نقشبندیه طریقتی است منسوب به خواجه بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخارایی (۷۹۱–۷۱۸ هـ. ق)، شاخهای منشعب از سلسله خواجگان که اصل آن به عارف ایرانی خواجه یوسف همدانی بازمیگردد. طریقت نقشبندیه یکی از طریقتهای تصوف و عرفان میباشد.
بعدها این سلسله در هند هم نفوذ یافت و به خصوص در دوره اقتدار مغولان در هند، تأثیر و نفوذ مشایخ آنها قابل ملاحظه بود و سلاطین آن سرزمین غالباً به این طریقه منسوب بودند؛ چنانکه گویند امیر تیمور گورکانی به شاه نقشبند ارادت داشت.
مروجان این طریقت[ویرایش]
بهاءالدین نقشبند را نمیتوان بنیانگذار و مؤسس این طریقت برشمرد. طریقت او در حقیقت دنبالهٔ طریقت خواجگان است. طریقه و سلوکی که خواجه یوسف همدانی (۵۳۵–۴۴۰ ه. ق) و خواجه عبدالخالق غجدوانی (درگذشتهٔ ۵۷۵) بنیان نهاده بودند. خواجه بهاءالدین که خود از جانشینان عبدالخالق تعلیم یافته بود، محیی و مصلح طریقت خواجگان شد و طریقت نقشبندی آمیختهای شد از تعالیم عبدالخالق غجدوانی و بهاءالدین بخارایی. طریقت نقشبندی در اندک مدتی در ماوراءالنهر و خراسان رواج یافت و پس از بهاءالدین، خلفای او خواجه علاءالدین عطار (درگذشته ۸۰۲) و محمد پارسا (درگذشته ۸۲۲) و یعقوب چرخی (درگذشته ۸۵۱) بر مسند ارشاد نشستند و در ترویج این طریقت سهمی بسزا داشتند. بعد از اینان خواجه عبیدالله احرار (۸۹۵–۸۰۶ هـ) مشهورترین و متنفذترین مشایخ عصر تیموری است و در عهد او، این طریقت به نفوذ و شهرت و رواج رسید.
از عارفان و شاعران مشهور پیرو این طریقت میتوان عبدالرحمن جامی شاعر و عارف قرن نهم هجری را نام برد.
نقشبندیه در گذر تاریخ[ویرایش]
این طریقت، در تاریخ خود جریانی واحد و همسان نداشتهاست و با گذشت زمان، مانند اکثر مکتبها و مذهبها بساطت آن از میان رفت و گونه گونه، رنگهایی یافت.
بهاءالدین نقشبندی و مشایخ پیش از او- مشایخ سلسله خواجگان- بهدور از ماجراهای سیاسی و اجتماعی، ساده و زاهدانه میزیستند و برای امرار معاش پیشه و کاری داشتند. خواجه محمود انجیر فغنوی «به کسب گلکاری میپرداخته و از آنممر وجه معاًش میساخته». و خواجه علی رامتینی به صنعت بافندگی اشتغالداشتهاست؛ و سید امیر کلال، کوزهگری میکرده و فرزندش امیر شاه «از صحرا نمک میآورده و میفروخته و از آن راه زندگی میگذرانیده».
ولی دیری نگذشت که مشایخ نقشبندی بر خلاف پیشینیان صاحب نقشی شدند در کارهای جهانی. عزّت و حرمت یافتند و صاحب دستگاه شدند. مانند خواجه ناصرالدین عبیدالله احرار که متنفذترین مشایخ نقشبندی در عصر تیموری بود و بنا به نوشته جامی «کوکبهٔ فقرش» «نوبت شاهنشهی» میزد.
سعدالدین کاشغری و عبدالرحمن جامی، طریقه نقشبندی را در عاصمهٔ هرات، بیش از پیش، رواج دادند و هرات یکی از مراکز تجمع نقشبندیان شد. در سمرقند، اگر چه در زمان خواجه نظامالدین خاموش، نقشبندیان اندک نبودند پس از مهاجرت خواجه عبیدالله احرار بدانجا نقشبندیان سمرقندی، بسیار شدند و سمرقند در عهد سلطنت سلطان ابوسعید و سلطان احمد تیموری به صورت مجمع و مرکز پیروان نقشبندی درآمد.
یازده اصل طریقت نقشبندیه[ویرایش]
شجره نامه سلسله نقشبندیه[ویرایش]
نسب این سلسله از ابوبکر صدیق تا شیخ بهاءالدّین محمّد اویسی نقشبند بخارایی (شاه نقشبند) به ترتیب زیر است:
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
The Naqshbandi (Persian: نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah (Arabic: نقشبندية, romanized: Naqshbandīyah) is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism. It got its name from Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari and traces its spiritual lineage to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through Abu Bakr, who was father-in-law, companion, and successor of Muhammad. Some Naqshbandi masters trace their lineage through Ali, his son-in-law and successor, in keeping with most other Sufis.
Spiritual lineage criteria
In Sufism, as in any serious Islamic discipline such as jurisprudence (fiqh), Quranic recital (tajwid), and hadith, a disciple must have a master or sheikh from whom to take the knowledge, one who has himself taken it from a master, and so on, in a continuous chain of masters back to Muhammad. According to Carl W. Ernst:
This means that a Sufi master has met and taken the way from a master, and that during his lifetime he has explicitly and verifiably invested the disciple—whether in writing or in front of a number of witnesses—as a fully authorized master (murshid ma’dhun) of the spiritual path to succeeding generations of disciples.
Such spiritual transmission from an unbroken line of masters is one criterion that distinguishes a true or 'connected' Sufi path (tariq muttasila), from an inauthentic or "dissevered" path, (tariq munqati‘a). The leader of a dissevered path may claim to be a Sufi master on the basis of an authorization given by a master in private or other unverifiable circumstance, or by a figure already passed from this world, such as one of the righteous person or Muhammad, or in a dream, or so on. These practices only "warm the heart" (yusta’nasu biha) but none meets Sufism's condition that a Sufi master must have a clear authorization connecting him with Muhammad, one that is verified by others than himself. Without such publicly verifiable authorizations, the Sufi path would be compromised by the whims of the people.
The chain of spiritual transmission is not tied to a country, family or political appointment, but is a direct heart to heart transmission, at or after the time of death or burial. It is also considered that the appointed sheikhs will be in some communication with past sheikhs. All are joined by their common spiritual allegiance to the master of spiritual lineages, Muhammad.
Spreading of the order
The Naqshbandi order owes many insights to Yusuf Hamdani and Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani in the 12th century, the latter of whom is regarded as the organizer of the practices and is responsible for placing stress upon the purely silent invocation. It was later associated with Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari in the 14th century, hence the name of the order. The name can be interpreted as "engraver (of the heart)", "pattern maker", "reformer of patterns", "image maker", or "related to the image maker". The way is sometimes referred to as "the sublime sufi path" and "the way of the golden chain."
The path's name has changed over the years. Referring to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, it was originally called "as-Siddiqiyya"; between the time of Bayazid al-Bistami and Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani "at-Tayfuriyya"; from the time of 'Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani to Shah Naqshband the "Khwajagan" or "Hodja"; from the time of Shah Naqshband and on "an-Naqshbandiyya".
Afterwards, a branch or sub-order name was added. From 'Ubeydullah Ahrar to Imam Rabbani, the way was called "Naqshbandiyya-Ahrariyya"; from Imam Rabbani to Shamsuddin Mazhar "Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddadiyya"; from Shamsuddin Mazhar to Mawlana Khalid al-Baghdadi "Naqshbandiyya-Mazhariyya"; from Mawlana Khalid onwards "Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya"; "Naqshbandiyya-Mustafvi" (Khalidi) and so on.
The way or school connected to the late Shaykh Sultan ul-Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim, who lived in Northern Cyprus, is undoubtedly the most active of all Naqshbandi orders with followers in almost every corner of the World. It is referred to as the "Naqshbandi-Haqqani" way. According to some estimates there are over sixty million disciples, and centres in almost every country of the world. It also had the largest internet presence. There are disciples in almost all of Europe including the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, and in the United States of America, the Middle East, Africa, India, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Latin America, etc. It is most active in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. As well as being the most prevalent Sufi Order in the west. The Prince of Malaysia, Raja Ashman Shah was a disciple of this order.
The Naqshbandiyya order became an influential factor in Indo-Muslim life and for two centuries it was the principal spiritual order in the Indian Subcontinent. Baqi Billah Berang (No. 24 in the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Golden Chain) is credited for bringing the order to India during the end of the 16th century. He was born in Kabul and brought up and educated in Kabul and Samarqand, where he came in contact with the Naqshbandiyya order through Khawaja Amkangi. When he came to India, he tried to spread his knowledge about the order, but died three years later.
Among his disciples were Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (No. 25 in the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Golden Chain) and Sheikh Abdul Haq of Delhi. After his death, his student, Sheikh Ahmad primarily took over. Sheikh Ahmad was born in 1561 and his father Makhdum Abdul Ahad was from a high Sufi order. He completed his religious and secular studies at the age of 17. Later he became known as Mujaddad-i-Alf-i-Thani. It was through him that the order gained popularity within a short period of time.
Sheikh Ahmad broke away from earlier mystic traditions and propounded his theory of the unity of the phenomenal world. In particular, he spoke out against innovations introduced by Sufis. For instance, he opposed Emperor Akbar's views on Hindu and Muslim marriages. He stated, "Muslims should follow their religion, and non-Muslims their ways, as the Qur'an enjoins 'for you yours and for me my religion'". Also he did not believe in keeping the state and ruler separate and worked hard to change the outlook of the ruling class. After his death, his work was continued by his sons and descendants.
In the 18th century Shah Wali Allah played an important role in the religious sciences, particularly the hadith and translated the Qur'an into Persian. He also looked at a fresh interpretation of Islamic teachings in the light of the new issues. Furthermore, he played a significant role in the political developments of the period.
During the 19th century two Naqshbandiyya saints made significant contributions to the chain (silsila) by restating some of its basic ideological postures
Currently the South Asian region's most widespread branch of the Naqshbandi Tariqah is the Mujaddidi branch. Sheikh Zulfiqar Ahmad Naqshbandi Mujaddidi is one of the leading sheikh's in spreading the silsilah in the region and has more than 250 deputies to aid in that effort.
Syria and Palestine
The Naqshbandiyya was introduced into Syria at the end of the 17th century by Murad Ali al-Bukhari, who was initiated in India. Later, he established himself in Damascus, but traveled throughout Arabia. His branch became known as the Muradiyya. After his death in 1720, his descendants formed the Muradi family of scholars and sheikhs who continued to head the Muradiyya. In 1820 and onward, Khalid Shahrazuri rose as the prominent Naqshbandi leader in the Ottoman world. After the death of Khalid in 1827, his order became known as the Khalidiyya, which continued to spread for at least two decades. In Syria and Lebanon, the leaders of every active Naqshbandiyya group acknowledged its spiritual lineage, which had retained the original Naqshbandiyya way. Later a strife between Khalid's khalifas led to disruption of the order, causing it to divide.
When political leader Musa Bukhar died in 1973, the pre-Mujaddidi line of the Naqshbandiyya in Greater Syria came to an end. One of the only branches to have survived till recently is the one based in the khanqah al-Uzbakiyya in Jerusalem. The number of its members had increased at the end of the 19th century. The Farmadiyya branch, which practices silent and vocal invocation, is still present in Lebanon and is named after Ali-Farmadi.
It was in Damascus, Syria, that Grandsheikh Abdullah Fa'izi ad-Daghestani, preached from, and also died. His blessed tomb is to be found in Damascus. It is estimated that a massive crowd of about 400,000 people attended his funeral (see Sheikh Hisham Kabbani's book on the Forty Grandsheikhs of the Naqshbandi Sufi path ). Lately the Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order was led by his successor Nazim Al-Haqqani and might still be very active in Syria.
Naqshbandi silsilah beginning from Muhammad is passed in chain till Ismail Kurdumeri (who is No. 31 in the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Golden Chain). After Ismail Kurdumeri the chain has split in two as he had two Ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No. 32) and Khas Muhammad Shirwani. From Khas Muhammad Shirwani the chain goes to Muhammad Yaraghi ad-Daghestani (in Daghestan), and from him to Jamaluddin al-Ghumuqi ad-Daghestani, who had three Ma'zuns, i.e. Mamadibir ar-Rochi ad-Daghestani, Imam Shamil ad-Daghestani (both had no Ma'zun), and `Abdurrahman Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri ad-Daghestani. According to Shuaib Afandi Bagini ad-Daghestani, 'Abdurrahman as-Sughuri had two ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Haji 'Obodi ad-Daghestani and Ilyas Tsudakhari ad-Daghestani (d. 1312 AH). Both had no ma'zuns, and thus the split chain coming from Khas Muhammad Shirwani has ended here.. There are strict requirements as to who gives the permission, how it is given and received. The chain from Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No32) on the other hand, is continuous and goes all the way to Mahmud Afandi, Hasan Hilmi Afandi and the rest of the Daghestani Ma'zuns. The Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order has roots in Dagestan through Muhammad al-Madani, the successor of Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri and his successor Abdullah Fa'izi ad-Daghestani and his successor and Grandshaykh of the order Nazim al-Haqqani.
During the middle of the 19th century Egypt was inhabited and controlled by Naqshbandis. A major Naqshbandi khanqah was constructed in 1851 by Abbas I, who did this as a favor to Naqshbandi sheikh Ahmad Ashiq. Ahmad Ashiq headed the order till his death in 1883. Ahmad Ashiq's was a practicer of the Diya'iyya branch of the Khalidiyya. In 1876 sheikh Juda Ibrahim amended the original Diya’iyya, which became known as al-Judiyya, and gained a following in al-Sharqiyya province in the eastern Nile Delta.
During the last two decades of the 19th century two other versions of Naqshbandiyya spread in Egypt. One of these was introduced by a Sudanese, alSharif Isma'il al-Sinnari. Al-Sinnari had been initiated into the Khalidiyya and Mujaddidiyya by various sheikhs during his time in Mecca and Medina. Initially, he tried to obtain a following in Cairo but was not able to, therefore he resorted going to Sudan. It is from there that the order spread into Upper Egypt from 1870 onward under Musa Mu’awwad, who was al-Sinnari's successor. Muhaamad al-Laythi, son of al-Sinnari, was the successor after Mu’awwad's death.
The Judiyya and the Khalidiyya branches spread in the last decades of the 19th century and continued to grow and are still active today. Khalidiyya of Muhammad Amin al-Kurdi is headed by his son Najm a-Din. The Judiyya split into three main branches:one led by the founder's son Isa, another led by Iliwa Atiyya in Cairo, and another led by Judah Muhammad Abu’l-Yazid al-Hahdi in Tanta.
Unfortunately, none of the early orders survived far into the 20th century. The longest living group of khanqah based Naqshbandis lived in the khanqah of sheikh Ahmad Ashiq, which closed in 1954. This is when all the khanqahs in Egypt were closed and the awqaf supporting these establishments were taken over by the Ministry of Awqaf. The buildings were either assigned a different function or demolished as part of urban renovation programs.
Ma Laichi brought the Naqshbandi (نقشبندية) 納克什班迪 order to China, creating the Khufiyya (خفيه) 虎夫耶 Hua Si Sufi 华寺; ("Multicolored Mosque") menhuan. Ma Mingxin, also brought the Naqshbandi order, creating the Jahriyya (جهرية) 哲赫林耶 menhuan. These two menhuan were rivals, and fought against each other which led to the Jahriyya Rebellion, Dungan revolt, and Dungan Revolt (1895).
Some Chinese Muslim Generals of the Ma Clique belonged to Naqshbandi Sufi menhuan including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang of the Khufiyya Naqshbandi menhuan. Ma Shaowu, and Ma Yuanzhang were other prominent leaders from the Jahriyya Naqshbandi menhuan.
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
Shaykh Ahmad al-Farūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) was considered a Mujaddid and a leading Naqshbandi Sheikh from India. He was from an ashraf family claiming descent from caliph Umar, he received most of his early education from his father, Shaykh 'Abd al-Ahad and memorised the Qur'an. He was trained in all Sufi orders by the age of 17 and was given permission to initiate and train followers in the Naqshbandi Order.
Sheikh Ahmad made revolutionary changes to the Mughal empire. He persuaded Jahangir to disallow drinking alcohol and destruction of pubs and clubs. He made the Emperor revert the rule of exemption of sacrificing cows. Instead, religious conferences and meetings for spiritual development (known as halqas) were held throughout the territory.
Aside from this, Sheikh Ahmad wrote several letters to his murideen (pupils) and khulafa in Turkish and Arabic. These letters are a marvelous collection of spiritual knowledge and religious information. Later these were collected and preserved in book form by Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan, and translated to Urdu by Syed Zawar Hussain Shah. This book is known as Maktoobat, and, as Ghulam Mustafa says, is the best and most knowledgeable book after Quran and Hadith and are applicable for all problems to rise within 1000 years. For this purpose, Sheikh Ahmad is known as Mujaddid Alif Sani.
Sheikh Ahmad's three sons died in a plague, all religious and spiritually well developed. These included Muhammad Sadiq, Muhammad Farrukh and Muhammad Isa, his favorite son being Muhammad Sadiq, the eldest. His death caused Sheikh Ahmad immense sorrow, but he says that bearing this pain of loss gave him so many divine rewards that he'd have been not given them for any other deed.
Criteria of a sheikh
The following would always apply to genuine Sufi Naqshbandi teachers or sheikhs:
11 principal teachings
Types of concentration
Muraqaba is known as spiritual communion. In this practice one tries to unveil the mystery of life by losing oneself in it. One imagines his heartbeats calling out the name of the almighty. It is highly believed that it is true that our heart calls out for Allah with every beat. But it is our hearts which are draped by sins and so the heartbeat is heard as dhak dhak and not Allah Allah. Muraqaba is done by sitting in a lonely place with eyes closed and maintaining a calm position, imagining your exterior eyes closed, interior eyes opened, (zahiri aankhen band krke batini aankhain kholiye) your heart calling out for Allah, and trying to hear the word 'Allah' in each and every heartbeat.
Tawajjuh is derived from wajh (face) and is used in Islam in relation to the act of facing the point of adoration during ritual prayer. In Naqshbandī usage there are four different forms of this orientation (Tawajjuh):