Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital Bangalore, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range. It is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport—air, road, rail and sea—along with five other major cities in India. It is known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after Bangalore and 13th best in India. The population of the urban agglomeration was 619,664 according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India.
Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is one of the most multicultural and multi-linguistic non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the west coast of India. A port city, it has the second largest airport in Karnataka. The Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km (19 mi). The city extends in the eastward direction up to Vamanjoor, Padil and Bajpe. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. This coastal city has many skyscrapers of 30 and 40 plus floors. India's first and only 3D Planetarium with 8K resolution display, is situated in this port city. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the southwest monsoon.
Mangalore is named after the Hindu goddess Mangaladevi
Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the VajrayanaBuddhist sect. According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala (also known as Pramila or Premaladevi) renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way. Eventually she died, and the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death. The city got its name from the temple.
One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom. According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas (stones) of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Even before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means 'auspicious'). The city is well known as Mangaluru in Kannada, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city). During the British rule from 1799, Mangalore (anglicised from Mangaluru), stuck as the official appellation. However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word Mangalore is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.:2 The name of this town also appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India.
Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning junction, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers. In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala.
Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a very undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity, while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore.Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper.
Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people. In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.:176 From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers. From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was ruled by its own native Alupa rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra.:17 During the reign of the Alupa king Kavi Alupendra (1110–1160), the city was visited by the Tunisian Jewish merchant Abraham Ben Yiju, who travelled between the Middle East and India during the 12th century. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarur, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary, called the Estuary of the wolf, and was the greatest estuary in the country of Malabar.:30 By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control.:17 During the Vijayanagara period (1345–1550), South Canara was divided into Mangalore and Barkur rajyas (provinces), and two governors were appointed to look after each of them from Mangalore and Barkur. But many times only one governor ruled over both Mangalore and Barkur rajyas, and when the authority passed into the hands of Keladi rulers (1550–1763), they had a governor at Barkur alone.:19 In 1448, Abdur Razzaq, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, en route to the Vijayanagara court.:31 The Italian traveller, Ludovico di Varthema, who visited India in 1506 says that he witnessed nearly sixty ships laden with rice ready to sail in the port of Mangalore.:20
Foundation and early modern history
A pen and ink drawing of Mangalore Fort made in 1783, after it had been taken over by the British East India Company
European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at St Mary's Islands near Mangalore. In the 16th century, the Portuguese came to acquire substantial commercial interests in Canara.Krishnadevaraya (1509–1529), the then ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. The Portuguese trade was gradually gathering momentum and they were striving to destroy the Arab and Moplah trade along the coast. In 1524, when Vasco da Gama heard that the Muslim merchants of Calicut had agents at Mangalore and Basrur, he ordered the rivers to be blockaded. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio took possession of Mangalore. The coastal trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands.:20 In 1550, the Vijayanagara ruler, Sadashiva Raya, entrusted the work of administering the coastal region of Canara to Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi. By 1554, he was able to establish political authority over South Canara. The disintegration of the Vijaynagara Empire in 1565 gave the rulers of Keladi greater power in dealing with the coastal Canara region.:27 They continued the Vijayanagara administrative system. The two provinces of Mangalore and Barkur continued to exist. The governor of Mangalore also acted as the governor of the Keladi army in his province.:30 The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle visited here in 1623-1624. In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.
The British colonial government did not support industrialisation in the region, and local capital remained invested mostly in land and money lending, which led to the later development of banking in the region. With the arrival of European missionaries in the early 19th century, the region saw the development of educational institutions and a modern industrial base, modelled on European industries. The opening of the Lutheran Swiss Basel Mission in 1834 was central to the industrialisation process. Printing press, cloth-weaving mills and factories manufacturing Mangalore tiles were set up by the missionaries. When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1859, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters.:5 South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was detached from Madras Presidency and transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862.:6
Later modern and contemporary history
The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities.:178 The Italian Jesuits, who arrived in Mangalore in 1878, played an important role in education, economy, health and social welfare of the city. The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country. By the early 20th century, Mangalore had become a major supplier of educated manpower to Bombay, Bangalore and the Middle East.
As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka).:415 Mangalore is the fourth largest city of Karnataka in terms of population, and the eighth largest port of India, providing Karnataka with access to the Arabian Sea coastline. Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port in 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited in 1976.
Gurupura river, Bengre and the Arabian Sea viewed from the Forum Fiza Mall
Mangalore is located at 12°52′N74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka. It has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal centre of Karnataka. Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 184 km2 (71.04 sq mi). Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night. The topography of the city is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast, and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east near the Western Ghats. The geology of the city is characterised by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore. The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.
A schematic map showing the tourist places in Mangalore city
The Netravati and Gurupura rivers rivers encircle the city, with the Gurupura flowing around the north and the Netravati flowing around the south of the city. The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea. Coconut trees, Palm trees and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon. It receives about 95 per cent of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March. The average annual precipitation in Mangalore is 3,796.9 millimetres (149 in).Humidity is approximately 75 per cent on average, and peaks during June, July and August. The maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in January.
The driest and least humid months are from December to February. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 34 °C (93 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night. The lowest recorded temperature at Panambur is 15.6 °C (60 °F) on January 8, 1992, and at Bajpe it is 15.9 °C (61 °F) on November 19, 1974.
In Mangalore, the temperature has never touched 40 °C (104 °F), according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD). The highest ever recorded temperature in Mangalore is 38.1 °C (101 °F) on March 13, 1985. The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences the highest precipitation among all urban centres in India, due to the influence of the Western Ghats. The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.
The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 millimetres (13 in) on 22 June 2003. In the year 1994, Mangalore received very heavy annual rainfall of 5,018.52 millimetres (198 in).
Skyline of Mangalore city viewed from the St. Aloysius tower
Mangalore's economy comprises industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities. The New Mangalore Port is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling. It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of ₹33.47 crore (US$4.84 million) to the state. Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG and timber. The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.
The leaf spring industry has its presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city. The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor. The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04. Fishing is a traditional occupation, and the products are exported to the surrounding regions. Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction. The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red roof tile manufacturing factories. The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coiryarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.
Mangalore is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maikāla in Beary, Mangaluru in Kannada and Mangalapuram in Malayalam.
As per the 2011 census of India.The city has a population of 484,755, and the metropolitan area a population of 619,664 Male literacy rate was 96.49%, while the female literacy rate was 91.63%. About 8.5% population was under six years of age.
 The Human Development Index (HDI) of Mangalore city is 0.83. The death rate and Infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively. According to the 2011 census, 7726 people reside in slums in Mangalore city, which is 1.55% of the total population.
Yakshagana is one of the popular dance forms in Mangalore
Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore, while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.Karadi Vesha (literally, bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats. The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as Kolkai (sung during Kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), Unjal Pat (traditional lullaby), Moilanji Pat and Oppune Pat (sung at weddings). The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each year. The Shreemanti Bai Memorial Government Museum in Bejai is the only museum in Mangalore.
Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dasara, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid and Ganesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple in Mangalore. The Mangalorean Catholics community's unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests. The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain families of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually, while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival, is celebrated by the whole community.Aati, a festival worshiping Kalenja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar. Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlotsava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music.Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night.Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes. An ancient ritual associated with the Hindu temples in rural areas—Kori Katta— a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples and also allowed if organised as part of religious or cultural events.
The Mangalore City Corporation (MCC) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city, and it came into existence in the year 1980. Mangalore has a city area of 184 km2 (71.04 sq mi). Municipal limits begin with Surathkal in the north, to Netravati river bridge in the south and western sea shore to Vamanjoor in the east. The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called corporators, one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city. A corporator from the majority party is selected as a Mayor. The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation is at Lalbagh.
Mangalore International Airport (IATA: IXE) is an international airport which is located near Bajpe / Kenjar, and is located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) north-east of the Mangalore city centre. It operates regular scheduled flights to major cities in India and the Middle East. It is the second largest and second busiest airport in the state of Karnataka. The new terminals and runways at the airport accommodate both cargo and passenger requirements. State-run government buses Vajra Volvo ply between the city and the airport.
Even though Mangalore's city bus service is dominated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is plying buses in multiple routes. Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist—city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses. KSRTC operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA). There are also KSRTC JnNurm green colour city buses plying within the city limits. These buses travel to different parts of the city and its suburbs.
The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage and logistical services, while the New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk and fluid cargoes. The New Mangalore Port is also equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers. It is also the station for the coast guard. This artificial harbour is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at the New Mangalore Port. Heli-tourism is facilitated at the New Mangalore Port for the international tourists arriving in cruise ships.
The Kambala race of Kadri is a distinctive feature of Tuluva culture
Mangalore Golf Course at Pilikula
Football is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments. Dakshina Kannada District Football Association (DKDFA), annually organizes the Independence Day Cup on the occasion of Independence Day at District Football Grounds adjacent to Nehru Maidan. Various schools and colleges from across Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts participate and the matches are conducted under seven categories — higher primary school (boys and girls), high school (boys and girls), PUC boys, college boys, PUC girls and college girls.
Chess is also a popular indoor sport in the city. Mangalore is the headquarters of South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.
Traditional sports like Kambala (buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields, and Korikatta (Cockfight) are very popular in the city. The Kambala of Kadri is a traditional sports event organized within the city limits. A locality in Mangalore named Kadri Kambla, is named after this sport.Plikula Kambala is yet another Kambala event organized within the city.
Potable water to the city is supplied from the vented dam, constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from Mangalore. The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aims to improve safe water supply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the distribution system in Mangalore. The distribution and rehabilitation of the drinking water in Mangalore city will be handled by the French company Suez. The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore is in Vamanjoor. The city generates an average of 175 tons per day of waste, which is handled by the health department of the Mangalore City Corporation.
^Prasad, Om P. (1989). Decay and Revival of Urban Centres in Medieval South India: (c. A.D. 600–1200). Volume 4 of Series in Indian history, art, and culture. Commonwealth Publishers. p. 163. ISBN9788171690060.
^ abcdeGavin Shatkin (14 August 2013). "Chapter 10 : Planning Mangalore: Garbage Collection in a Small Indian City". Contesting the Indian City: Global Visions and the Politics of the Local. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN978-1-118-29584-7.