مریخنوردهای «اسپیریت» (Spirit) و «آپورچونیتی» (Opportunity) دو مریخنورد در واقع دو وسیله کاملاً مشابه بودند که در اوایل سال ۲۰۰۴ در دو سوی مقابل مریخ فرود آمدند.
اگرچه این وسایل برای انجام مأموریتهای اکتشافی به مدت سه ماه بر روی مریخ طراحی شده بودند اما در عمل به مدت چندین سال دوام آوردند و مریخنورد آپورچونیتی تا سال ۲۰۱۸ همچنان در حال فعالیت بود. «مریخنورد اسپیریت» نیز تا ۲۲ مارس ۲۰۱۰ فعال بود اما به دلیل قرار گرفتن در چهارمین زمستان سرد مریخ و عدم جهتگیری مناسب صفحه خورشیدی آن، توان الکتریکی آن از دست رفت و از کار افتاد.
وزن هر یک از این وسایل حدود ۱۸۰ کیلوگرم بود و برای انجام یک عملیات اکتشافی ۹۰ روزه در مریخ طراحی شده بودند، اگرچه توانستند سالها در مریخ دوام بیاورند و به فعالیت خود ادامه دهند.
یکی از اهداف اصلی این دو مریخنورد تحلیل طیف وسیعی از خاک و سنگها جهت مشخص کردن آثار قدیمی وجود آب در مریخ بود.
در ۲۵ ژانویه ۲۰۰۴، مریخنورد «آپورچونیتی» پا به سطح مریخ گذاشت و در یازدهمین سالگرد (۲۲ ژانویه ۲۰۱۵) فرود آن بر سطح سیاره سرخ، این مریخنورد تصویری سراسرنما از بلندی «تریبیولیشن» واقع در دهانه برخوردی ایندیور سیاره سرخ را به زمین ارسال کرد.
مریخنورد اکتشافی «آپورچونیتی» چند هفته بعد از فرود دوقلوی خود «اسپیریت» در مریخ فرود آمد. اگرچه مأموریت این کاوشگر در آغاز برای ۹۰ روز مریخی و پیمودن حدود ۶۰۰ متر برنامهریزی شده بود اما پس از ۱۱ سال و از زمان فرود در منطقهای موسوم به «فلاته نیمروز» با پیمودن ۴۱٫۷ کیلومتر این کاوشگر هنوز هم فعالانه به اکتشاف در سیاره سرخ میپردازد. این بیشترین مسافتی است که یک خودرو در خارج زمین پیمودهاست. بدین ترتیب «آپورچونیتی» توانستهاست رکورد جهانی طی مسیر در خارج از زمین که در سال ۱۹۷۳ توسط ماهنورد «لونوخود ۲» اتحاد شوروی با طی ۳۹ کیلومتر ثبت شدهاست را بشکند.
این مریخنورد از سال ۲۰۱۱ در لبه غربی «دهانه ایندیور» در حال کاوش است. در طی ۱۱ سال مأموریت در سیاره سرخ، این کاوشگر به شواهد ارزشمندی از گذشته باستانی مریخ و اینکه این سیاره زمانی مرطوب بودهاست دست یافتهاست. آپورچونیتی که در اواسط سال ۲۰۱۳ از بخش پایین دهانه اندیور موسوم به «بوتانی بای» عبور کردهاست، با پیمودن ارتفاعی در حدود ۱۳۵ متر به بلندی «کیپ تریبیولیشن» رسیدهاست.
ناسا در یازدهمین سالگرد فرود «آپورچونیتی» در مریخ، تصویری سراسرنما از دماغه تریبیولیشن – واقع در دهانه برخوردی اندیور- که یکی از بلندترین ارتفاعاتی است که مریخنورد اکتشافی ناسا به آن دست یافتهاست منتشر کرد.
سیستم کنترل دما: هیترهای داخلی، یک لایه عایق و غیره. دمای کاری دستگاه از ۴۰ °C زیر صفر تا ۴۰ درجه بالای صفر است.
منبع انرژی: منبع انرژی اساساً از دو باتری قابل شارژ تشکیل شدهاست که به وسیله چند صفحه خورشیدی شارژ میشوند و در شرایط نوردهی بهینه ۱۴۰ وات تولید میکنند. هر یک از این مریخنوردها برای حرکت بر روی مریخ نیازمند ۱۰۰ واتانرژی الکتریکی هستند. حداکثر سرعت این مریخنورد ۵ سانتیمتر در ثانیه (۱۸۰ متر در ساعت) و سرعت معمول آن ۱ سانتیمتر در ثانیه (۳۶ متر در ساعت) است.
آنتنها: برای ارسال و دریافت اطلاعات به کار میروند و شامل آنتن با بهره بالا و آنتن با بهره پایین میشوند. آنتن با بهره پایین در همه جهتها اطلاعات دریافت و ارسال میکند و اصطلاحاً همه سویه است. این آنتن اطلاعات را با نرخ پایین برای آنتنهای شبکه فضای عمیق (DNS) بر روی کره زمین ارسال میکند. آنتن با بهره بالا میتواند پرتوی از دادهها را در یک جهت معین ارسال کند و جهت آن قابل تنظیم است. مریخنورد علاوه بر ارسال اطلاعات به زمین، میتواند اطلاعات را به مدارگردهای مریخ ارسال کند. این مدارگردها مدت زمان بیشتری کره زمین را در دید خود دارند.
دوربینها و ابزارهایی که اطلاعات محیطی را بدست میدهند. دوربین نصب شده بر روی یک دکل که به اندازه قد یک انسان از سطح مریخ ارتفاع دارد تا تصویر را در مقیاس قد انسان ثبت کند. رزولوشن دوربینها ۱۰۲۴ در ۱۰۲۴ پیکسل است.
چرخها: هر کدام از این مریخنوردها دارای شش چرخ هستند و هر چرخ دارای موتور مستقلی است.
در ژوئن ۲۰۱۸ ارتباط مریخنورد آپورچونیتی با زمین پس از اینکه طوفان شن شدید در مریخ آن را پوشاند قطع شد. پس از بیش از هزاربار فرمان برای شروع به کار و ایجاد ارتباط مهندسین مرکز عملیات پرواز در آزمایشگاه پیشرانش جت ناسا برای آخرین بار سه شنبه ۱۳ فوریه ۲۰۱۹ نتوانستند مریخنورد را احیا کنند. آخرین پیام مریخنورد مجهز به باتری خورشیدی در ۱۰ ژوئن ۲۰۱۸ به زمین رسید. بنا براین نآسا تصمیم گرفت مأموریت این سفینه را پایان دهد.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, and nicknamed "Oppy", is a roboticrover that was active on Mars from 2004 to late 2018. Launched on July 7, 2003, as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover program, it landed in Meridiani Planum on January 25, 2004, three weeks after its twin Spirit (MER-A) touched down on the other side of the planet. With a planned 90-sol duration of activity (slightly more than 90 Earth days), Spirit functioned until it got stuck in 2009 and ceased communications in 2010, while Opportunity was able to stay operational for 5111 sols after landing, maintaining its power and key systems through continual recharging of its batteries using solar power, and hibernating during events such as dust storms to save power. This careful operation allowed Opportunity to exceed its operating plan by 14 years, 46 days (in Earth time), 55 times its designed lifespan. By June 10, 2018, when it last contacted NASA, the rover had traveled a distance of 45.16 kilometers (28.06 miles).
Mission highlights included the initial 90-sol mission, finding extramartian meteorites such as Heat Shield Rock (Meridiani Planum meteorite), and over two years of exploring and studying Victoria crater. The rover survived moderate dust storms and in 2011 reached Endeavour crater, which has been described as a "second landing site". The Opportunity mission is considered one of NASA's most successful ventures.
Due to the planetary 2018 dust storm on Mars, Opportunity ceased communications on June 10 and entered hibernation on June 12, 2018. It was hoped it would reboot once the weather cleared, but it did not, suggesting either a catastrophic failure or that a layer of dust had covered its solar panels. NASA hoped to re-establish contact with the rover, citing a windy period that could potentially clean off its solar panels. On February 13, 2019, NASA officials declared that the Opportunity mission was complete, after the spacecraft had failed to respond to over 1,000 signals sent since August 2018.
Opportunity's first self-portrait on Mars (February 14–20, 2018 / sols 4998−5004)
Collectively, the Opportunity and Spirit rovers were part of the Mars Exploration Rover program in the long-term Mars Exploration Program. The Mars Exploration Program's four principal goals were to determine if the potential for life exists on Mars (in particular, whether recoverable water may be found on Mars), to characterize the Mars climate and its geology, and then to prepare for a potential human mission to Mars. The Mars Exploration Rovers were to travel across the Martian surface and perform periodic geologic analyses to determine if water ever existed on Mars as well as the types of minerals available, as well as to corroborate data taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.Spirit and Opportunity were launched a month apart, on June 10 and July 7, 2003, and both reached the Martian surface by January 2004. Both rovers were designed with an expected 90 sols (92 Earth days) lifetime, but each lasted much longer than expected. Spirit's mission lasted 20 times longer than its expected lifetime, and its mission was declared ended on May 25, 2011, after it got stuck in soft soil and expended its power reserves trying to free itself. Opportunity lasted 55 times longer than its 90 sol planned lifetime, operating for 5498 days from landing to mission end. An archive of weekly updates on the rover's status can be found at the Opportunity Update Archive.
Opportunity's landing site (denoted with a star)
From its initial landing, by chance, into an impact crater amidst an otherwise generally flat plain, Opportunity successfully investigated soil and rock samples and took panoramic photos of its landing site. Its sampling allowed NASA scientists to make hypotheses concerning the presence of hematite and past presence of water on the surface of Mars. Following this, it was directed to travel across the surface of Mars to investigate another crater site, Endurance crater, which it investigated from June to December 2004. Subsequently, Opportunity examined the impact site of its own heat shield and discovered an intact meteorite, now known as Heat Shield Rock, on the surface of Mars.
From late April to early June 2005, Opportunity was perilously lodged in a sand dune, with several wheels buried in the sand. Over a six-week period, Earth-based physical simulations were performed to decide how best to extract the rover from its position without risking its permanent immobilization. Successful maneuvering a few centimeters at a time eventually freed the rover, which resumed its travels.
Opportunity was directed to proceed in a southerly direction to Erebus crater, a large, shallow, partially buried crater and a stopover on the way south towards Victoria crater, between October 2005 and March 2006. It experienced some mechanical problems with its robotic arm.
In late September 2006, Opportunity reached Victoria crater and explored along the rim in a clockwise direction. In June 2007 it returned to Duck Bay, its original arrival point; in September 2007 it entered the crater to begin a detailed study. In August 2008, Opportunity left Victoria crater for Endeavour crater, which it reached on August 9, 2011.
Here at the rim of the Endeavour crater, the rover moved around a geographic feature named Cape York. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter had detected phyllosilicates there, and the rover analyzed the rocks with its instruments to check this sighting on the ground.
This structure was analyzed in depth until summer 2013. In May 2013 the rover was heading south to a hill named Solander Point.
Lifetime progress map with Washington, D.C. overlay for size and distance comparison
Opportunity's total odometry by June 10, 2018 (sol 5111), was 45.16 km (28.06 mi), while the dust factor was 10.8. Since January 2013, the solar array dust factor (one of the determinants of solar power production) varied from a relatively dusty 0.467 on December 5, 2013 (sol 3507), to a relatively clean 0.964 on May 13, 2014 (sol 3662).
In December 2014, NASA reported that Opportunity was suffering from "amnesia" events in which the rover failed to write data, e.g. telemetry information, to non-volatile memory. The hardware failure was believed to be due to an age-related fault in one of the rover's seven memory banks. As a result, NASA had aimed to force the rover's software to ignore the failed memory bank; amnesia events continued to occur, however, which eventually resulted in vehicle resets.[clarification needed] In light of this, on Sol 4027 (May 23, 2015), the rover was configured to operate in RAM-only mode, completely avoiding the use of non-volatile memory for storage.
End of mission
In early June 2018, a large planetary-scale dust storm developed, and within a few days the rover's solar panels were not generating enough power to maintain communications, with the last contact on June 10, 2018. NASA stated that they did not expect to resume communication until after the storm subsided, but the rover kept silent even after the storm ended in early October, suggesting either a catastrophic failure or a layer of dust covering its solar panels. The team remained hopeful that a windy period between November 2018 and January 2019 might clear the dust from its solar panels, as had happened before. Wind was detected nearby on January 8, and on January 26 the mission team announced a plan to begin broadcasting a new set of commands to the rover in case its radio receiver failed.
More than 835 recovery commands were transmitted since losing signal in June 2018 to the end of January 2019 with over 1000 recovery commands transmitted before February 13, 2019. NASA officials held a press conference on February 13 to declare an official end to the mission. NASA associate administrator Thomas Zurbuchen said, "It is therefore that I am standing here with a deep sense of appreciation and gratitude that I declare the Opportunity mission is complete." As NASA ended their attempts to contact the rover, the last data sent was the song "I'll Be Seeing You" performed by Billie Holiday.
The final communication from the rover came on June 10, 2018 (sol 5111) from Perseverance Valley, and indicated a solar array energy of 22 Wh, and the highest atmospheric opacity (tau) ever measured on Mars: 10.8.
HiRise image from MRO, was laid over 3-D topographic map of the terrain, with 5-fold vertical exaggeration; view looking west on to Perseverance Valley on the western rim of Endeavour crater (February 15, 2018)
The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission were to:
Determine the distribution and composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the landing sites.
Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, sedimentation, hydrothermal mechanisms, volcanism, and cratering.
Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments. This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit.
Search for iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates.
Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the processes that created them.
Assess whether those environments were conducive to life.
During the next two decades, NASA will continue to conduct missions with other spacecraft to address whether life ever arose on Mars. The search begins with determining whether the Martian environment was ever suitable for life. Life, as we understand it, requires water, so the history of water on Mars is critical to finding out if the Martian environment was ever conducive to life. Although the Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to detect life directly, they offered very important information on the habitability of the environment in the planet's history.
Spirit and Opportunity are twin rovers, each a six-wheeled, solar-powered robot standing 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) high, 2.3 meters (7.5 ft) wide, and 1.6 meters (5.2 ft) long and weighing 180 kilograms (400 lb). Six wheels on a rocker-bogie system enable mobility. Each wheel has its own motor, the vehicle is steered at front and rear and was designed to operate safely at tilts of up to 30 degrees. Maximum speed is 5 centimeters per second (2.0 in/s) although average speed was about a fifth of this (0.89 centimeters per second (0.35 in/s)). Both Spirit and Opportunity have pieces of the fallen World Trade Center's metal on them that were "turned into shields to protect cables on the drilling mechanisms".
Solar arrays generate about 140 watts for up to fourteen hours per sol, while rechargeable lithium ion batteries stored energy for use at night. Opportunity's onboard computer uses a 20 MHz RAD6000 CPU with 128 MB of DRAM, 3 MB of EEPROM, and 256 MB of flash memory. The rover's operating temperature ranges from −40 to +40 °C (−40 to 104 °F) and radioisotope heaters provide a base level of heating, assisted by electrical heaters when necessary. A gold film and a layer of silica aerogel provides insulation.
Communications depend on an omnidirectional low-gain antenna communicating at a low data rate and a steerable high-gain antenna, both in direct contact with Earth. A low gain antenna is also used to relay data to spacecraft orbiting Mars.
MER-B NavCam image Sol 4959 Start of January 2018, looking along rim of Endeavour crater
The rover uses a combination of solar cells and a rechargeable chemical battery. This class of rover has two rechargeable lithium batteries, each composed of 8 cells with 8 amp-hour capacity. At the start of the mission the solar panels could provide up to around 900 watt-hours (Wh) to recharge the battery and power system in one Sol, but this could vary due to a variety of factors. In Eagle crater the cells were producing about 840 Wh, but by Sol 319 in December 2004, it had dropped to 730 Wh.
Like Earth, Mars has seasonal variations that reduce sunlight during winter. However, since the Martian year is longer than that of the Earth, the seasons fully rotate roughly once every 2 Earth years. By 2016, MER-B had endured seven Martian winters, during which times power levels drop which can mean the rover avoids doing activities that use a lot of power. During its first winter power levels dropped to under 300 Wh per day for two months, but some later winters were not as bad.
Another factor that can reduce received power is dust in the atmosphere, especially dust storms. Dust storms have occurred quite frequently when Mars is closest to the Sun. Global dust storms in 2007 reduced power levels for Opportunity and Spirit so much they could only run for a few minutes each day. Due to the 2018 dust storms on Mars, Opportunity entered hibernation mode on June 12, but it remained silent after the storm subsided in early October.
Examples of watt-hours per sol collected by the rover:
Solar array energy production throughout mission graphs
Opportunity solar array energy production (2013–2014)
Sol 3376 (July 23, 2013)
Sol 3384 (July 31, 2013)
Sol 3390 (August 6, 2013)
Sol 3430 (September 16, 2013)
Sol 3452 (October 9, 2013)
Sol 3472 (October 30, 2013)
Sol 3478 (November 5, 2013)
Sol 3494 (November 21, 2013)
Sol 3507 (December 5, 2013)
Sol 3534 (January 1, 2014)
Sol 3602 (March 12, 2014)
Sol 3606 (March 16, 2014)
Sol 3621 (April 1, 2014)
Sol 3676 (May 27, 2014)
Sol 3710 (July 1, 2014)
Sol 3744 (August 5, 2014)
Sol 3771 (September 2, 2014)
Sol 3805 (October 7, 2014)
Sol 3834 (November 6, 2014)
Sol 3859 (December 1, 2014)
Opportunity solar array energy production (2015–2016)
Sol 3894 (January 6, 2015)
Sol 3921 (February 3, 2015)
Sol 3948 (March 3, 2015)
Sol 3982 (April 7, 2015)
Sol 4010 (May 5, 2015)
Sol 4055 (June 21, 2015)
Sol 4084 (July 20, 2015)
Sol 4119 (August 25, 2015)
Sol 4153 (September 29, 2015)
Sol 4180 (October 27, 2015)
Sol 4201 (November 18, 2015)
Sol 4221 (December 8, 2015)
Sol 4246 (January 3, 2016)
Sol 4275 (February 2, 2016)
Sol 4303 (March 1, 2016)
Sol 4337 (April 5, 2016)
Sol 4377 (May. 16, 2016)
Sol 4398 (June 7, 2016)
Sol 4425 (July 5, 2016)
Sol 4457 (August 7, 2016)
Sol 4486 (September 5, 2016)
Sol 4514 (October 4, 2016)
Sol 4541 (November 1, 2016)
Sol 4575 (December 6, 2016)
Opportunity solar array energy production (2017-2018)
Sol 4602 (January 3, 2017)
Sol 4636 (February 7, 2017)
Sol 4663 (March 6, 2017)
Sol 4691 (April 4, 2017)
Sol 4718 (May. 2, 2017)
Sol 4752 (June 6, 2017)
Sol 4786 (July 11, 2017)
Sol 4814 (August 8, 2017)
Sol 4841 (September 5, 2017)
Sol 4875 (October 10, 2017)
Sol 4909 (November 14, 2017)
Sol 4934 (December 10, 2017)
Sol 4970 (January 16, 2018)
Sol 4991 (February 8, 2018)
Sol 5025 (March 13, 2018)
Sol 5052 (April 10, 2018)
Sol 5079 (May 8, 2018)
Sol 5100 (May 29, 2018)
Sol 5105 (June 3, 2018)
Sol 5106 (June 4, 2018)
Sol 5107 (June 6, 2018)
Sol 5111 (June 10, 2018)
Delta II Heavy (7925H-9.5) lifting off from pad 17-B carrying MER-B in 2003 with Opportunity rover
Opportunity's launch was managed by NASA's Launch Services Program. This was the first launch of the Delta II Heavy. The launch period went from June 25 to July 15, 2003. The first launch attempt occurred on June 28, 2003, but the spacecraft launched nine days later on July 7, 2003, due to delays for range safety and winds, then later to replace items on the rocket (insulation and a battery). Each day had two instantaneous launch opportunities. On the day of launch, the launch was delayed to the second opportunity (11:18 p.m. EDT) in order to fix a valve.
Animation of Opportunity trajectory from 2003-Jul-09 to 2004-Jan-25 Sun· Earth· Mars· Opportunity
Annotated elevation map of Opportunity landing site and some surrounding craters including Endeavour and Airy
On January 25, 2004, the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto the surface of Mars in the Eagle crater.
Heat shield impact site
In late December 2004, Opportunity reached the impact site of its heat shield, and took a panorama around Sol 325.
Area around the heat shield, including the resulting shield impact point. The heat shield was released before the rover landed and struck the surface on its own, and the rover later drove to the impact site. Near this location it discovered the first meteorite found on Mars, Heat Shield Rock
Opportunity has provided substantial evidence in support of the mission's primary scientific goals: to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. In addition to investigating the water, Opportunity has also obtained astronomical observations and atmospheric data.
On July 28, 2014, it was announced that Opportunity, having traversed over 40 km (25 mi), had become the rover achieving the longest off-world distance, surpassing the previous record of 39 km (24 mi) on the Moon by Lunokhod 2.
On March 24, 2015, NASA celebrated Opportunity having traveled the distance of a marathon race, 42.195 kilometers (26.219 mi), from the start of Opportunity's landing and traveling on Mars.
In March 2016, while trying to reach target on the slope of Marathon Valley in Cape Tribulation, the Mars rover attained a slope of 32 degrees, the highest angle yet for the rover since its mission began. This was so steep that dust that had accumulated on its top panels began to flow downward.
Opportunity's view from the top of Cape Tribulation on the rim of Endeavour Crater, January 22, 2015.
On Sol 3894 (January 6, 2015), Opportunity reached the summit of "Cape Tribulation," which is 443 feet (135 m) above "Botany Bay" level and the highest point yet reached by the rover on western rim of Endeavour Crater according to NASA.
Opportunity rover "off-world" driving distance record, compared to other rovers
The rover could take pictures with its different cameras, but only the PanCam camera had the ability to photograph a scene with different color filters. The panorama views are usually built up from PanCam images. By February 3, 2018, Opportunity had returned 224,642 pictures.
Opportunity images the empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station
Pancam view from August 2012 (Sol 3058)
Solander Point is visible on the horizon; foreground shows Botany Bay
Panorama taken on the rim of Erebus crater. The rover's solar panels are seen on the lower half (December 5, 2005).
Panorama of the rim of Endeavour crater from Cape Tribulation (January 22, 2015)
Panorama of Spirit of St. Louis crater, a shallow crater about 34 meters (110 ft) long and 24 meters (80 ft) across. In its center is Lindbergh Mound, about 2 to 3 meters (6 to 10 ft) high. (annotated; false color; May 2015).
Panorama of Orion crater (enhanced color; April 26, 2017)
Opportunity looks north as it departs Cape Tribulation, its southern end shown here (April 2017)
Panorama above Perseverance Valley (June 19, 2017)
Final panorama image taken by Opportunity between May and June 2018 prior to being disabled by the dust storms.
"Blueberries" (hematite spheres) on a rocky outcrop at Eagle Crater. Note the merged triplet in the upper left.
"Newberries": This view displays an area about 6 centimeters across. It was taken at an outcrop named "Kirkwood" at the Cape York on the rim of Endeavour crater on Mars. The spheres seen here are about 3 millimeters in diameter. The Microscopic Imager took this image at the 3064 sol.
Opportunity landing site, lander, as imaged by MRO (November 29, 2006)
Opportunity landing site, parachute and backshell, as imaged by MRO (November 29, 2006)
Opportunity landing site, heat shield, as imaged by MRO (November 29, 2006)
Opportunity (circled) as seen by HiRISE on January 29, 2009. Endeavour Crater is 17 km (11 mi) away.
This geological map created from MRO's CRISM instrument data from orbit gives an overview of some of the geology in the area MER-B is exploring
This map, color-coded for minerals (CRISM) and annotated, shows the rover's traverse up to about 2010 with some nearby features noted.
An example of a rover traverse map featuring a line showing path of the rover, and mission sols, which are Mars days counted from its landing and typical of Mars surface mission time reporting. Topographic lines and various feature names are also common
Opportunity arrives at Endeavour crater
Opportunity traverse map, from Sol 405 to 528 (2005)
Opportunity traverse map, from sol 1 (2004) through sol 2055 (2009)
Annotated Opportunity traverse map as of December 8, 2010 (Sol 2442)
Annotated Opportunity traverse map as of June 11, 2014 (Sol 3689)
Opportunity's traverse on Cape York from Sol 2678 to Sol 3317 with some additional annotations of the main features.
Opportunity rover ‒ last image (of 228,771 raw images ‒ June 10, 2018)
With word on February 12, 2019, that NASA was likely to conclude the Opportunity mission, many media outsides and commentators issued statements praising the mission's success and stating their goodbyes to the rover. One journalist, Jacob Margolis, tweeted his translation of the last data transmission sent by Opportunity on June 10, 2018, as "My battery is low and it’s getting dark". The phrase struck a chord with the public mind and became widely reported, including some news reports that mistakenly asserted that the rover sent that English message, inundating NASA with additional questions. Margolis wrote a clarifying article on February 16, making it clear he had taken statements from NASA officials who were interpreting the data sent by Opportunity, both on the state of its low power and Mars's high atmospheric opacity, and rephrased them in a poetic manner, never to imply the rover had sent the specific words.
Opportunity rover – last panorama image – taken Spring 2018 (uploaded March 12, 2019)
^Torbet, Georgina (January 26, 2019). "NASA makes last-ditch attempt to revive dormant Mars rover Opportunity". digitaltrends.com. Designtechnica Corporation. Retrieved January 27, 2019. Now NASA scientists are trying a last-ditch attempt to contact the rover based on three unlikely but possible scenarios: that the rover's primary X-band radio has failed, that both the primary and secondary X-band radios have failed, or that the rover's internal clock has become offset. The team is commanding the rover to switch to its backup X-band radio and to reset its clock to counteract these possibilities.
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.