has been some criticism of the way the studies were conducted.
Some attempt to heal by prayer, mental practices, spiritual insights, or other techniques, claiming they can summon divine or supernatural intervention on behalf of the ill. Others advocate that ill people may achieve healing through prayer performed by themselves. According to the varied beliefs of those who practice it, faith healing may be said to afford gradual relief from pain or sickness or to bring about a sudden "miracle cure", and it may be used in place of, or in tandem with, conventional medical techniques for alleviating or curing diseases. Faith healing has been criticized on the grounds that those who use it may delay seeking potentially curative conventional medical care. This is particularly problematic when parents use faith healing techniques on children.
Efficacy of prayer healing
In 1872, Francis Galton conducted a famous statistical experiment to determine whether prayer had a physical effect on the external environment. Galton hypothesized that if prayer was effective, members of the British Royal family would live longer, given that thousands prayed for their wellbeing every Sunday. He therefore compared longevity in the British Royal family with that of the general population, and found no difference. While the experiment was probably intended to satirize, and suffered from a number of confounders, it set the precedent for a number of different studies, the results of which are contradictory.
Two studies claimed that patients who are being prayed for recover more quickly or more frequently although critics have claimed that the methodology of such studies are flawed, and the perceived effect disappears when controls are tightened. One such study, with a double-blind design and about 500 subjects per group, was published in 1988; it suggested that intercessory prayer by born again Christians had a statistically significant positive effect on a coronary care unit population. Critics contend that there were severe methodological problems with this study. Another such study was reported by Harris et al. Critics also claim that the 1988 study was not fully double-blinded, and that in the Harris study, patients actually had a longer hospital stay in the prayer group, if one discounts the patients in both groups who left before prayers began, although the Harris study did demonstrate the prayed for patients on average received lower course scores (indicating better recovery).
One of the largest randomized, blind clinical trials was a remote retroactive intercessory prayer study conducted in Israel by Leibovici. This study used 3393 patient records from 1990–96, and blindly assigned some of these to an intercessory prayer group. The prayer group had shorter hospital stays and duration of fever.
Several studies of prayer effectiveness have yielded null results. A 2001 double-blind study of the Mayo Clinic found no significant difference in the recovery rates between people who were (unbeknownst to them) assigned to a group that prayed for them and those who were not. Similarly, the MANTRA study conducted by Duke University found no differences in outcome of cardiac procedures as a result of prayer. In another similar study published in the American Heart Journal in 2006, Christian intercessory prayer when reading a scripted prayer was found to have no effect on the recovery of heart surgery patients; however, the study found patients who had knowledge of receiving prayer had slightly higher instances of complications than those who did not know if they were being prayed for or those who did not receive prayer. Another 2006 study suggested that prayer actually had a significant negative effect on the recovery of cardiac bypass patients, resulting in more frequent deaths and slower recovery time for those patient who received prayers.
Many believe that prayer can aid in recovery, not due to divine influence but due to psychological and physical benefits. It has also been suggested that if a person knows that he or she is being prayed for it can be uplifting and increase morale, thus aiding recovery. (See Subject-expectancy effect.) Many studies have suggested that prayer can reduce physical stress, regardless of the god or gods a person prays to, and this may be true for many worldly reasons. According to a study by Centra State Hospital, "the psychological benefits of prayer may help reduce stress and anxiety, promote a more positive outlook, and strengthen the will to live." Other practices such as yoga, t'ai chi, and meditation may also have a positive impact on physical and psychological health.
Others feel that the concept of conducting prayer experiments reflects a misunderstanding of the purpose of prayer. The previously mentioned study published in the American Heart Journal indicated that some of the intercessors who took part in it complained about the scripted nature of the prayers that were imposed to them, saying that this is not the way they usually conduct prayer:
One scientific movement attempts to track the physical effects of prayer through neuroscience. Leaders in this movement include Andrew Newberg, an Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania. In Newberg's brain scans, monks, priests, nuns, sisters and gurus alike have exceptionally focused attention and compassion sites. This is a result of the frontal lobe of the brain’s engagement (Newberg, 2009). Newburg believes that anybody can connect to the supernatural with practice. Those without religious affiliations benefit from the connection to the metaphysical as well. Newberg also states that further evidence towards humans' need for metaphysical relationships is that as science had increased spirituality has not decreased. Newburg believes that at the end of the 18th century, when the scientific method began to consume[page needed] the human mind, religion could have vanished. However, two hundred years later, the perception of spirituality, in many instances, appears to be gaining in strength (2009). Newberg's research also provides the connection between prayer and meditation and health. By understanding how the brain works during religious experiences and practices Newberg's research shows that the brain changes during these practices allowing an understanding of how religion affects psychological and physical health (2009). For example, brain activity during meditation indicates that people who frequently practice prayer or meditation experience lower blood-pressure, lower heart rates, decreased anxiety, and decreased depression.
Efficacy of prayer for fertility
Prevalence of prayer for health
Some modalities of alternative medicine employ prayer. A survey released in May 2004 by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States, found that in 2002, 43% of Americans pray for their own health, 24% pray for others' health, and 10% participate in a prayer group for their own health.
References and footnotes