مسجد قُبا نخستین مسجد جهان اسلام است که در بیرون شهر مدینه قرار دارد. نخستین سنگهای بنای این مسجد توسط محمد پس از مهاجرت او از مکه به مدینه گذاشته شد. قبا نام قریهای در نزدیکی مدینه بودهاست. مسجد در سال اول هجری، توسط پیامبر اسلام به پیشنهاد عمار یاسر یا به تقاضای ساکنان محل در قبا بنا شد. آوردهاند که پیامبر شخصاً کار میکرد و خشتها را حمل و تعبیه میکرد. پیامبر همچنین یک مرتبه در هفته در آنجا نماز میخواند.به هنگام ساختن این مسجد زمانی که عمار یاسر بیش از همه خشت حمل میکرد پیامبر به او گفت(تقتلک فءت الباغیه)سر انجام عمار یاسر در جنگ صفین به دست سپاه معاویه کشته شد.
این مسجد بارها بازسازی شدهاست. نخستین مرتبه در زمان عثمان و آخرین بار در سال ۱۴۰۵ هجری قمری. در آخرین بازسازی، رواقها گسترش یافتند، چهار گلدسته به ارتفاع ۴۷ ساخته شد، شش گنبد بزرگ به قطر ۱۲ ساخته شد و در نهایت، مساحت شبستان به ۵۰۳۵ افزایش یافت.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
The Quba Mosque (Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد قُـبَـاء, translit. Masjid Qubā’) is a mosque in the outlying environs of Medina, Saudi Arabia. Depending on whether the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa is older or not, it may be the first mosque in the world that dates to the lifetime of the Islamic Nabī (Arabic: نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad in the 7th century CE, and depending on whether the religion of Islam started with him or preceded him, it is either the first mosque in the history of Islam, or it is not the first, with the Great Mosques of Mecca and Jerusalem being older, due to their association with earlier Prophets in Islam, especially Abraham. According to legend, its first stones were positioned by Muhammad as soon as he arrived on his emigration from the city of Mecca to Medina, and the mosque was completed by his companions. Muhammad spent 14 days in this mosque praying qaṣr (Arabic: قَـصْـر, a short prayer) while waiting for Ali to arrive in Medina after the latter stayed behind in Mecca to carry out a couple of tasks entrusted to him by the Prophet.
According to Islamic tradition, performing Wuḍū’ (Arabic: وُضُـوء, 'Ablution') in one's home then offering two Rakaʿāṫ (Arabic: رَكَـعَـات) of Nafl (Arabic: نَـفْـل, Optional) prayers in the Quba Mosque is equal to performing one ‘Umrah (Arabic: عُـمْـرَة). Muhammad used to go there, riding or on foot, every Saturday and offer a two rakaʿāt prayer. He advised others to do the same, saying, "Whoever makes ablutions at home and then goes and prays in the Mosque of Quba, he will have a reward like that of an 'Umrah."[this quote needs a citation] This ḥadīth (Arabic: حَـدِيـث) was reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Hakim al-Nishaburi.
When Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil was commissioned, in the 20th century, to conceive a larger mosque, he intended to incorporate the old structure into his design. But the old mosque was torn down and replaced with a new one.
The new mosque consists of a rectangular prayer hall raised on a second story platform. The prayer hall connects to a cluster containing residential areas, offices, ablution facilities, shops and a library.
Six additional entrances are dispersed on the northern, eastern and western façades. Four minarets mark the corners of the prayer hall. The minarets rest on square bases, have octagonal shafts which take on a circular shape as they reach the top.
The prayer hall is arranged around a central courtyard, characterised by six large domes resting on clustered columns. A portico, which is two bays in depth, borders the courtyard on the east and west, while a one-bayed portico borders it on the north, and separates it from the women's prayer area.
The women's prayer area, which is surrounded by a screen, is divided into two parts as a passageway connects the northern entrance with the courtyard.
When Quba Mosque was rebuilt in 1986, the Medina architecture was retained - ribbed white domes, and basalt facing and modest exterior - qualities that recalls Madina's simplicity. The courtyard, is flagged with black, red and white marble. It is screened overhead by day from the scorching heat with shades. Arabesque latticework filters the light of the palm groves outside. Elements of the new building include work by the Egyptian architect Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil and the Stuttgart tensile architect Mahmoud Bodo Rasch, a student of Frei Otto.
Imams and khateebs
Muhammad frequented the mosque and prayed there. This is referred to in a number of hadith:
In the Qur'an