در طول تاریخ نامهای متعددی به خدا نسبت داده شدهاست. این نامها برای وصف خدا در نزد مردم، یا برای خواندن خدا هنگام مناجات با او، به کار رفتهاند.
در تاریخ ایران باستان[ویرایش]
وجود . به مفهوم دارنده تمامی تضادها، تعادل دهنده میان هست و نیست . جاری کننده، معنا دهندهٔ هست و نیست، ایجادکننده، یگانه قدرت آفریننده، ایجادکننده کن فیکون ،
ترجمه اسم خداوند به بیش از 180 زبان و گویش زنده و غیر زنده دنیا
در پارسی باستان و پارسی زرتشتی(Ahooramazda)در مالتی(Alla)در ترکی گاگوذی(غرب دریای سیاه)(Allach)در هوسا(Allah)در سوندانزی(Allah)در جاوهای(Allah)در عربی(Allah)در آذربایجانی(Allah- tari)در ماداگاسکاری(Andriamanitra)در ارمنی باستان(Asdulaz)در آشوری(Ashoor, Asoor, Ash-hoor)در ارمنی(Astvats)در مصرقدیم(Aton)در مادی(Bag)در پارسی میانه(bag)در پارسی باستان(bageh)در سغدی(bagh)در مادی(Bagmashda)
در هندي اوتارپرادشي(بغوان)(Bhagavan)در گجراتی(Bhagavana)در هندی(Bhagavana)در بوزانسکی(Bog)در اسلونیایی(Bog)در بلغاری(Bog)در بوسنی(Bog)در روسی(Bog)در صربی(Bog)در کروات(Bog)در مقدونیه(Bog-Gospo)در اسلواکی(Boh)در اکراینی(Boh)در بالروسی(Boh)در چک(Boh)در والون(Bon diu)در کرئول هائیتی(Bondye)در مغولی(Burkhan)در ویتنام(Chaa)در ایگیو(Chineke)در ویتنام(Chua)در رومی(Chu-joo-ju-juveh)در پارسی هخامنشی(Daاي dadar)در سین هالی هندی(Daevaiyana vahanasae) در بنگالی(Debata)در یونانی(deity)در آیدو(Deo)در کاتاالن(Deu)در پرتغالی(Deus)در گالیسی(Deus)در التین(Deus)در موراتی(devaru)در کاتاده ای هندی(Devara)در کاتادهی هندی(Devaru)در تلگویی(Devudu)در پارسی باستان(dey)در سانسکریت 1(Deyova)در گارالیگ(Dia)در ایرلندی(Dia)در لتونی(Dies)در لیتوانی(Dievas)در التوی(Dievs)در زیمای تیسکار(Dievs)در ایمیلین اروماگنول(Dio)در ایتالیایی(Dio)در ونتو(Dio)در ایتالیایی(Dio)در آراگونز(Dio)در اسپانیایی(Dio)
در ایلوکانو(Dios)در فورالن(Dios)در میراندس(Dios)در ونیاری(Diyos)در فیلیپینی(Diyos)در بره ژونونگ(Doue)در زبان گالگو(Doue)در اسپانیایی(Dumnezeu)در نورماندی(Duv)در سیمارگ(Duw)در کرنوراک(Duw)در ولز(Duw)در اوگاندایی(Edeke)در بابلی(El-enlil)در متون بودایی(ga)در سورینامی(Gado)در باسکی(Gainkojven)در متون بودایی یدیش(gat)در متون بودایی(gha)و(ghao)در گرجی(Ghemerti-khoda)در در متون بودایی(ghoogaote)در آفریکانر(God)در انگلیسی(God)
در ازبکی و تاجیکی(Khodo)در جزایر ساموآ در اقیانوس آرام(taaroa)در جزایر فیجی اقیانوس آرام(Daukwaqa)در اردو(Khodo)در پارسی پهلوی(Khotay)در چین جنوبی(Laia-pa)در سومالی(Llah)در مجارستان(Lsten)در ایوگبی(Mavo)در مادی(Mazdaku)در سشوتو(Molimo)در چیچوا(Mulungu)در سواحیلی(Nabo, Ashoor)در کلدانی(Nandejava)در آوانته(Naneh-khodoy-)در سغدی باستان(khoataXsewanyak Oluran)در یوروبا(Paramesuvane)در پنجابی(Phracea)در تایوانی(Phrvacea)در تایلندی(Phvachao)در الئوسی(Phvamesvarako)در نپالی(Pveahhcheamcheasa)در خمر(کامبوج)(Sadios)در سیواتو(Shangji)در چینی ساده شده(Shen)در چینی سنتی(Siong-te)در بانالنگو(Tanri)در ترکی(استانبولی)(Tanri-tangri-tangheri)در ترکمنی(Tatitu)در آیمار آرو(Teatua-io)در مائوری زالندی(Theo-theoss)در یونانی(Tamjaloa-lzombie)در تونگایی اقیانوس آرام(theud)
در تینگ ویت(Tien chua)در ماالیایی(Tuhan)در همونگ(Vagtswv)در ولوف(Yalla)در زایوری(آتچه ساحل)(Zo)در چینی تایچو(Zong-ti)در آلبانیایی(Zot)در قبطی(مصر باستان)(rae)در مادی(Baghfarna)در آرامی(elah)در آشوری(soor ایAsoor)در زبان سیک های هند(Nam)سم خدا در انجیل(Ehieh)
نکته : در شعار ملی کشورهایی همچون ایران، عراق، عربستان، اردن، اسکاتلند،السالوادور، اکوادور، اوگاندا، آمریکا، برونئی، تونگا، دانمارک، دومینیکا، دو مینیکن، ساموآ، فیجی، فیلییپین، گرانادا، لهستان، لیختن اشتاین، مراکش، موناکو، نائورو، نیکارگوآ، وانواتو، ونزوئال از نام خدا یاد گردیده است مثل شعار ملی ایران و عراق )الله اکبر(است و یا شعار عربستان)لااله الا الله محمد رسول اهلل( و یا شعار ملی آمریکا in god we trust و یا شعار ملی کشور فیجی ) از خدا بیم بدار ( و یا شعار ملی کشور موناکو )با کمک خداوند و غیره.
'منبع:بحارالاسمانوشته حمیدرضاکهنگی ،ص261تاص 270'
در منابع اسلامی (خدای قوم عرب)[ویرایش]
از پژوهشهائی که در آفریقای سیاه انجام گرفته چنین برمیآید که «باشندهٔ برتر» در اساطیر افریقا مفهومی کهنسال است. اگرچه بهسبب تنوع زبان نام «باشندهٔ برتر» که ما آن را «خدا» مینامیم در سراسر آفریقا یکی نیست اما همهٔ این نامها دارای مفهوم یگانهای است. در افریقای شرقی نام خدا، «مُولُونگو»، در افریقای مرکزی «لِـزا»، در منطقهٔ حاره غربی «بُوتسوانا»، در کنگو، «نیامبِـه» و در مناطق دیگر افریقای غربی بهنامهای «نِگِهوُ»، «ماوُو»، «آمّا»، «اُلوُرون»، «چُوکووُو» و مانند اینها مشهور است.
مفهوم برخی از نامهای خدای برتر، در اساطیر و روایات آفریقایی چنین است: پدر کودکان، مادربزرگ، یارِ بزرگ، اقیانوسی که افق دستار اوست، تالاب کهن همسال همه آذرخش، کمان آسمان، عنکبوت بزرگ و حشرهٔ چابک. مفهوم نامهائی که از قدرت خدا سخن میگویند عبارتست از: آفریننده، ریختهگر، هستیبخش تن و روح، سرنوشتساز، بارانساز، هستیبخش آفتاب، پدیدآورندهٔ فصول، آفرینندهٔ تندر، کسی که شاهان را به تعظیم وا میدارد، بخشنده و گیرنده، چارهسازی که چون خورشید همه چیز را میبیند، کسی که خطا نمیکند... صفات خدا: بیکران، آغازین، قائم بهذات، حاضر و ناظر، یگانهٔ مهربان، شفیق آرامبخش، قاهر یگانه، بینیاز از سپاس و بیانناشدنی.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
There are various names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word "God" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "God" and "god". Ancient cognate equivalents for the biblical Hebrew Elohim, one of the most common names of God in the Bible, include proto-Semitic El, biblical Aramaic Elah, and Arabic 'ilah. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, or homonymic. For example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh ("I will be"). In the Hebrew Bible (Exodus 3:14), Yahweh, the personal name of God, is revealed directly to Moses. Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of "the one God", used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries. In Christian theology the word must be a personal and a proper name of God; hence it cannot be dismissed as mere metaphor. On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols. The question whether divine names used by different religions are equivalent has been raised and analyzed.
Exchange of names held sacred between different religious traditions is typically limited. Other elements of religious practice may be shared, especially when communities of different faiths are living in close proximity (for example, the use of Om and Krishna within the Indian Christian community) but usage of the names themselves mostly remains within the domain of a particular religion, or even may help define one's religious belief according to practice, as in the case of the recitation of names of God (such as the japa). Guru Gobind Singh's Jaap Sahib, which contains 950 names of God. The Divine Names, the classic treatise by Pseudo-Dionysius, defines the scope of traditional understandings in Western traditions such as Hellenic, Christian, Jewish and Islamic theology on the nature and significance of the names of God. Further historical lists such as The 72 Names of the Lord show parallels in the history and interpretation of the name of God amongst Kabbalah, Christianity, and Hebrew scholarship in various parts of the Mediterranean world.
The attitude as to the transmission of the name in many cultures was surrounded by secrecy. In Judaism, the pronunciation of the name of God has always been guarded with great care. It is believed that, in ancient times, the sages communicated the pronunciation only once every seven years; this system was challenged by more recent movements.
The nature of a holy name can be described as either personal or attributive. In many cultures it is often difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions necessarily shading into each other.
El comes from a root word meaning might, strength, power . Sometimes referring to God and sometimes the mighty when used to refer to the God of Israel, El is almost always qualified by additional words that further define the meaning that distinguishes him from false gods. A common title of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: אלהים). The root Eloah (אלה) is used in poetry and late prose (e.g., the Book of Job) and ending with the masculine plural suffix "-im" ים creating a word like ba`alim ("owner(s)" and adonim ("lord(s), master(s)") that may also indicate a singular identity.
In Exodus 6:3, when Moses first spoke with God, God said, "I used to appear to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as El Shaddai, but I did not make myself known to them by my name YHWH."
Later commentaries additionally suggested that the true pronunciation of this name is composed entirely of vowels, such as the Greek Ιαουε. However, this is put into question by the fact that vowels were only distinguished in the time-period by their very absence due to the lack of explicit vowels in the Hebrew script. The resulting substitute made from semivowels and glottals, known as the tetragrammaton, is not ordinarily permitted to be pronounced aloud, even in prayer. The prohibition on misuse (not use) of this name is the primary subject of the command not to take the name of the Lord in vain.
Instead of pronouncing YHWH during prayer, Jews say "Adonai" ("Lord"). Halakha requires that secondary rules be placed around the primary law, to reduce the chance that the main law will be broken. As such, it is common religious practice to restrict the use of the word "Adonai" to prayer only. In conversation, many Jewish people, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (this appears in Leviticus 24:11).
Almost all Orthodox Jews avoid using either Yahweh or Jehovah altogether on the basis that the actual pronunciation of the tetragrammaton has been lost in antiquity. Many use the term HaShem as an indirect reference, or they use "God" or "The Lord" instead.
Some biblical scholars say YHWH was most likely pronounced Yahweh. References, such as The New Encyclopædia Britannica, validate the above by offering additional specifics to its (Christian) reconstruction out of Greek sources:
The Hebrew theonyms Elohim and YHWH are mostly rendered as "God" and "the LORD" respectively, although in the Protestant tradition of Christianity the personal names Yahweh and Jehovah are sometimes used. "Jehovah" appears in the Tyndale Bible, the King James Version, and other translations from that time period and later. Many English translations of the Bible translate the tetragrammaton as LORD, thus removing any form of YHWH from the written text and going well beyond the Jewish oral practice of substituting Adonai for YHWH when reading aloud.
Jesus (Iesus, Yeshua) was a common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ("Yehoshua" - Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible and among Jews of the Second Temple period. The name corresponds to the Greek spelling Iesous, from which comes the English spelling Jesus. "Christ" means "the anointed" in Greek (Χριστός). Khristos is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Messiah; while in English the old Anglo-Saxon Messiah-rendering hæland (healer) was practically annihilated by the Latin "Christ", some cognates such as heiland in Dutch and Afrikaans survive—also, in German, the word Heiland is sometimes used as reference to Jesus, e.g., in church chorals).
Some Quakers refer to God as The Light. Another term used is King of Kings or Lord of Lords and Lord of Hosts. Other names used by Christians include Ancient of Days, Father/Abba which is Hebrew, "Most High" and the Hebrew names Elohim, El-Shaddai, Yahweh, Jehovah and Adonai. Abba (Father in Hebrew) is a common term used for the creator within Christianity because it was a title Jesus used to refer to God the Father.
Bog is the word for God in most Slavic languages. (Cyrillic script: Бог; Czech: Bůh; Polish: Bóg; Slovak: Boh). The term is derived from Proto-Slavic *bogъ, which originally meant "earthly wealth/well-being; fortune", with a semantic shift to "dispenser of wealth/fortune" and finally "god". The term may have originally been a borrowing from the Iranian languages.
Shàngdì (上帝 pinyin shàng dì, literally 'King Above') is used to refer to the Christian God in the Standard Chinese Union Version of the Bible. Shén 神 (lit. "God", "spirit", or "deity") was adopted by Protestant missionaries in China to refer to the Christian God. In this context it is usually rendered with a space, " 神", to demonstrate reverence. Zhŭ and Tiānzhǔ 主,天主 (lit. "Lord" or "Lord in Heaven") are equivalent to "Lord"; these names are used as formal titles of the Christian God in Mainland China's Christian churches.
Korean Catholics also use the Korean cognate of Tiānzhŭ, Cheon-ju (천주), as the primary reference to God in both ritual/ceremonial and vernacular (but mostly ritual/ceremonial) contexts. Korean Catholics and Anglicans also use a cognate of the Chinese Shàngdì (Sangje 상제), but this has largely fallen out of regular use in favor of Cheon-ju. But now used is the vernacular Haneunim (하느님), the traditional Korean name for the God of Heaven. Korean Orthodox Christians also use Haneunim, but not Sangje or Cheon-ju, and with exception of Anglicans, most Korean Protestants do not use Sangje or Haneunim at all but instead use Hananim (하나님), which stemmed from Pyongan dialect for Haneunim.
Many Vietnamese Christians also use cognates of Shàngdì (expected to have a distribution in usage similar to Korean Christians, with Anglicans and Catholics using the cognates of Sangje in ritual/ceremonial contexts and Protestants not using it at all), to refer to the biblical God.
Tagalog-speaking Filipino Catholics and other Christians use Maykapal (glossed as "creator") – an epithet originally applied to the pre-colonial supreme deity Bathala – to refer to the Christian godhead in most contexts. When paired with another term for God (e.g. Panginoong Maykapal "Lord Creator", Amang Maykapal "Father Creator"), it functions as a descriptor much like the adjectives in the English "God Almighty" or Latin Omnipotens Deus.
In Mormonism the name of God the Father is Elohim  and the name of Jesus in his pre-incarnate state was Jehovah. Together, with the Holy Ghost they form the Godhead; God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit. Mormons typically refer to God as "Heavenly Father" or "Father in Heaven".
Although Mormonism views the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as three distinct beings, they are one in purpose and God the Father (Elohim) is worshipped and given all glory through his Son, Jesus Christ (Jehovah). Despite the Godhead doctrine, which teaches that God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost are three separate, divine beings, many Mormons (mainstream Latter-day Saints and otherwise, such as the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) view their beliefs as monotheist since Christ is the conduit through which humanity comes to the God the Father. The Book of Mormon ends with "to meet you before the pleasing bar of the great Jehovah, the eternal Judge of both the quick and dead. Amen."
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that God has only one distinctive name, represented in the Old Testament by the tetragrammaton. In English, they prefer to use the form Jehovah. According to Jehovah's Witnesses, the name Jehovah means "He causes to become".
Scriptures frequently cited in support of the name include Isaiah 42:8: "I am Jehovah. That is my name", Psalms 83:18: "May people know that you, whose name is Jehovah, You alone are the Most High over all the earth", and Exodus 6:3: "And I used to appear to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty, but with regard to my name Jehovah I did not make myself known to them."
While opposers of the faith critique their use of the form “Jehovah”, Jehovah's Witnesses still hold on to their belief that, despite having scholars prefer the “Yahweh” pronunciation, the name Jehovah adequately transmits the idea behind the meaning of God's name in English. While they don't discourage the use of the “Yahweh” pronunciation, they highly consider the long history of the name Jehovah in the English language and see that it sufficiently identifies God's divine persona. This rationale is analogous to the widespread use of Jesus as the English translation of Yehoshua.
Allah—meaning "the god" in Arabic—is the name of God in Islam. The word Allah has been used by Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times. More specifically, it has been used as a term for God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and Arab Christians. God has many names in Islam, the Qur'an says (translation) to Him Belong the Best Names (Lahu Al-Asma' Al-Husna), examples like Ar-Rahman (The Entirely Merciful), Ar-Rahim (The Especially Merciful). Beside these Arabic names, Muslims of non-Arab origins may also sometimes use other names in their own languages to refer to God, such as Khuda in Persian, Bengali and Urdu. Tangri or Tengri was used in the Ottoman Turkish language as the equivalent of Allah.
In Tasawwuf, the inner, mystical dimension of Islam, Hu, Huwa (depends on placement in sentence), or Parvardigar in Persian are used as names of God. The sound Hu derives from the last letter of the word Allah, which is read as Allahu when in the middle of a sentence. Hu means Just He or Revealed. The word explicitly appears in many verses of the Quran:
The Bahá'í scriptures often refer to God by various titles and attributes, such as Almighty, All-Possessing, All-Powerful, All-Wise, Incomparable, Gracious, Helper, All-Glorious, and Omniscient. Bahá'ís believe the Greatest Name of God is "All-Glorious" or Bahá in Arabic. Bahá is the root word of the following names and phrases: the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the All-Glorious), the invocation Yá Bahá'u'l-Abhá (O Thou Glory of the Most Glorious), Bahá'u'lláh (The Glory of God), and Bahá'i (Follower of the All-Glorious). These are expressed in Arabic regardless of the language in use (see Bahá'í symbols). Apart from these names, God is addressed in the local language, for example Ishwar in Hindi, Dieu in French and Dios in Spanish. Bahá'ís believe Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, is the "complete incarnation of the names and attributes of God".
Mandaeans believe in one God called Hayyi Rabbi (The Great Life or The Great Living God). Other names for God used include Mare d'Rabuta (Lord of Greatness), Mana Rabba (The Great Mind), Melka d'Nhura (King of Light) and Hayyi Qadmaiyi (The First Life).
Mandaeans believe that there is a constant battle or conflict between the forces of good and evil. The forces of good are represented by Nhura (Light) and Maia Hayyi (Living Water) and those of evil are represented by Hshuka (Darkness) and Maia Tahmi (dead or rancid water). The two waters are mixed in all things in order to achieve a balance. Mandaeans believe in an afterlife or heaven called Alma d'Nhura (World of Light).
The Sanatana Dharma focuses only on formless God, as is described in the most authoritative texts such as the Mundakopanishad and Mandukuopanishad. In all Vedic texts, God has been revered by the name Parabrahma, Brahmana (not to confuse with the caste), Parmatman (Supreme Soul), Parameshwara (The Ultimate Governor). Besides, There are multiple names for God's various forms worshiped in Hinduism. Some of the popular names for these Deities in Hinduism are:
Additionally, most Hindu deities have a collection of 8/12/16/32/100/108/1000/1008 names exclusively dedicated to them known as Namavali.
Maharishi Dayanand in his book Vaghasiya Ayush has listed 100 names of God each representing some property or attribute thereof mentioning “Om or Aum” as God's personal and natural name. Chanting "Om" and other Sanskrit mantras has proven to be beneficial.
Jainism rejects the idea of a creator deity responsible for the manifestation, creation, or maintenance of this universe. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents (soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion) have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws and an immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Jainism offers an elaborate cosmology, including heavenly beings (devas), but these beings are not viewed as creators; they are subject to suffering and change like all other living beings, and must eventually die.
Jains define godliness as the inherent quality of any soul characterizing infinite bliss, infinite power, Perfect knowledge and Perfect peace. However, these qualities of a soul are subdued due to karmas of the soul. One who achieves this state of soul through right belief, right knowledge and right conduct can be termed as god. This perfection of soul is called Kaivalya (Omniscience). A liberated soul thus becomes a god – liberated of miseries, cycles of rebirth, world, karmas and finally liberated of body as well. This is called nirvana or moksha.
If godliness is defined as the state of having freed one's soul from karmas and the attainment of enlightenment/Nirvana and a god as one who exists in such a state, then those who have achieved such a state can be termed gods/Tirthankara. Thus, Rishabhanatha was god/Tirthankara but he was not the only Tirthankara; there were many other Tirthankara. However, the quality of godliness is one and the same in all of them.
Jainism does not teach the dependency on any supreme being for enlightenment. The Tirthankara is a guide and teacher who points the way to enlightenment, but the struggle for enlightenment is one's own. Moral rewards and sufferings are not the work of a divine being, but a result of an innate moral order in the cosmos; a self-regulating mechanism whereby the individual reaps the fruits of his own actions through the workings of the karmas.
Jains believe that to attain enlightenment and ultimately liberation from all karmic bonding, one must practice the ethical principles not only in thought, but also in words (speech) and action. Such a practice through lifelong work towards oneself is called as observing the Mahavrata ("Great Vows").
Gods can be thus categorized into embodied gods also known as Tīrthankaras and Arihantas or ordinary Kevalis, and non-embodied formless gods who are called Siddhas. Jainism considers the devīs and devas to be souls who dwell in heavens owing to meritorious deeds in their past lives. These souls are in heavens for a fixed lifespan and even they have to undergo reincarnation as humans to achieve moksha.
There are multiple names for God in Sikhism. Some of the popular names for God in Sikhism are:
In the Sikh scripture, both Hindu and Muslim names of the Supreme Being are also commonly employed, expressing different aspects of the divine Name. For instance, names like Ram (pervading), Hari (shining), Parmeshwar (supreme lord), and Jagdish (world lord) refer to Hindu terms, while names like Allah (Arabic for God), Khuda (Persian for God), Rahim (merciful), Karim (generous), and Sahib (lord) are of Muslim origin.
God, according to Guru Nanak, is beyond full comprehension by humans; has endless number of virtues; takes on innumerable forms, but is formless; and can be called by an infinite number of names thus "Your Names are so many, and Your Forms are endless. No one can tell how many Glorious Virtues You have."
The word Allah (ਅਲਹੁ) is used 12 times in the Guru Granth Sahib by Sheikh Farid. Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Arjan Dev and Bhagat Kabeer used the word 18 times.
In Zoroastrianism, 101 names of God (Pazand Sad-o-yak nam-i-khoda) is a list of names of God (Ahura Mazda). The list is preserved in Persian, Pazand and Gujarati. Parsi tradition expanded this to a list of "101 names of God".