ملینا مرکوری (به یونانی: Μελίνα Μερκούρη)، هنرپیشه، خواننده و سیاستمدار اهل یونان بود که به عنوان قهرمان ملی یونان شناخته میشود
وی در ۱۸ اکتبر ۱۹۲۳ میلادی در آتن به دنیا آمد. او از نوجوانی به میهن خود عشق میورزید و با اینکه از زمان تحصیل در رشته هنر نمایش، با شوهرش در آمریکا زندگی میکرد بلافاصله پس از رویداد کودتای نظامی در یونان در ۲۱ آوریل ۱۹۶۷ و آغاز حکومت سرهنگها، فعالیت هنری خودرا کنار گذارد و یک مبارز تمام وقت سیاسی ضد این حکومت غیردمکراتیک در سطح جهان شد و به مدت هفت سال شهر به شهر و کشور به کشور رفت و از یونانیان برون مرز، یونانی تبارها و جهانیان خواست که به بازگردانیدن دمکراسی به یونان که اندیشه آن از یونان باستان است کمک کنند. وی در جریان این مبارزه، در هر شهر و کشور ضمن برگزاری مصاحبه و جلسات سخنرانی، با گریه و اشک از مقامات محل و مردم میخواست که اجازه ندهند گهواره دمکراسی جهان و زادگاه فلسفه و حق در چنگ چند سرهنگ و نظامی فرومایه اسیر باشد. این مبارزات پیگیر «ملینا» سبب شد که حکومت سرهنگها تابعیت یونانی اورا لغو و اموالش را مصادره کند و نقشه ترور اورا بکشد. نقشه ترور به اجرا درآمد که برحسب اتفاق در یک قدمی مرگ زنده ماند. انتشار خبر این سوء قصد در رسانهها، بر تنفر جهانیان از حکومت سرهنگها افزود. از لحظه لغو تابعیت یونانی ملینا که بلافاصله از سوی سازمانهای جهانی محکوم و تقبیح شد، در هر نطقی شعار اول او این بود: «ملینا یونانی به دنیا آمده است و یونانی هم خواهم مُرد».
در تاریخ دمکراسی و نیز دائرةالمعارف دمکراسی آمده است که «ملینا هفت سال آرام نگرفت و جهان را زیر پا گذارد تا دمکراسی و حکومتِ به ارادهِ مردم و رعایتِ حق به یونان بازگشت کند.». پس از بازگشت دمکراسی به یونان، ملینا از جانب حزب سوسیالیست این کشور نامزد نمایندگی پارلمان شد و انتخاب گردید. وی پس از هشت سال عضویت پارلمان تصدّی وزارت فرهنگ یونان را برعهده گرفت و تلاش بسیار کرد که آتن به عنوان پایتخت فرهنگی اروپا شناخته شود.
ملینا سپس مبارزه وسیعی را برای بازگرداندن آثار باستانی؛ مجسمهها، سنگهای مرمر یونان و… از موزههای سایر کشورها به ویژه انگلستان آغازکرد و در جلسات یونسکو همه مساعی خود را بکاربُرد تا سرقت و تخریب و حتی بی اعتنایی به میراث فرهنگی یک ملت که هویت ملی است به عنوان جرم بینالمللی درآید.
در دهم مارس سال ۱۹۹۴ در تشییع جنازه و مراسم تدفین ملینا مرکوری، وزیر فرهنگ یونان که از بیماری سرطان درگذشته بود بیشاز یک میلیون یونانی شرکت کردند که با توجه به جمعیت شهر آتن رویدادی چشمگیر بود. این تشییع جنازه در ردیف رویدادهای تاریخی مهم اروپای قرن بیستم ثبت شده است.
این بیانات ملینا، نهایت میهندوستی او را ثابت میکند:
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Mercouri was born in 1920 to a former cavalry officer and member of the Greek parliament, Stamatis Mercouris, and his wife, Eirini Lappa. When she completed her secondary education, she attended the National Theatre's Drama School, graduating in 1944. Mercouri's first husband was a wealthy landowner, Panos Harokopos; the couple divorced in 1962.
As an actress, Mercouri made her film debut in Stella (1955) and met international success with her performances in Never on Sunday (1960, with future husband Jules Dassin), Phaedra, Topkapi, and Promise at Dawn. She won the award for Best Actress at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival. She was nominated for an Academy Award, a Tony Award, three Golden Globe Awards, and two BAFTA Awards.
A political activist during the Greek military junta of 1967–1974, Mercouri became a member of the Hellenic Parliament in 1977 and became the first female Minister for Culture of Greece in 1981. In 1983, Mercouri proposed the programme of the European Capital of Culture, which was established by the European Union in 1985.
Early years on stage
After her graduation, Mercouri joined the National Theatre of Greece and played the role of Electra in Eugene O'Neill's play Mourning Becomes Electra in 1945. In 1949, she had her first major success in the theatre playing Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire, written by Tennessee Williams and staged by Karolos Koun's Art Theatre. Until 1950, she also worked in the same theatre in other plays by Aldous Huxley, Arthur Miller and André Roussin.
Mercouri then moved to Paris, where she appeared in boulevard plays by Jacques Deval and Marcel Achard, and met famous French playwrights and novelists such as Jean Cocteau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Colette and Françoise Sagan. In 1953, Mercouri received the Marika Kotopouli Prize.
Mercouri's first movie was the Greek language film Stella (1955), directed by Zorba the Greek director Michael Cacoyannis. The film received special praise at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, where she met American film director Jules Dassin, with whom she would share not only her career but also her life. Their first professional pairing was 1957's He Who Must Die. Other films by Dassin and featuring Mercouri followed, such as The Law (1959).
Mercouri became well-known to international audiences when she starred in Never on Sunday (1960), in which Dassin was the director and co-star. For this film, she earned the Best Actress Award at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role.
After her first major international success, Mercouri went on to star in Phaedra (1962), for which she was nominated again for the BAFTA Award and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Motion Picture Drama. The recognition of her acting talent did not stop though, as her role in Topkapi (1964) granted her one more nomination, this time for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. Mercouri worked with such directors as Joseph Losey, Vittorio De Sica, Ronald Neame, Carl Foreman, Norman Jewison, and starred in films like Spanish language The Uninhibited by Juan Antonio Bardem.
Mercouri continued her stage career in the Greek production of Tennessee Williams's Sweet Bird of Youth (1960), under the direction of Karolos Koun. In 1967, she played the leading role in Illya Darling (from 11 April 1967 to 13 January 1968) on Broadway, for which she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical. Mercouri's performance in Promise at Dawn (1970) earned her another Golden Globe Award nomination.
On 8 October 1962, Mercouri appeared on the American TV show What's My Line. After the panel were blindfolded, a strange man appeared on-stage and proclaimed himself "the second mystery guest". Host John Charles Daly quickly called for "the relieving unit" and said "schedule two" (a coded phrase used on live broadcasts in case of an emergency: the cameras are turned to a neutral position and the sound is cut off). The man talked a bit about a dating service he apparently owned before being hustled off the stage by announcer Johnny Olson and executive producer Gil Fates. Daly apologized to the panel and the program continued.
Mercouri concentrated on her stage career for the following years, playing in the Greek productions of The Threepenny Opera and, for a second time, Sweet Bird of Youth, in addition to the ancient Greek tragedies Medea and Oresteia. She retired from film acting in 1978, when she played in her last film, A Dream of Passion, directed by her husband, Jules Dassin. Mercouri's last performance on stage was in the opera Pylades at the Athens Concert Hall in 1992, portraying Clytemnestra.
One of her first songs was by Manos Hadjidakis and Nikos Gatsos. It was titled Hartino to Fengaraki ("Papermoon") and was a part of the Greek production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1949, in which she starred as Blanche DuBois. The first official recording of this, now-legendary song was made by Nana Mouskouri in 1960, although the company Sirius, created by Manos Hadjidakis, issued, in 2004, a recording Melina had made for French television during the 1960s. Her recordings of "Athenes, ma Ville", a collaboration with Vangelis, and "Melinaki", were popular in France. Her recording of "Feggari mou, Agapi mou" (Phaedra) was quite popular and was later covered by Marinella in 1965.
Activism against the Greek junta
At the time of the coup d'état in Greece by a group of colonels of the Greek military on 21 April 1967, she was in the United States, playing in Illya Darling. She immediately joined the struggle against the Greek Military Junta and started an international campaign, travelling all over the world to inform the public and contribute to the isolation and fall of the colonels. As a result, the dictatorial regime revoked her Greek citizenship and confiscated her property.
When her citizenship was taken away, she said: "I was born a Greek and I will die a Greek. Mr. Pattakos (the then Minister of the Interior of the junta who made these decisions against her) was born a fascist and he will die a fascist".
Involvement in politics
After the fall of the Junta and during the metapolitefsi in 1974, Mercouri settled in Greece and was one of the founding members of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), a centre-left political party. She was a member of the party's Central Committee and a rapporteur for the Culture Section, while being involved in the women's movement as well.
In the Greek legislative elections of 1974, she was a PASOK candidate in the Piraeus B constituency, but the 7,500 votes were not enough to secure a seat for her in the Hellenic Parliament (she needed 33 more votes), something that came true in the elections of 1977, in which she obtained the highest number of votes in the whole of Greece.
Minister for Culture: 1981–1989
When PASOK won the elections of 1981, Mercouri was appointed Minister for Culture of Greece, being the first female in that post. She would serve in that position for two terms until 1989, when PASOK lost the elections and New Democracy formed a cabinet. As Minister for Culture, Mercouri took advantage of her fame abroad and got in contact with great European leaders in order to promote Greece. She strongly advocated the return to Athens of the Parthenon Marbles, that were removed from Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis of Athens by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, and are now part of the British Museum collection in London. In anticipation of the return of the marbles, she held an international competition for the construction of the New Acropolis Museum, designated to display them and finally established in 2008.
One of her greatest achievements was the establishment of the institution of the European Capital of Culture within the framework of cultural policy of the European Union, that she had conceived and proposed in 1983, with Athens inaugurating this institution being the first title-holder in 1985, while she was a devoted supporter of the Athens bid to host the Centennial Olympic Games. In 1983, during the first Greek presidency of the Council of the European Union, Mercouri invited the Ministers for Culture of the other nine member states of the European Union at Zappeion, in order to increase the people's cultural awareness, since there was not any reference to cultural questions in the Treaty of Rome, which led to the establishment of formal sessions between the Ministers of Culture of the European Union. During the second presidency of Greece in 1988, she supported the cooperation between Eastern Europe and the European Union, which was finally implemented one year later with the celebration of the Month of Culture in Eastern countries.
Mercouri commissioned a study for the integration of all the archaeological sites of Athens to create a traffic-free archaeological park to promote the Greek culture. She introduced free access to museums and archaeological sites for Greek citizens, organized a series of exhibitions of Greek cultural heritage and modern Greek art worldwide, supported the restoration of buildings of special architectural interest and the completion of the Athens Concert Hall, backed the project of the Museum of Byzantine culture in Thessaloniki and established annual literary pizes.
In June 1986 Melina Mercouri spoke at the Oxford Union, a world-famous debating society, on the matter of the Parthenon Marbles and whether they should remain in London or be returned to Greece. She argued passionately for the Marble's reunification. As she explains, the Marbles are more to Greece than just works of art: they are an essential element of Greek heritage, which ties directly into cultural identity. She said: "You must understand what the Parthenon Marbles mean to us. They are our pride. They are our sacrifices. They are our noblest symbol of excellence. They are a tribute to the democratic philosophy. They are our aspirations and our name. They are the essence of Greekness." Her stance on the matter has inspired a new wave of activism on the issue, and inspired pride in Greek culture and history.
Minister for Culture: 1993–1994
In the legislative elections of November 1989, PASOK lost and Mercouri was elected a member of the Hellenic Parliament and remained a member of the party's Executive Bureau. In 1990, she was a candidate for Mayor of Athens but she was defeated by Antonis Tritsis.
After PASOK's win in the election of 1993, she was back at the Ministry for Culture. Her major goals in this second term in office were: to create a cultural park in the Aegean Sea in order to protect and enhance the environment and civilization of the Aegean Islands, and to link culture with education at all education levels, introducing a system of post-training of teachers.
Mercouri died on 6 March 1994 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, from lung cancer. She was survived by her husband, Jules Dassin. She had no children. She received a state funeral with Prime Minister's honors at the First Cemetery of Athens four days later. The Melina Mercouri Foundation was founded by her widower. After her death, UNESCO established the ‘Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece)' which rewards outstanding examples of action to safeguard and enhance the world's major cultural landscapes.