مسیه ۳

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

مختصات: نقشه آسمان ۱۳h ۴۲m ۱۱٫۲۳s٬ +۲۸° ۲۲′ ۳۱٫۶″

NGC 5272
M3LRGB 891x674.jpg
اطلاعات رصدی (مبدأ (ستاره‌شناسی) مبدا)
کلاسVI
صورت فلکیتازی‌ها
بعد13h 42m 11.23s[۱]
میل‏ 31.6″ 22′ ‎28°[۱]
فاصله33.9 kly (10.4 kpc)
قدر ظاهری (V)+6.2[۱]
ابعاد (V)18′.0
خصوصیات فیزیکی
جرم4.87 x 1035 kg kg (245 000 M)
شعاع90 ly
VHB-
عمر محاسبه‌شده8 x 109 years
موارد مهم-
نام‌گذاری‌های دیگرNGC 5272[۱]
همچنین ببنید: خوشه ستاره‌ای کروی, فهرست خوشه‌های ستاره‌ای کروی

مسیه ۳(به انگلیسی: Messier 3) (یا M3 و NGC 5272) یک خوشه ستاره‌ای کروی در صورت فلکی تازی‌ها است. و در سال ۱۷۶۴ توسط شارل مسیه کشف شد، این خوشه یکی از درخشان‌ترین و بزرگ‌ترین خوشه‌های کروی است که بالغ بر ۵۰۰٬۰۰۰ ستاره دارد. و در فاصله ۳۳٬۹۰۰ سال نوری از زمین قرار دارد. M3 قدر ظاهری 6.2 دارد.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ SIMBAD Astronomical Database (Results for NGC 5272 ed.) Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
Messier 3
Messier3 - HST - Potw1914a.jpg
Hubble image of Messier 3.[1]
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ClassVI[2]
ConstellationCanes Venatici
Right ascension 13h 42m 11.62s[3]
Declination+28° 22′ 38.2″[3]
Distance33.9 kly (10.4 kpc)[4]
Apparent magnitude (V)+6.2[5]
Apparent dimensions (V)18′.0
Physical characteristics
Absolute magnitude-8.93
Mass4.5×105[6] M
Radius90 ly
Tidal radius113 ly (30 pc)[mean][7]
Metallicity = –1.34[8] dex
Estimated age11.39 Gyr[8]
Other designationsNGC 5272[5]
See also: Globular cluster, List of globular clusters

Messier 3 (M3 or NGC 5272) is a globular cluster of stars in the northern constellation of Canes Venatici. It was discovered on May 3, 1764,[9] and was the first Messier object to be discovered by Charles Messier himself. Messier originally mistook the object for a nebula without stars. This mistake was corrected after the stars were resolved by William Herschel around 1784.[10] Since then, it has become one of the best-studied globular clusters. Identification of the cluster's unusually large variable star population was begun in 1913 by American astronomer Solon Irving Bailey and new variable members continue to be identified up through 2004.[11]

Many amateur astronomers consider it one of the finest northern globular clusters, following only Messier 13.[2] M3 has an apparent magnitude of 6.2,[5] making it a difficult naked eye target even with dark conditions. With a moderate-sized telescope, the cluster is fully defined. It can be a challenge to locate through the technique of star hopping, but can be found by looking almost exactly halfway along an imaginary line connecting the bright star Arcturus to Cor Caroli. Using a telescope with a 25 cm (9.8 in) aperture, the cluster has a bright core with a diameter of about 6 arcminutes and spans a total of 12 arcminutes.[2]

This cluster is one of the largest and brightest, and is made up of around 500,000 stars.[10] It is estimated to be 8 billion years old. It is located at a distance of about 33,900 light-years away from Earth.[citation needed]

Messier 3 is located 31.6 kly (9.7 kpc) above the Galactic plane and roughly 38.8 kly (11.9 kpc) from the center of the Milky Way. It contains 274 known variable stars; by far the highest number found in any globular cluster. These include 133 RR Lyrae variables, of which about a third display the Blazhko effect of long-period modulation. The overall abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium, what astronomers term the metallicity, is in the range of –1.34 to –1.50 dex. This value gives the logarithm of the abundance relative to the Sun; the actual proportion is 3.2–4.6% of the solar abundance. Messier 3 is the prototype for the Oosterhoff type I cluster, which is considered "metal-rich". That is, for a globular cluster, Messier 3 has a relatively high abundance of heavier elements.[12]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Blue rejuvenation". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Thompson, Robert Bruce; Thompson, Barbara Fritchman (2007), Illustrated guide to astronomical wonders, DIY science O'Reilly Series, O'Reilly Media, Inc., p. 137, ISBN 978-0-596-52685-6.
  3. ^ a b Goldsbury, Ryan; et al. (December 2010), "The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. X. New Determinations of Centers for 65 Clusters", The Astronomical Journal, 140 (6): 1830–1837, arXiv:1008.2755, Bibcode:2010AJ....140.1830G, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1830.
  4. ^ Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; et al. (February 2010), "The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Effects of Environment on Globular Cluster Global Mass Functions", The Astronomical Journal, 139 (2): 476–491, Bibcode:2010AJ....139..476P, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/139/2/476.
  5. ^ a b c "M 3". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2006-11-15.
  6. ^ Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel (August 2010), "Initial conditions for globular clusters and assembly of the old globular cluster population of the Milky Way", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 406 (3): 2000–2012, arXiv:1004.2255, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.406.2000M, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16813.x. Mass is from MPD on Table 1.
  7. ^ Brosche, P.; Odenkirchen, M.; Geffert, M. (March 1999). "Instantaneous and average tidal radii of globular clusters". New Astronomy. 4 (2): 133–139. Bibcode:1999NewA....4..133B. doi:10.1016/S1384-1076(99)00014-7.
  8. ^ a b Forbes, Duncan A.; Bridges, Terry (May 2010), "Accreted versus in situ Milky Way globular clusters", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 404 (3): 1203–1214, arXiv:1001.4289, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.404.1203F, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16373.x.
  9. ^ Machholz, Don (2002), The observing guide to the Messier marathon: a handbook and atlas, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-80386-1.
  10. ^ a b Garner, Rob (2017-10-06). "Messier 3". NASA. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  11. ^ Valcarce, A. A. R.; Catelan, M. (August 2008), "A semi-empirical study of the mass distribution of horizontal branch stars in M 3 (NGC 5272)", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 487 (1): 185–195, arXiv:0805.3161, Bibcode:2008A&A...487..185V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078231.
  12. ^ Cacciari, C.; Corwin, T. M.; Carney, B. W. (January 2005), "A Multicolor and Fourier Study of RR Lyrae Variables in the Globular Cluster NGC 5272 (M3)", The Astronomical Journal, 129 (1): 267–302, arXiv:astro-ph/0409567, Bibcode:2005AJ....129..267C, doi:10.1086/426325.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 13h 42m 11.23s, 28° 22′ 31.6″