نجدات

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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فارسیEnglish

نَجَدات نام یکی از فرقه‌های اسلامی است که از خوارج به شمار می‌رود. پایه‌گذار این فرقه نجده بن عامر بود.

منابع[ویرایش]

صفا، ذبیح‌الله، تاریخ ادبیات ایران (جلد یکم)، انتشارات فروسی، چاپ هفدهم

The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi, and in 682 launched a revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate in the historical provinces of Yamamah and Bahrain, in central and eastern Arabia.

Among the beliefs of the Najdat were:

  • The belief that the existence of a caliph or any other ruler is not necessary in religion - if members of society are able to maintain relations based on religious principles, then they may not need a ruler.
  • Allowing the concealment of their true beliefs, if they were in territories where the Sunnis dominated.
  • Sinning Muslims were not excommunicated as unbelievers. The Najdat believed that they could be forgiven by Allah - only he who persisted in his sin and repeatedly committed it, could be accused of unbelief.

Initially supporting the anti-Caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr against the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik bin Marwan, they defended the city of Mecca while under siege from the Umayyad general Haggag bin Yūsuf and subsequently took control of Bahrain, making the city of Qatīf its capital.

After a failed attempt to capture Basra, they took over Oman and Yemen: the most peripheral areas of the caliphate and therefore most adequate to avoid the oppression of caliphate forces. At the beginning of their conquest of Hejaz, after the defeat of Abd Allāh Ibn Yubair, they suffered an attack from Muhammad's cousin Abd Allah bin Abbas.

An ideological split severed their ranks, between those who favored the continuation of the fight against the Umayyad "usurpers" and those who were in favor of a treaty with Damascus. Subsequently, some of Najda’s supporters began to object to certain beliefs of his and rebelled against him. The intransigents, led by 'Atiya al-it Hanafī, took refuge in the Iranian region of Helmand, assuming the title of Atawiyya, while some more radical Najdat, led by Abu Fudayk, murdered Najda himself. They later tried to fight against the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, who would defeat them in 693, at the battle of Mushahhar. Some of the supporters of Najda still remained faithful to his teachings, and for some time, Najdism continued to exist.

References

  • Ali-zade, A. A. Nadzhdita // Islamic Encyclopedic Dictionary. - M.: Ansar, 2007 .-- Pg. 601 Nadzhity.
  • Al-Shahrastani Muhammad ibn Abd al-Karim. Part I. Islam // Book on religions and sects / Per. from Arabic and comment.
  • S. M. Prozorova. - M.: Science, The main edition of oriental literature, 1984. - Pg. 115.

See also