صفحه نیمه‌حفاظت‌شده

مردمان ترک

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مردمان ترک
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کشورها و مناطق خودمختاری که در آن یکی از زبان‌های ترکی رسمیت داشته یا توسط اکثریت تکلم می‌شود.
کل جمعیت
تقریباً ۱۴۰–۱۶۰ میلیون[۱][۲] یا بالای ۱۷۰ میلیون[۳]
مناطق با جمعیت قابل توجه
 ترکیه۵۷٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰–۶۱٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰[۴]
 ازبکستان۲۵٬۲۰۰٬۰۰۰[۵]
 ایران۱۵٬۰۰۰٬۰۰۰[۶]
 روسیه۱۲٬۷۵۱٬۵۰۲[۷]
 قزاقستان۱۲٬۳۰۰٬۰۰۰[۸]
 چین۱۱٬۶۴۷٬۰۰۰[۹]
 جمهوری آذربایجان۱۰٬۰۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۰]
 اتحادیه اروپا۵٬۸۷۶٬۳۱۸
 ترکمنستان۴٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۱]
 قرقیزستان۴٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۲]
 افغانستان۳٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۳]
 عراق۱٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۴]
 تاجیکستان۱٬۲۰۰٬۰۰۰[۱۵]
 ایالات متحده آمریکا۹۰۰٬۰۰۰+[۱۶]
 سوریه۸۰۰٬۰۰۰–۱٬۰۰۰٬۰۰۰+[۱۷]
 بلغارستان۵۹۰٬۶۶۱
 قبرس شمالی۳۱۳٬۶۲۶[۱۸]
 استرالیا۲۹۳٬۵۰۰
 گرجستان۳۰۵٬۵۳۹[۱۹]
 اوکراین۲۷۵٬۳۰۰[۲۰]
 عربستان سعودی۲۲۴٬۴۶۰
 مغولستان۲۰۲٬۰۸۶[۲۱]
 لبنان۲۰۰٬۰۰۰[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵]
 پاکستان۱۸۰٬۰۰۰[۲۶]
 مولداوی۱۵۴٬۴۶۱[۲۷]
 مقدونیه۸۱٬۹۰۰[۲۸]
زبان‌ها
زبان‌های ترکی
دین
اسلام

(سنی • مسلمان بدون مذهب • مسلمان فرهنگی • قرآنیان • علوی • شیعه دوازده‌امامی • جعفری)
مسیحیت
(کلیسای ارتدکس شرقی)
یهودیت
(یهودیان ترک • شبتیان • کراییت‌های کریمه)
بی‌دینی

(ندانم‌گرایی • خداناباوری)
بودایی، روح‌باوری، تنگری‌باوری، شمن‌باوری، مانوی
پراکندگی اقوام ترک در آسیا و اروپا

مردمان تُرک یا تُرک‌ها[۲۹][۳۰][۳۱] گروه‌های قومی اوراسیایی اند که در آسیای شمالی، مرکزی و غربی، مغولستان، سیبری جنوبی، شمال‌غربی چین و بخش‌هایی از اروپای شرقی ساکن‌اند و به زبان‌هایی از خانوادهٔ زبان‌های ترکی‌تبار سخن می‌گویند و اشتراکات تاریخی و فرهنگی میان آن‌ها مشاهده می‌شود. ترک‌زبان‌ها در کشورهایی همچون مغولستان، چین، روسیه، قرقیزستان، قزاقستان، ازبکستان، ترکمنستان، تاجیکستان، افغانستان، ایران، جمهوری آذربایجان، عراق، ترکیه، قبرس، یونان،[۳۲][۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶] گستره مهاجرت کنونی ترک‌زبان‌های آسیای کوچک بیشتر به سوی کشورهای اروپای مرکزی (آلمان، اتریش، سوئیس، فرانسه، انگلیسآمریکا و استرالیا بوده، جوامع قابل‌توجهی را در این کشورها تشکیل داده‌اند. آن‌ها ازلحاظ تاریخی و زبانی با گوک‌ترک‌ها، مردمی ایلی که در قرن ششم یک امپراتوری در گستره مغولستان و مرزهای شمالی چین تا دریای سیاه را بنیاد نهادند مرتبط‌اند. مردمان ترک، جز چند استثنا مانند بخش اروپایی ترکیه و منطقه ولگا در آسیا زندگی می‌کنند. مهم‌ترین پیوند تاریخی آنان، جدا از تاریخ و زبان، این است که جز یاقوتستان و چوواش در سیبری همگی مسلمان‌اند. مردمان ترک را می‌توان به دو گروه اصلی غربی و شرقی تقسیم کرد. گروه غربی شامل مردم ترک جنوب غرب اروپا و جنوب غرب آسیا ساکن ترکیه و شمال غرب ایران هستند. گروه شرقی شامل مردم ترک آسیای مرکزی، قزاقستان، و منطقه خودمختار اویغور در سین کیانگ چین هستند.[۳۷]

یکی از شمن‌های قوم تووا در قیزیل روسیه
یک اویغور، شمال غرب چین

اقوامی که امروزه ترک‌تبار و ترک‌زبان نامیده می‌شوند در اراضی وسیعی در کشورهای آسیایی و اروپایی زندگی می‌کنند. از سمت شرق تا قسمت‌هایی از مغولستان و چین و از غرب تا قسمت‌های از یوگسلاوی سابق و سیبری شمالی تا اطراف مسکو یعنی شهر قازان و از جنوب غربی تا مرزهای لبنان و قسمت‌هایی از قبرس در یک گسترهٔ جغرافیایی بسیار بزرگ پراکنده شدند. ترک‌تبارها و ترک‌زبان‌ها در کشورهایی همچون مغولستان، چین، روسیه، قرقیزستان، قزاقستان، ازبکستان، تاجیکستان، افغانستان، ایران، جمهوری آذربایجان، عراق، ترکیه، قبرس، یونان، بلغارستان، یوگسلاوی سابق (مقدونیه، بوسنی، کوزوو، کرواسی) رومانی، مجارستان، فنلاند، اکراین، یونان و مولداوی سکونت دارند.[۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶]

گستره مهاجرت کنونی ترک‌زبان‌های آسیای کوچک بیشتر بسوی تمامی کشورهای اروپا (آلمان، اتریش، هلند، سوئیس، فرانسه، انگلیسآمریکا و استرالیا است و جوامع قابل‌توجهی از ترک‌های اروپا را ترک‌های استانبولی تشکیل می‌دهند.[۳۸]

پیشینهٔ واژهٔ تُرک

در نوشته‌های تاریخی، «ترک» در مقابل تاجیک (غیر عرب و ترک) آمده‌است. نام ترک نخستین بار در قرن ششم میلادی در نوشته‌های چینی دیده می‌شود. در همان قرن، ترکان، دولتی نیرومند تأسیس کردند که از مغولستان و سرحد شمالی چین تا دریای سیاه امتداد داشته‌است. مؤسس حکومت مزبور، که چینیان او را «تئومان» می‌نامند، در کتیبه‌های ترکی بومن، در سال ۵۵۲ م. درگذشت و برادرش «ایستمی» (در تاریخ طبری: سنجبوخاقان) که در مغرب فتوحاتی کرده، ظاهراً تا سال ۵۷۶ م. زیسته‌است این دو برادر گویا از آغاز مستقل از یکدیگر حکومت می‌کردند. چینیان از دولت مزبور بنام امپراتوری ترکان شمال و مشرق یاد کرده‌اند. در سال ۵۸۱ م. تحت نفوذ سلسلهٔ چینی «سویی» این دو امپراتوری به‌طور قطع از یکدیگر جدا شدند و بعدها هر دو تابع سلسلهٔ چینیِ «تانگ» (۶۱۸ – ۹۰۷ م) گردیدند. در حدود سال ۶۸۲ م. ترکان شمال موفق شدند استقلال خود را به‌دست آورند.

اصطلاح «ترک» از میانهٔ سدهٔ ششم میلادی برپایهٔ اتحادیهٔ گوگ ترک‌ها در مناطق شمال چین و بیابان‌های غربی آن ایجاد شد و بر اقوام زیرگروه این اتحادیه گذاشته شد و از این پس اقوام جُداسَر و مستقل این اتحادیه‌ها که هر کدام برای خود نام ویژهٔ خود را داشت، ترک نامیده شدند.[۳۹]

تاریخ

مردمان ترک اول بار در پیرامون اتحادیه شیونگنو (معاصر دودمان چینی هان) ظاهر شده‌اند.[۴۰] آن‌ها ممکن است به مردمان شیونگنو، دینگلینگ و تیله مرتبط باشند. بنا بر کتاب وی، مردم تیله بازمانده چیدی، مردمان سرخ دی که با جین در بهار و پاییز رقابت می‌کردند بودند.[۴۱] قبایل ترک، نظیر خزران و پشنگ‌ها یحتمل پیش از امپراتوری گوک ترک یا مغولستان در قرن ششم سال‌ها به‌طور ایلیاتی می‌زیسته‌اند. آن‌ها اشراف و گله‌دارانی بودند که در جستجوی ثروت و مراتع جدید بودند. اولین اشاره به ترکان در متنی چینی است که به تجارت ابریشم ترکان با سغدیان در طول جادهٔ ابریشم اشاره می‌کند.[۴۲] اولین استفاده ضبط شده از واژه «ترک» به‌عنوان نامی سیاسی ارجاعی در قرن ششم است در چینی مدرن توجو تلفظ می‌شود. خاندان آشینا از لی جین به خانات روران مهاجرت کردند و تقاضا کردند از آن‌ها حفاظت شده به عضویت در اتحادیه آنان درآیند. این قبیله به آهنگری شهره بودند. به آنان در نزدیکی یک معدن کوهستانی زمینی داده شد که شبیه کلاهخود بود، به این دلیل آنان نام 突厥 یا (tūjué) را گرفتند. یک قرن بعد، قدرت آنان به حدی رسید که خانات روران را فتح کردند و امپراتوری گوک را بنیان نهادند.[۴۳] از میان قبایل ساکن شمال چین، پانصد قبیله یا آشینا را می‌توان نام برد که از امتزاج قبایل گوناگون پدید آمدند. آن‌ها در پیکار با چینیان در قرن چهارم میلادی شرکت داشتند و به تبعیت هون‌ها درآمدند.[۴۴]

هامر ـ پورگشتال ذکر کرده‌است که طایفهٔ ترک باید همان باشد که در تألیفات هرودوت به‌صورت تارژِتااوس (ترگیتاوس) و در تورات به‌صورت توقارمه (توغارمه) نوشته شده‌است.[۲۹]

خاستگاه اصلی مردمان ترک‌تبار، آسیای میانه بوده و این مردم که از نژاد زرد هستند[۴۵][۴۶][۴۷][۴۸] در نوشته‌های کهن چینی، قرقیزها را مردمانی سفیدپوست با موهایی عمدتاً زرد رنگ و بور و چشمانی آبی و شبیه به اروپایی‌های امروزی توصیف کرده‌اند.[۴۹] اما نوشته‌های تاریخی بعدی، اطلاعاتی دربارهٔ چگونگی ناپدید شدن تدریجی این ویژگی‌های ظاهری و درنهایت زردپوست شدن آن‌ها به دست نمی‌دهند.[۴۹] اقوام ترک به تدریج در غرب آسیا، خاورمیانه، آسیای کوچک و اروپای شرقی پراکنده شدند. در جریان این مهاجرت‌ها بخش‌های بزرگی از مردم هندواروپایی نواحی جدید نیز به مرور ترک‌زبان شدند.[۵۰] ۷۰–۷۶ درصد مردم ترکیه بر اساس آمارهای دولتی ترک هستند.[۵۱]

فرهنگ

داستان‌های منظوم حماسی مردمان ترک، قبل از ابداع خط به وجود آمدند و سینه به سینه انتقال یافتند. مردمان ترک اصطلاحات مختلفی را، برای نامیدن داستان‌های حماسی و قهرمانی و راویان آن‌ها استفاده می‌کنند. اغوزها سرایندهٔ داستان حماسی را اوزان می‌خواندند که اوزانچی، یانشاق، وارساق و دده نیز عنوان می‌شد. تقریباً در قرن نهم اوزان جای خود را به عاشیق سپرد.[۵۲] عاشیق‌ها از دوران قبل از اسلام در بین مردمان ترک وجود داشتند.[۵۳]

داستان‌های حماسی مردمان ترک به چهار گروه اصلی سکایی، هون، گؤک‌ترک و اویغور تقسیم شده‌است که با توجه به روند تاریخ ترکان است. حلقهٔ سکایی شامل داستان‌های تنکا الب‌ار و شو، حلقهٔ هون شامل داستان اغوز قاغان، حلقهٔ گؤک‌ترک شامل داستان‌های بوزقورد (گرگ خاکستری) و ارگنه‌قون (گذرگاه صعب‌العبور) و حلقهٔ اویغور شامل داستان‌های تورییش (پیدایش) و کوچ که با یکدیگر پیوستگی دارند، است.[۵۲]

کاشغری خلاصه‌ای از داستان فرمانروای ترک، «شو»، را ذکر کرده که مربوط به مقابلهٔ شو با حملهٔ اسکندر ذوالقرنین به ترکستان غربی است.[۵۲]

تعداد داستان‌های حماسی ترکان بسیار است. علاوه بر داستان‌های حماسی باستانی و حدود هفتاد داستان جدید شامل عناصر باستانی، مؤلفان تاریخ ادبیات دنیای ترک از حدود صد و بیست داستان حماسی جدید نام برده‌اند که داستان‌های حماسی ماناس، کوراوغلو و آلپامیش از اهمّ آنهاست. سرودن داستان‌های حماسی در بین ترکان تا این اواخر وجود داشته‌است که ازنظر شکل و محتوا با سنت داستان‌پردازی قبلی متفاوت است.[۵۲]

مبتنی بر حوادث تاریخی بودن، حضور مخلوقات خارق‌العاده در کنار شخصیت‌های واقعی، تعدّد حوادث فوق طبیعی، عموماً منظوم یا دارای نظم و نثر بودن، عدم وجود مؤلف شناخته‌شده، زبان روان و ساده و برگرفته از زبان مردم و شکل گرفتن در محیط جغرافیایی و زمان خاص و تحول در زمان و مکان وقوع حوادث با مهاجرت ناقلانشان به جاهای دیگر، مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های داستان‌های حماسی ترکان است.[۵۲]

زبان‌های ترکی

زبان‌های ترکی به دو دستهٔ کلی شرقی و غربی تقسیم می‌شود. زیرمجموعه‌های شرقی زبان‌های ترکی عبارت‌اند قزاقی، قرقیزی و ازبکی و زیرمجموعه‌های غربی زبان ترکی نیز شامل ترکی استانبولی، ترکمنی و ترکی آذربایجانی می‌شوند.

همچنین، زبان‌های ترکی به شش دستهٔ جزئی تقسیم می‌شود.

زیرمجموعه‌های شرقی زبان ترکی عبارتند از اویغوری، قزاقی، قرقیزی و ازبکی، و زیرمجموعه‌های غربی زبان ترکی نیز شامل ترکی استانبولی، ترکمنی، ترکی قشقایی، ترکی آذربایجانی و خلجی است.

زبان‌های ترکی به‌همراه زبان‌های مغولی، تونگوزی و برخی موارد کره‌ای و ژاپنی جزء زبان‌های آلتایی به‌شمار می‌رفتند ولی امروزه هم نظریه زبان‌های اورال - آلتایی و هم نظریه زبان‌های آلتایی به‌طور گسترده‌ای رد شده‌اند و تنها می‌توان زبان‌های ترکی را تحت خانواده زبانی خود بررسی کرد.

زبان‌های ترکی در خطر انقراض و نابودی

زبان درخطر به زبانی گفته می‌شود که در معرض نابودی باشد. تعداد گویشوران یک زبان درخطر به‌طور لزوم کم نیست، بلکه حتی اگر تعداد آن‌ها طی مدت به نسبت کوتاهی در حال کاهش شدید بوده باشد، باز با آن به سان زبان درخطر برخورد می‌شود.

روسیه

۱۵ زبان از خانواده زبان‌های ترکی در روسیه در فهرست زبان‌های در خطر (en:Lists of endangered languages) و در معرض انقراض و نابودی کامل هستند:

  1. زبان آلتای (en:Altai language) / (en:Northern Altay language) - به شدت در معرض خطر Severely endangered - گویش وران ۵۵٬۷۲۰ نفر
  2. زبان تاتاری بارابا (en:Baraba Tatar language) - به شدت در معرض خطر Severely endangered - گویش وران ۸٬۰۰۰ نفر
  3. زبان باشقیری (en:Bashkir language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۱٬۲۰۰٬۰۰۰ نفر
  4. زبان چولیم (en:Chulym language) - به‌طور بحرانی در معرض خطر Critically endangered - گویش وران ۴۴ نفر
  5. زبان چوواشی (en:Chuvash language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۱٬۰۴۲٬۹۸۹ نفر
  6. زبان دولگان (en:Dolgan language) - به‌طور قطع در معرض خطر Definitely endangered - گویش وران ۱٬۱۰۰ نفر
  7. زبان کاراچایی-بالکاری (en:Karachay-Balkar language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۳۱۰٬۰۰۰ نفر
  8. زبان خاکاسی (en:Khakas language) - به‌طور قطع در معرض خطر Definitely endangered - گویش وران ۴۳٬۰۰۰ نفر
  9. زبان قموقی (en:Kumyk language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۴۵۰٬۰۰۰ نفر
  10. زبان نوقایی (en:Nogai language) / (en:Yurt Tatar language) - به‌طور قطع در معرض خطر Definitely endangered - گویش وران ۸۷٬۰۰۰ نفر
  11. زبان شور (en:Shor language) - به شدت در معرض خطر Severely endangered - گویش وران ۲٬۸۰۰ نفر
  12. زبان تاتاری سیبری (en:Siberian Tatar language) - به‌طور قطع در معرض خطر Definitely endangered - گویش وران ۱۰۰٬۰۰۰ نفر
  13. زبان توفا (en:Tofa language) - به‌طور بحرانی در معرض خطر Critically endangered - گویش وران ۹۳ نفر
  14. زبان تووان (en:Tuvan language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۲۸۰٬۰۰۰ نفر
  15. زبان یاقوتی (en:Yakut language) - آسیب‌پذیر Vulnerable - گویش وران ۴۵۰٬۰۰۰ نفر[۵۴][۵۵][۵۶][۵۷]

چین

زبان اویغوری

بعد از انقراض زبان جغتایی، زبان اویغوری و زبان ازبکی در مناطقی که زبان جغتایی صحبت می‌شد، توسعه پیدا کردند. امروزه زبان اویغوری در نتیجه ریشه گرفتن از زبان جغتایی، شامل وام واژه‌های فراوانی از زبان فارسی است.[۵۸]

زبان سالاری

یکی از زبان‌های ترکی و از شاخه اغوز است که حدود هفتاد هزار تن گویشور دارد. بیشتر سالارها در استان‌های گانسو و چینگ‌های در کشور چین زندگی می‌کنند. زبان سالار به دو گروه بزرگ گویشی تقسیم می‌شود. این انشعاب از آن جا سرچشمه گرفته‌است که یکی از شاخه‌های گویشی از زبان‌های تبتی و چینی و شاخه دیگر از زبان‌های اویغوری و قزاقی تأثیر پذیرفته‌است. فقط یک سوم جمعیت قوم سالار به زبان سالاری تکلم می‌کنند که به ترکمنی شبیه است. بخش دیگر نیز به زبان تبتی و تعداد بیشتر آنان به زبان چینی صحبت می‌کنند. زبان امروزی سالار تأثیر زیادی از زبان‌های همسایه چینی و تبتی گرفته‌است. در پایان باید گفت که زبان سالار صورت مکتوب ندارد. به این خاطر مردم سالار، به عنوان زبان نوشتاری خود اویغوری را برگزیده بودند.

افغانستان

شماری از زبان‌ها، مانند زبان‌های مغولی و ترکی که در گذشته در افغانستان مورد استفاده برخی از گویشوران بوده، به کلی نابود شده‌است و گویشوران آن‌ها در حال حاضر به زبان‌های دیگر سخن می‌گویند.[۵۹]

ایران

ترکی آذری

گواهی‌ها و پژوهش‌های دانشمندان به استواری نشان می‌دهد که ترکان از اول در این منطقه وجود داشته اند .[۶۰][۶۱] از این گویشِ ایرانی ـ که با ترک‌تازی ترکان به آذربایجان جایش را ترکی گرفت ـ نمونه‌هایی درخور برجای مانده که بزرگ‌ترین نمونهٔ بازمانده از این گویشِ آذری، بخشِ دومِ «رسالهٔ روحی انارجانی» است که میانِ سال‌های ۹۸۵ تا ۹۹۴ قمری پرداخته شده‌است.

رسالهٔ روحی انارجانی، دربردارندهٔ یک پیشگفتار، دو بخش و یک پایان است. در پیشگفتار سخن از چرایی نوشتن این کار رفته‌است. بخش نخستِ آن در ۱۲ در دربارهٔ آیینِ تبریزیان است و بخش دوم آن در ۱۴ در «در بیانِ اصطلاحات و عباراتِ جماعتِ اناث و اعیان و اجلافِ» مردمانِ تبریز در انجامین سال‌های سدهٔ دهم مَهی است. پایان‌بخش این رساله نیز اشعاری چند است.[۶۲]

زبان ترکی آذربایجانی از عهد صفویه به بعد جایگزین لهجهٔ ایرانی پهلوی آذری شده‌است. زبان ساکنان آذربایجان -با وجود مهاجرتهای ترکمانان از قرن پنجم هجری به بعد به این سرزمین- یکی از لهجه‌های ایرانی، یعنی لهجهٔ پهلوی آذری بوده‌است، همان‌طوری که فی المثل در شهر ری لهجهٔ رازی و در مازندران لهجهٔ طبری رایج بوده‌است و این لهجهٔ ایرانی آذری چنان‌که گذشت تا حدود قرن دهم و یازدهم در آن منطقه زنده بوده‌است. ما در این مورد شواهدی متعدد در دست داریم که تنها به دو مورد آن اشاره می‌کنیم:

ناصر خسرو قبادیانی (۳۹۴–۴۸۱ هـ. ق) شاعر و نویسندهٔ معروف در سفرنامه‌اش نوشته‌است:

«… در تبریز قطران نام شاعری را دیدم، شعری نیک می‌گفت، اما زبان فارسی نیکو نمی‌دانست. پیش من آمد، دیوان منجیک و دیوان دقیقی بیاورد، و پیش من بخواند و هر معنی که مشکل بود از من پرسید به او بگفتم، و شرح آن بنوشت و اشعار خود بر من خواند.»

اسدی طوسی (متوفی ۴۶۵ هـ. ق) سرایندهٔ گرشاسب‌نامه، نیز در سبب تألیف کتاب لغت فرس برای شاعران اران و آذربایجان نوشته‌است:

«و غرض ما اندر این، لغات پارسی‌ست که دیدم شاعران را که فاضل بودند و لیکن لغات پارسی کم می‌دانستند…»

در هر مورد، بی تردید، مقصود از «زبان فارسی» و «لغات پارسی» چیزی به جز زبان و لغات فارسی دری رایج در خراسان و شرق ایران در آن روزگار نیست، چه قطران قادر بوده‌است دو دیوان شعر شاعران خراسانی را که به فارسی دری بوده‌است پیش ناصر خسرو بخواند و تنها معنی کلماتی را که نمی‌دانسته‌است (یعنی لغات مخصوص شرق ایران و لهجهٔ دری) از وی بپرسد. از سوی دیگر ناصر خسرو هم شعر قطران تبریزی را می‌فهمیده‌است. لغاتی را هم که اسدی طوسی در کتاب لغت خود آورده‌است عموماً از همان واژگان مخصوص شرق ایران و لهجهٔ دری است که ایرانیان آذری‌زبان آذربایجان آن‌ها را فهم نمی‌کرده‌اند.

چنین «آذری» نام یکی از لهجه‌های ایرانی‌ست و کاربرد آن به جای «ترکی» در چند دههٔ اخیر نادرست است. زبان ایرانیان آذربایجانی از قرن دهم و یازدهم هجری تا به امروز زبان ترکی‌ست و برای تشخیص آن از دیگر لهجه‌های ترکی، آن را ترکی آذربایجانی یا ترکی آذری می‌توان نامید نه «آذری».[۶۳]

ترکی خراسانی

سازمان یونسکو از زبان‌های در معرض خطر جهان یا منسوخ شده، اطلسی تهیه کرده‌است که به صورت آنلاین و به کمک نقشه‌های گوگل قابل مشاهده است. در این لیست، برای کشور ایران ۲۵ زبان در معرض خطر نشان داده شده‌است که ترکی خراسانی یکی از این زبان‌ها است و با عنوان زبان آسیب‌پذیر (Vulnerable) از آن یاد شده‌است.[۶۴][۶۵] این زبان بیشتر در استان خراسان شمالی صحبت می‌شود ولی در استان‌های خراسان رضوی و گلستان هم گویشور دارد. بیشتر کسانی که به زبان ترکی خراسانی سخن می‌گویند به زبان فارسی نیز مسلط هستند. نابودی تدریجی زبان ترکی خراسانی در شمال و مرکز خراسان رخ داده‌است.

ترکی قشقایی

زبان ترکی قشقایی یکی از لهجه‌های شاخه جنوب غربی زبان ترکی است که قشقایی‌ها بدان تکلم می‌کنند.[۶۶] در واژگان قشقایی تأثیر زبان فارسی مشخص است، در متون جمع‌آوری شده توسط دوئرفر و همکارانش از فیروزآباد دخیل‌های فراوان عربی دیده می‌شود. واژگان حکومتی و نظامی مانند پاسبان، پیکان و شاه بیشتر از فارسی وارد این زبان شده‌اند. قاموس دینی بیشتر ریشه عربی دارد اما از فارسی وارد این زبان شده‌اند و ویژگی‌های فارسی‌شان را حفظ کرده‌اند. واژگان پزشکی نیز تحت تأثیر فارسی است مانند بیمار، درد و دارو.[۶۷] بنا به یک پژوهش، در فیروزآباد قشقایی‌ها در همه سنین از زبان مادری در حوزه‌های دوستانه و خانوادگی استفاده می‌نمایند، اما در شیراز افراد زیر بیست سال خانواده‌های ترک‌زبان تمایل چندانی به استفاده از زبان مادری ندارند. در شیراز در حوزه‌های مختلف زبان غالب فارسی است و در موقعیت‌های غیررسمی در بعضی از مواقع زبان مادری استفاده می‌شود در صورتی که در فیروزآباد در شرایط مشابه ترکی ترجیح داده می‌شود. ترکی در شیراز به شدت تحت تأثیر فارسی است. زبان قشقایی در میان جوانان به تدریج در حال از دست دادن کاربری‌اش است.[۶۸]

زبان خلجی

نشانه‌هایی تاریخی نشان می‌دهد که خلج‌ها احتمال دارد در اصل مردمی آریایی‌نژاد و گروهی از سکاها بوده‌اند که در آسیای میانه ترک‌زبان شده‌اند.[۶۹] مردم خلج از نظر فرهنگی ایرانی محسوب می‌شوند. امروزه زبان خلجی در معرض انقراض قرار دارد و جای خود را بین نسل جدید خلجی‌ها به فارسی داده‌است. نسل جدید تنها در حد درک مطلب با این زبان آشنائی دارند و دیگر در میان خود از این زبان استفاده نمی‌کنند.[۷۰] بر اساس آمار سایت اتنولوگ تعداد گویش وران زبان خلجی در ایران ۴۲٫۱۰۰ نفر می‌باشد.[۷۱]

ایل بچاقچی

بچاقچی، یکی از بزرگترین ایلات استان کرمان است. ایشان شیعه‌مذهب هستند و در گذشته به گویشی از ترکی صحبت می‌کردند ولی امروزه بیشتر شهرنشین شده و به فارسی صحبت می‌کنند. واژه بچاقچی در ترکی به معنای چاقوساز است و گویا از نام یکی از رؤسای گذشته ایل گرفته شده‌است.[۷۲]

عراق

اگرچه برخی از آن‌ها قادر به حفظ هویت زبانی خود شده‌اند، اما ترکمنهای امروزی عراق به سرعت جذب جمعیت عموم، اکثریت و دیگر قبایل سازماندهی شده‌اند.[۷۳] بسیاری از فرزندان امروزی اولین دوره مهاجران ترکمن در داخل مردم محلی عرب جذب شده‌اند.[۷۴] در سال ۱۹۵۷ در آخرین سرشماری قابل اعتماد به رسمیت شناخته شدند، ولی بعد از آن با سیاست‌های عرب‌سازی مواجه شدند. حزب بعث مواجه شدند.[۷۵] زبان رسمی نوشتاری ترکمن‌ها، ترکی استانبولی است، و الفبای جدید آن، الفبای لاتین می‌باشد.[۷۶][۷۷] به‌طور عموم ترکمنهای عراق «ترکمان»، «ترکمنان»، «ترکمانان» یا «ترکمن» نامیده می‌شوند[۷۸] و نباید آنان را با کسانی که به زبان ترکمنی در ترکمنستان تکلم می‌کنند، یکسان دانست.[۷۹]

اقوام ترک‌زبان

پراکندگی اقوام ترک‌زبان[۸۰] بر اساس کشور محل سکونت، دین، مذهب و زبان[۸۱]

تصویری از قپچاق‌ها، متعلق به قرن ۱۲ میلادی، لوهانسک
ردیف قومیت کشورهای مسکون جمعیت زبان دین
۱ ترک‌های آناتولی
ترکیه، آلمان، الجزایر، عراق، بلغارستان، گرجستان، سوریه
60
۷۰ میلیون
ترکی استانبولی مسلمان (سنی) و علوی
۲ مردمان آذربایجانی جمهوری آذربایجان، ایران، عراق، ترکیه، روسیه، گرجستان
42
۳۰ میلیون
ترکی آذربایجانی مسلمان (شیعه)
۳ ازبک‌ها ازبکستان، افغانستان، تاجیکستان، قزاقستان، قرقیزستان، ترکمنستان
32
۲۸/۳ میلیون
ازبکی مسلمان (سنی)
۴ قزاق‌ها قزاقستان، روسیه، چین، ازبکستان
15
۱۳/۸ میلیون
قزاقی مسلمان (سنی)
۵ اویغورها چین (سین‌کیانگ), قزاقستان، ازبکستان، قرقیزستان، ترکیه ۹ میلیون اویغوری مسلمان (سنی)
۶ ترکمن‌ها ترکمنستان، ایران، افغانستان،
03
۸ میلیون
ترکمنی مسلمان (سنی)
۷ تاتارها روسیه، ازبکستان، قزاقستان، تاجیکستان، لهستان، لیتوانی، فنلاند
07
۷ میلیون
تاتاری مسلمان (سنی)
۸ قرقیزها قرقیزستان، افغانستان، ازبکستان، چین، تاجیکستان
026
۴/۵ میلیون
قرقیزی مسلمان (سنی)
۹ باشقیرها روسیه، ازبکستان، قزاقستان
009
۲ میلیون
باشقیری مسلمان (سنی)
۱۰ تاتارهای کریمه اوکراین(شبه جزیره کریمه), روسیه، ازبکستان، ترکیه، رومانی
009
۰/۵ تا ۲ میلیون
تاتاری کریمه مسلمان (سنی)
۱۱ قشقایی ایران
009
۱/۷ میلیون
ترکی قشقایی مسلمان (شیعه)
۱۲ چواش‌ها روسیه
010
۱/۷ میلیون
چوواشی مسیحیان ارتدوکس
۱۳ قره‌قالپاق‌ها ازبکستان، قزاقستان، ترکمنستان
007
۰/۶ میلیون
قره‌قالپاقی مسلمان (سنی)
۱۴ یاقوت‌ها روسیه
007
۰/۵ میلیون
یاکوتی مسیحیان ارتدوکس
۱۵ قوموق‌ها روسیه
007
۰/۴ میلیون
قومیقی مسلمان (سنی)
۱۶ قره‌چای‌ها و بالکارها روسیه، ترکیه
007
۰/۴ میلیون
کاراچایی-بالکاری مسلمان (سنی)
۱۷ مردم تووان روسیه
009
۰/۳ میلیون
تووانی بودایی
۱۸ گاگائوزها مولداوی
009
۰/۲ میلیون
گاگائوزی مسیحیان ارتدوکس
۱۹ قارائی‌های کریمه و کریمچاک‌ها لیختن‌اشتاین، لهستان، روسیه، ترکیه
007
۰/۲ میلیون
کارائیم و کریمچاک یهودیت
یک قرقیز مناسچی در یک یورت در شهر کاراکول

جمعیت گذشته و آینده

Rank Country Area 1950 2000 2050 2100
1  ترکیه ۷۸۳٬۵۶۲ ۲۱٬۱۲۲٬۰۰۰ ۶۵٬۹۷۰٬۰۰۰ ۸۹٬۲۹۱٬۰۰۰ ۸۷٬۹۸۳٬۰۰۰
2  ازبکستان ۴۴۷٬۴۰۰ ۶٬۲۹۳٬۰۰۰ ۲۵٬۰۴۲٬۰۰۰ ۳۵٬۱۱۷٬۰۰۰ ۳۲٬۰۷۷٬۰۰۰
3  قزاقستان ۲٬۷۲۴٬۹۰۰ ۶٬۶۹۴٬۰۰۰ ۱۵٬۶۸۸٬۰۰۰ ۲۲٬۲۳۸٬۰۰۰ ۲۴٬۷۱۲٬۰۰۰
4  جمهوری آذربایجان ۸۶٬۶۰۰ ۲٬۸۸۶٬۰۰۰ ۸٬۴۶۴٬۰۰۰ ۱۱٬۲۱۰٬۰۰۰ ۹٬۶۳۶٬۰۰۰
5  قرقیزستان ۱۹۹٬۹۰۰ ۱٬۷۳۹٬۰۰۰ ۴٬۹۳۸٬۰۰۰ ۷٬۰۶۴٬۰۰۰ ۹٬۰۴۶٬۰۰۰
6  ترکمنستان ۴۸۸٬۱۰۰ ۱٬۲۰۵٬۰۰۰ ۴٬۳۸۶٬۰۰۰ ۶٬۶۰۸٬۰۰۰ ۵٬۶۰۶٬۰۰۰
Total ۴٬۷۳۰٬۴۶۲ ۳۹٬۹۳۹٬۰۰۰ ۱۲۴٬۴۸۸٬۰۰۰ ۱۷۱٬۵۲۸٬۰۰۰ ۱۶۹٬۰۶۰٬۰۰۰

وسعت خاکی و آبی (به جز دریای کاسپین)

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country Area EEZ Shelf EEZ+TIA
1  ترکیه ۷۸۳٬۵۶۲ ۲۶۱٬۶۵۴ ۵۶٬۰۹۳ ۱٬۰۴۵٬۲۱۶
2  ازبکستان ۴۴۷٬۴۰۰ ۰ ۰ ۴۴۷٬۴۰۰
3  قزاقستان ۲٬۷۲۴٬۹۰۰ ۰ ۰ ۲٬۷۲۴٬۹۰۰
4  جمهوری آذربایجان ۸۶٬۶۰۰ ۰ ۰ ۸۶٬۶۰۰
5  قرقیزستان ۱۹۹٬۹۰۰ ۰ ۰ ۱۹۹٬۹۰۰
6  ترکمنستان ۴۸۸٬۱۰۰ ۰ ۰ ۴۸۸٬۱۰۰
Total ۴٬۷۳۰٬۴۶۲ ۲۶۱٬۶۵۴ ۵۶٬۰۹۳ ۴٬۹۹۲٬۱۱۶

دین اقوام ترک‌تبار

اسلام

ترکان خود را تماماً تسلیم اسلام کردند که این از مشخصه‌های اسلام ترکی ست. ترک‌های گرویده به اسلام هویت ملیشان را چنان غرق در اسلام کرده بودند که عرب‌ها و ایرانیان هرگز چنان نکرده بودند. دلیل این بخشی به‌دلیل نیرومندی این آیین در هنگام مواجهه آن‌ها با آن در سرحدات اسلام و کفر، بخشی به این دلیل بود که گرویدن آنان به اسلام آنان را فوراً درگیر جنگ مقدس با خویشاوندان کافرشان کرد. برای تذکره‌های عربی روزهای قهرمانانه پگن عربستان، غرور ایرانی نسبت به افتخارات ازدست‌رفته ایران باستان، هیچ معادل ترکی وجود ندارد. تمدنها، حکومت‌ها، ادیان و ادبیات ترکی قبل از اسلام، جز اندکی شعر مردمی و اسطوره شجره نامه‌ای زدوده و فراموش شدند. حتی خود نام ترک برای ترک‌ها و نیز غربی‌ها مترادف با مسلمان شد. ترک‌ها در جدّیت ایمانشان به اسلام با هیچ مردم دیگری برابر نیستند. ازاین‌رو عجیب نیست که سنی با حمایت سلسله‌های ترک احیا شد و گسترش یافت.[۸۲]

مسیحیت

گاگائوزها مسیحی هستند.[۸۳] چوواش‌ها اسماً ارتدوکس روسی هستند.[۸۴] دین یاقوت‌ها (ساخاها[۸۵]) آمیزه‌ای از اعتقادات ترکی، مغولی، تونقوزی و روسی است.[۸۶]

در ایران

اقوام ترک زبانی در ایران زندگی می‌کنند که و در چندین استان پراکنده‌اند:

دربارهٔ تاریخ حضور اقوام ترک در خراسان اقوال مختلفی وجود دارد.

ایوانوف (۱۹۲۶، ص ۱۵۴) ترک‌های خراسان را بازمانده مهاجمان ترکی دانسته که در قرن سوم از ترکستان به خراسان حمله کردند.[۱۰۵]
فرای و صاییلی (ص ۳۱۵) تاریخ حضور ترکان در خراسان و ماوراءالنهر را به قبل از ورود اسلام به ایران نسبت داده‌اند.[۱۰۶]

در منابع جغرافیایی قرون اولیه هجری نیز دربارهٔ حضور ترکان خلج در مناطقی از خراسان بزرگ مطالبی آمده‌است.[۱۰۷][۱۰۸] به نظر یوهانسون (۱۹۹۸، ص ۳۲۵)، قسمت اعظم ترک‌های ایران از اخلاف سلجوقیان‌اند. سلجوقیان از قبایل غز بودند و ترک‌های خراسان در اصل بازمانده دسته‌ای از این ترکان غز محسوب می‌شوند.[۱۰۹]

ترک‌های خراسان را پروفسور دورفر از نسل ترکان سلجوقی می‌داند. اگر چه قبل ار سلجوقیان گروهی دیگر از ترکان اغوز در زمان سلطان محمود غزنوی به خراسان کوچ کردند ولی انبوه ترکان با فرزندان سلجوق یعنی طغرل و چاغری به خراسان آمدند.

نظریه پان‌ترکیسم وامبری یهودی و اقوامی که ترک نیستند

بسیاری از اقوام ترک‌زبان، زبان ترکی را بر اثر ارتباط و آمیزش با ترک‌زبانان اخذ کرده‌اند، از این رو اصطلاحاتی چون «خلق‌های ترک» و «ترکان» به مفهوم قوم ترک نیستند و نام ترک نیز فقط جنبهٔ زبانی دارد.[۲۹] از میان اقوامی که امروزه ترک نام گرفته‌اند بسیاری از اقوام نام‌برده در زیر در تاریخ قدیم هیچ‌گاه خود و قوم خود را ترک نمی‌نامیدند. در مورد بخشی از این اقوام ساکن آسیای میانه تنها پس از وارد شدن نظریه پان‌ترکیسم توسط آرمینیوس وامبری یهودی و فرستاده پنهانی وزارت خارجهٔ بریتانیا به منطقه[۱۱۰] این نام رفته‌رفته برای این اقوام نیز رواج یافت. این اقوام عبارتند از:
باشقیرها، تاتارها، ناگایباک‌ها، قزاق‌ها، قره‌قالپاق‌ها، نوقای، کرائیم، قره‌چای-بالکار، کومیک، کریمچاک، آلتایی‌ها، اغوزهای واردشده به آذربایجان، قاجارها، شاهسون‌ها، قره‌داغ‌ها، قره‌پاپاخ، قشقایی‌ها، افشارها، خلج‌ها، گاگوز، اورومچی‌ها، توینی، توفالارها، شورها، خاکاس‌ها، تاتارهای چولیم، ازبک‌ها، اویغورها، سالارها، اویغورهای ساری، چوواش‌ها، یاکوت‌ها، دولگان‌ها و غیره.[۱۱۱]

چهره‌هایی از ترک‌زبان‌های آناتولی: مصطفی کمال آتاترک (آتاترک) به همراه مادر و خواهر. ترک‌زبان‌های آناتولی از نژادهایی آمیخته هستند.

سلسله‌های ترک‌تبار ایران

سلسله‌های ترک‌تبار که در ایران بعد از اسلام حکومت کردند عبارتند از:

نگارخانه

پانویس

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  • ۱۰۴٫۰ ۱۰۴٫۱ خطای یادکرد: خطای یادکرد:برچسب <ref>‎ غیرمجاز؛ متنی برای یادکردهای با نام Iranicaonline وارد نشده‌است. (صفحهٔ راهنما را مطالعه کنید.).
  • Vladimir Ivanov, "Further notes on gypsies in Persia", J[R]ASB, new series, vol.16, no.7.1920
  • Richard N. Frye and A. M. Sayili, "The Turks in Khurasan and Transoxania at the time of the Arab conquest", The Moslem world, XXXV, no.4 (Oct.1945)
  • ابن‌حوقل، ص 419
  • اصطخری، ص 253
  • idem, "Irano-Turkic", in Turkic-Iranian contact areas: historical and linguistic aspects, ed. Lars Johanson and Christiane Bulut, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006
  • Pan-Turkism From Irredentism to Cooperation نوشتهٔ جیکوب ام. لانداؤ (JACOB M. LANDAU)
  • Zakiev - Genesis - TurkicWorld
  • Ghaznavid Dynasty. (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Seljuq. (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Afsharid Dynasty. Oxford Islamic Studies
  • Qājār Dynasty. (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • منابع

    • تاریخ طبری جلد ۱، ص ۸۹۵ و ۸۹۶ (پیشینه واژهٔ ترک)
    • حاشیهٔ برهان چ معین (پیشینه واژهٔ ترک)
  • پژوهشی پیرامون زبان، دین، خط ترکان، مؤلف و مترجم حسین شرقی / کتابخانه ملی ایران ۱۲۴۷۶–۷۸م (پراکندگی اقوام ترک)
  • <link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href=". /رده:اقوام_ترک‌تبار"/>

    <link rel="mw:PageProp/Category" href=". /رده:عشایر_اوراسیا"/>

    Turkic people
    Türk
    Map-TurkicLanguages.png
    The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority.
    Total population
    Approx. 140–160 million[1][2] or over 170 million[3]
    Regions with significant populations
     Turkey57,500,000–61,500,000[4][additional citation(s) needed]
     Uzbekistan25,200,000[5][additional citation(s) needed]
     Iran15,000,000[6]
     Russia12,751,502[citation needed]
     Kazakhstan12,300,000[7][additional citation(s) needed]
     China11,647,000[8][additional citation(s) needed]
     Azerbaijan10,000,000[9][additional citation(s) needed]
    European Union European Union5,876,318[citation needed]
     Turkmenistan4,500,000[10][additional citation(s) needed]
     Kyrgyzstan4,500,000[11][additional citation(s) needed]
     Afghanistan3,500,000[12][additional citation(s) needed]
     Iraq1,500,000[13][additional citation(s) needed]
     Tajikistan1,200,000[14][additional citation(s) needed]
     United States1,000,000+[15]
     Syria800,000–1,000,000+[16]
     Ukraine398,600[17]
    Northern Cyprus North Cyprus313,626[18]
     Australia293,500[citation needed]
     Saudi Arabia224,460[citation needed]
     Mongolia202,086[19][additional citation(s) needed]
     Lebanon200,000[20][21][22][23]
     Moldova154,461[24][additional citation(s) needed]
     North Macedonia81,900[25][additional citation(s) needed]
    Languages
    Turkic languages
    Religion
    Islam

    (Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari)
    Christianity
    (Eastern Orthodox Christianity · Eastern Catholic Christianity)
    Judaism
    (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites)
    Irreligion
    (Agnosticism · Atheism)

    Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, Mani

    The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. The origins of the Turkic people are a matter of contention among scholars. Yunusbbayev suggested they may lie in a region stretching from the West Eurasian steppe to Eastern Mongolia.[26] Some linguists have suggested roots of Turks may be traced back to the West Liao River Basin (modern Manchuria).[27] The Turkic peoples speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[28] They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds.

    In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, acculturation, intermixing, adoption and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, therefore, most Turkic groups differ significantly in origins from one group to the next.[26]

    Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common gene pool, and historical experiences.[29] The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turkmens, Kyrgyz and Uyghur people.

    Etymology

    Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.

    The first known mention of the term Turk (Old Turkic: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 Kök Türük; meaning "origin"),[30][31][32][33] applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan."[34] The Orhun inscriptions (735 CE) use the terms Turk and Turuk.

    Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi.[35] During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area.[36][37][38] There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku and so on. But the information gap is so substantial that a connect of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.[39][40] Turkologist Peter B. Golden posits that the term Turk has roots in old-Turkic.[41]

    It is generally accepted that the term "Türk" is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term[42] 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük/Törük,[43] which means "created", "born",[44] or "strong",[45] from the Old Turkic word root *türi-/töri- ("tribal root, (mythic) ancestry; take shape, to be born, be created, arise, spring up") and conjugated with Old Turkic suffix 𐰰 (-ik), perhaps from Proto-Turkic *türi-k ("lineage, ancestry"),[43] from the Proto-Turkic word root *töŕ ("foundation, root; origin, ancestors").[46][47]

    The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun (Jiankun), and Xinli, located in South Siberia.[48][49] The Chinese Book of Zhou (7th century) presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains.[50]

    During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the "umbrella-identity" of the "Scythians". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι (Skuthai) in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples.[51]

    In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri). However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for Türk or vice versa.[52]

    Ethnic groups

    Turkic ethnic groups are prominent in the world today and there have been Turkic nations in the past.

    The modern list includes:

    The historical list includes:

    The origins of the Huns, Tuoba, and Xiongnu are unknown but may be of Turkic ancestry.[28][53][54][55][56]

    Language

    A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.

    Distribution

    The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, to Siberia and Western China, and through to the Middle East. Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language;[57] an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.[58] More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman-dominated areas of Southern and Eastern Europe and West Asia; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus, China, and northern Iraq.

    Alphabet

    The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters (formerly known as runes), used for writing mostly Turkic languages. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in Mongolia. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE.

    The earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, and the alphabets were generally replaced by the Old Uyghur alphabet in the Central Asia, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia, Cyrillic in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, and Latin alphabet in Central Europe. The latest recorded use of Turkic alphabet was recorded in Central Europe's Hungary in 1699 CE.

    The Turkic runiform scripts, unlike other typologically close scripts of the world, do not have a uniform palaeography as, for example, have the Gothic runes, noted for the exceptional uniformity of its language and paleography.[59] The Turkic alphabets are divided into four groups, the best known of them is the Orkhon version of the Enisei group. The Orkhon script is the alphabet used by the Göktürks from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic language. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire; a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Kyrgyz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century.

    The Turkic language family is traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.[60]

    The various Turkic languages are usually considered in geographical groupings: the Oghuz (or Southwestern) languages, the Kypchak (or Northwestern) languages, the Eastern languages (like Uygur), the Northern languages (like Altay and Yakut), and one existing Oghur language: Chuvash (the other Oghur languages, like Volga Bulgarian, are now extinct). The high mobility and intermixing of Turkic peoples in history makes an exact classification extremely difficult.

    The Turkish language belongs to the Oghuz subfamily of Turkic. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with the other Oghuz languages, which include Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Turkmen and Urum, and to a varying extent with the other Turkic languages.

    Geographical distribution

    Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
    Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority.

    Today most of the Turkic peoples today have their homelands in Central Asia, where the Turkic peoples settled from a region extending from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia to the West Liao River Basin (modern Manchuria),[26][27] but can be found as far west as present-day Turkey. While the term "Turk" may refer to a member of any Turkic people, the term Turkish usually refers specifically to the people and language of the modern country of Turkey.

    At present, there are six independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan. The Turks in Turkey are over 60 million[61] to 70 million worldwide, while the second largest Turkic people are the Azerbaijanis, numbering 22 to 38 million worldwide; most of them live in Azerbaijan and Iran.

    In the Russian Federation there are several Turkic national subdivisions,[62] including Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya. Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language (in addition to Russian).

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China and the autonomous region of Gagauzia, located within eastern Moldova and bordering Ukraine to the north, are two major autonomous Turkic regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine is a home of Crimean Tatars. In addition, there are several communities found in Iraq, Georgia, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and western Mongolia.

    Turks in India are very small in number. There are barely 150 Turkish people from Turkey in India. These are recent immigrants. Descendants of Turkish rulers also exist in Northern India. Mughals who are part Turkic people also live in India in significant numbers. They are descendants of the Mughal rulers of India. Karlugh Turks are also found in the Haraza region and in smaller number in Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan. Small amount of Uyghurs are also present in India. Turks also exist in Pakistan in similar proportions. One of the tribe in Hazara region of Pakistan is Karlugh Turks which is direct descendant of Turks of Central Asia. Turkish influence in Pakistan can be seen through the national language, Urdu, which comes from a Turkish word meaning "horde" or "army".

    The Western Yugur at Gansu in China, Salar at Qinghai in China, the Dolgan at Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia, and the Nogai at Dagestan in Russia are the Turk minorities in the respective regions.

    History

    History of the Turkic peoples
    History of the Turkic peoples
    Pre-14th century
    Turkic Khaganate 552–744
      Western Turkic
      Eastern Turkic
    Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
    Xueyantuo 628–646
    Great Bulgaria 632–668
      Danube Bulgaria
      Volga Bulgaria
    Kangar union 659–750
    Turk Shahi 665–850
    Türgesh Khaganate 699–766
    Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
    Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
    Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
      Western Kara-Khanid
      Eastern Kara-Khanid
    Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
    Qocho 856–1335
    Pecheneg Khanates
    860–1091
    Kimek confederation
    743–1035
    Cumania
    1067–1239
    Oghuz Yabgu State
    750–1055
    Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
    Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
      Sultanate of Rum
    Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
    Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
    Naiman Khanate –1204
    Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
    Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
      Mamluk dynasty
      Khalji dynasty
      Tughlaq dynasty
    Golden Horde | [63][64][65] 1240s–1502
    Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
      Bahri dynasty
    Bengal Sultanate 1352–1487
      Ilyas Shahi dynasty
    Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE

    Origins

    Proposals for the homeland of the Turkic peoples and their language are far-ranging, from the Transcaspian steppe and Northeastern Asia (Manchuria).[66]

    According to Yunusbayev et al. (2015), genetic evidence points to an origin to the region near South Siberia and Mongolia as the "Inner Asian Homeland" of the Turkic ethnicity.[67]

    Similarly several linguists, including Juha Janhunen, Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs, suggest that Mongolia is the homeland of the early Turkic language.[68] According to Robbeets, the Turkic people descend from people who lived in a region extending from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia to the West Liao River Basin (modern Manchuria).[27]

    According to Robbeets, the proto-Turkic people descend from the proto-Transeurasian language community, which lived the West Liao River Basin (modern Manchuria) around 6000 BCE and may be identified with the Xinglongwa culture.[27] They lived as agriculturalists, and later adopted a nomadic lifestyle and started a migration to the west.[27]

    Yunusbayev et al. note that "genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language’s expansion."[26] Yunusbayev et al. found that "most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors."


    Authors Joo-Yup Lee and Shuntu Kuang analyzed 10 years of genetic research on Turkic people and compiled scholarly information about Turkic origins, and said that the early and medieval Turks were not a heterogenous group and that the Turkicization of Eurasia was a result of language diffusion, not a migration of homogenous population.[69]

    Early historical attestation

    Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)

    Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people. According to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period.[70] Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE.[71]

    Xiongnu (3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE)

    Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, Gansu.

    The earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE[71] (contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty).[72] It has often been suggested that the Xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic speakers.[73][74][75][76][77] Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least a considerable part of Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language.[78] Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups.[79][80] A genetic research in 2003, on skeletons from a 2000 year old Xiongnu necropolis in Mongolia, found individuals with similar DNA sequences as modern Turkic groups, supporting the view that at least parts of the Xiongu were of Turkic origin.[81]

    Xiongnu writing, older than Turkic, is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic alphabet, the Orkhon script. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly Xiongu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan and Helan Mountains.[82] Petroglyphs of this region dates from the 9th millennium BCE to the 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images.[83] Excavations done during 1924–1925 in Noin-Ula kurgans located in the Selenga River in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulaanbaatar produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the runic letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley.[84]

    Huns (4th–6th c. CE)

    Huns (c.450 CE)

    The Hun hordes ruled by Attila, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been, at least partially, Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu.[72][85][86] In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC.[87] Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. The issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns are also disputed.

    Some scholars regard the Huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-Mongolian or Yeniseian in origin.[88][89] Linguistic studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen and others have suggested that the language used by the Huns in Europe was too little documented to be classified. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by Huns appear to be Turkic in origin.[90][91]

    Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and later the Uyghur alphabet. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include wolves in Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Turquoise blue (the word turquoise comes from the French word meaning "Turkish") is the color of the stone turquoise still used in jewelry and as a protection against the evil eye.

    Steppe expansions

    Göktürks – Turkic Khaganate (5th–8th c.)

    First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
    The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)

    Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians along the Silk Road.[92] The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (tūjué). A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and established the Turkic Khaganate.[93]

    In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in Inner Asia, the Göktürks assumed leadership of the Turkic peoples. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the nomadic Turkic tribes into the Göktürk Empire on Mongolia and Cental Asia. The name derives from gok, "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khaganate had its temporary Khagans from the Ashina clan, who were subordinate to a sovereign authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khaganate retained elements of its original animistic- shamanistic religion, that later evolved into Tengriism, although it received missionaries of Buddhist monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic in a runic script, the Orkhon script. The Khaganate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk".[94][95]

    The Göktürks (First Turkic Kaganate) quickly spread west to the Caspian Sea. Between 581 and 603 the Western Turkic Khaganate in Kazakhstan separated from the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in Mongolia and Manchuria during a civil war. The Han-Chinese successfully overthrew the Eastern Turks in 630 and created a military Protectorate until 682. After that time the Second Turkic Khaganate ruled large parts of the former Göktürk area. After several wars between Turks, Chinese and Tibetans, the weakened Second Turkic Khaganate was replaced by the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 744.[96]

    Bulgars

    The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century

    The Bulgars established themselves in between the Caspian and Black Seas in the 5th and 6th centuries, followed by their conquerors, the Khazars who converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century. After them came the Pechenegs who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the Cumans and the Kipchaks. One group of Bulgars settled in the Volga region and mixed with local Volga Finns to become the Volga Bulgars in what is today Tatarstan. These Bulgars were conquered by the Mongols following their westward sweep under Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Other Bulgars settled in Southeastern Europe in the 7th and 8th centuries, and mixed with the Slavic population, adopting what eventually became the Slavic Bulgarian language. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees.[93]

    Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200

    The Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The Cuman-Kipchak Confederation and Islamic Volga Bulgaria were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under Uzbeg Khan where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the Kipchak language and were collectively known as "Tatars" by Russians and Westerners. This country was also known as the Kipchak Khanate and covered most of what is today Ukraine, as well as the entirety of modern-day southern and eastern Russia (the European section). The Golden Horde disintegrated into several khanates and hordes in the 15th and 16th century including the Crimean Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, and Kazakh Khanate (among others), which were one by one conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire in the 16th through 19th centuries.

    In Siberia, the Siberian Khanate was established in the 1490s by fleeing Tatar aristocrats of the disintegrating Golden Horde who established Islam as the official religion in western Siberia over the partly Islamized native Siberian Tatars and indigenous Uralic peoples. It was the northern-most Islamic state in recorded history and it survived up until 1598 when it was conquered by Russia.

    Uyghur Khaganate (8th–9th c.)

    Uyghur Khaganate

    The Uyghur empire ruled large parts of Mongolia, Northern and Western China and parts of northern Manchuria. They followed largely Buddhism and animistic traditions. During the same time, the Shatuo Turks emerged as power factor in Northern and Central China and were recognized by the Tang Empire as allied power. The Uyghur empire fall after several wars in the year 840.[96][97]

    The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty

    The Shatuo Turks had founded several short-lived sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names. Some Shaotuo Turks emperors also claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[98][99][100]

    After the fall of the Tang-Dynasty in 907, the Shatuo Turks replaced them and created the Later Tang Dynasty in 923. The Shatuo Turks ruled over a large part of northern China, including Beijing. They adopted Chinese names and united Turkic and Chinese traditions. Later Tang fall in 937 but the Shatuo rose to become one of the most powerful clans of China. They created several other dynasies, including the Later Jin and Later Han. The Shatuo Turks were later assimilated into the Han Chinese ethnic group after they were conquered by the Song dynasty.[97][101]

    The Yenisei Kyrgyz allied with China to destroy the Uyghur Khaganate in 840. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan.

    Central Asia

    Kangar union (659–750)
    Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750

    The Kangar Union (Qanghar Odaghu) was a Turkic state in the former territory of the Western Turkic Khaganate (the entire present-day state of Kazakhstan, without Zhetysu). The ethnic name Kangar is a medieval name for the Kangly people, who are now part of the Kazakh, Uzbek,[102] and Karakalpak nations. The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains. The Pechenegs, three of whose tribes were known as Kangar (Greek: Καγγαρ), after being defeated by the Oghuzes, Karluks, and Kimek-Kypchaks, attacked the Bulgars and established the Pecheneg state in Eastern Europe (840–990 CE).

    Oghuz Yabgu State (766–1055)
    Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)

    The Oguz Yabgu State (Oguz il, meaning "Oguz Land,", "Oguz Country")(750–1055) was a Turkic state, founded by Oghuz Turks in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the Caspian and Aral Seas. Oguz tribes occupied a vast territory in Kazakhstan along the Irgiz, Yaik, Emba, and Uil rivers, the Aral Sea area, the Syr Darya valley, the foothills of the Karatau Mountains in Tien-Shan, and the Chui River valley (see map). The Oguz political association developed in the 9th and 10th centuries in the basin of the middle and lower course of the Syr Darya and adjoining the modern western Kazakhstan steppes.

    Iranian, Indian, Arabic, and Anatolian expansion

    Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Northeastern China, present-day Mongolia, Siberia and the Turkestan-region towards the Iranian plateau, South Asia, and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown.

    Transoxiana – Ghaznavid dynasty (977–1186)

    Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE

    The Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویانġaznaviyān) was a Persianate[103] Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[104] at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent (part of Pakistan) from 977 to 1186.[105][106][107] The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan.[108]

    Although the dynasty was of Central Asian Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits[109][110][111][112] and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty".[113]

    Persia

    Seljuk Empire (1037–1194)
    A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.

    The Seljuk Empire (Persian: آل سلجوق‎, romanizedĀl-e Saljuq, lit. 'House of Saljuq') or the Great Seljuq Empire[114][a] was a high medieval Turko-Persian[117] Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.[118] At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia and the Levant to the Hindu Kush in the east, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf in the south.

    The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg (1016–1063) and his brother Chaghri Beg (989–1060) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade (1095–1099). From c. 1150–1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was invaded by the Mongols around 1260. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirates. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would conquer the rest.

    Timurid Empire (1370–1507)
    Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.

    The Timurid Empire were an Uzbek-based Turkic empire founded in the late 14th century by Timurlane, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur, although a self-proclaimed devout Muslim, brought great slaughter in his conquest of fellow Muslims in neighboring Islamic territory and contributed to the ultimate demise of many Muslim states, including the Golden Horde.

    Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)

    The Safavid dynasty of Persia (1501–1736)were of mixed ancestry (Kurdish[119] and Azerbaijani,[120] which included intermarriages with Georgian,[121] Circassian,[122][123] and Pontic Greek[124] dignitaries). Through intermarriage and other political considerations, the Safavids spoke Persian and Turkish,[125][126] and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp.[127][128] The Safavid dynasty ruled parts of Greater Iran for more than two centuries.[129][130][131][132] and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam[133] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history

    The Afsharid dynasty was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which they belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan to Azerbaijan in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars.[134] During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire.

    South Asia

    The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi-based kingdoms three of which were of Turkic origin in medieval India. These Turkic dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320); and the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414). Southern India, also saw many Turkic origin dynasties like Bahmani Sultanate, Adil Shahi dynasty, Bidar Sultanate, Qutb Shahi dynasty, collectively known as Deccan sultanates.

    The Mughal Empire during the reign of Aurangzeb, around 1700
    Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire and Mughal emperor Humayun.

    The Mughal Empire was a Turkic-founded Indian empire that, at its greatest territorial extent, ruled most of the South Asia, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and parts of Uzbekistan from the early 16th to the early 18th centuries. The Mughal dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Babur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side.[135][136] A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.[135][137][138][139]

    Arabian world

    The Arab Muslim Umayyads and Abbasids fought against the pagan Turks in the Turgesh Khaganate in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. The Medieval Arabs recorded that Medieval Turks looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from the Arabs, calling them "broad faced people with small eyes".[140][141] Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans and Turks resembled each other, and that they often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans.[142]

    Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the 10th century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire.[93]

    Anatolia – Ottomans

    Ottoman empire in 1683

    After many battles, the western Oghuz Turks established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire. The main migration of the Oghuz Turks occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.[93] They also took part in the military encounters of the Crusades.[143] In 1090–91, the Turkic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army.[144]

    As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.[93]

    Islamization

    Turkic peoples like the Karluks (mainly 8th century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Turkmens later came into contact with Muslims, and most of them gradually adopted Islam. Some groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including their original animistic-shamanistic religion, Christianity, Burkhanism, Jews (Khazars, Krymchaks, Crimean Karaites), Buddhism and a small number of Zoroastrians.

    Modern history

    Map highlighting present-day Turkic countries
    Independent Turkic states shown in red

    The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of poor administration, repeated wars with Russia, Austria and Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day Republic of Turkey.[93] Ethnic nationalism also developed in Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, taking the form of Pan-Turkism or Turanism.

    The Turkic peoples of Central Asia were not organized in nation-states during most of the 20th century, after the collapse of the Russian Empire living either in the Soviet Union or (after a short-lived First East Turkestan Republic) in the Chinese Republic.

    In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, five Turkic states gained their independence. These were Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Other Turkic regions such as Tatarstan, Tuva, and Yakutia remained in the Russian Federation. Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.

    Immediately after the independence of the Turkic states, Turkey began seeking diplomatic relations with them. Over time political meetings between the Turkic countries increased and led to the establishment of TÜRKSOY in 1993 and later the Turkic Council in 2009.

    International organizations

    Map of TÜRKSOY members.

    There are several international organizations created with the purpose of furthering cooperation between countries with Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture (TÜRKSOY) and the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking Countries (TÜRKPA) and the Turkic Council.

      Members
      Observer States

    The TAKM – Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status, was established on 25 January 2013. It is an intergovernmental military law enforcement (gendarmerie) organization of currently three Turkic countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey) and Kazakhstan as observer.

    TÜRKSOY

    Türksoy carries out activities to strengthen cultural ties between Turkic peoples. One of the main goals to transmit their common cultural heritage to future generations and promote it around the world.[145]

    Every year, one city in the Turkic world is selected as the "Cultural Capital of the Turkic World". Within the framework of events to celebrate the Cultural Capital of the Turkic World, numerous cultural events are held, gathering artists, scholars and intellectuals, giving them the opportunity to exchange their experiences, as well as promoting the city in question internationally.[146]

    Turkic Council

    The newly established Turkic Council, founded on November 3, 2009 by the Nakhchivan Agreement confederation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey, aims to integrate these organizations into a tighter geopolitical framework.

    The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018.[147] The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006. Turkmenistan is currently not an official member of the council, however, it is a possible future member of the council.[148] Hungary has announced to be interested in joining the Turkic council. Since August 2018, Hungary has officially observer status in the Turkic Council.[149]

    Demographics

    Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris

    The distribution of people of Turkic cultural background ranges from Siberia, across Central Asia, to Southern Europe. As of 2011 the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan, in addition to Turkey and Iran. Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western China, northern Iraq, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland.[150] There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century.

    Sometimes ethnographers group Turkic people into six branches: the Oghuz Turks, Kipchak, Karluk, Siberian, Chuvash, and Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks.

    Much of the Turkic population of Central Asia has significant Caucasoid and Mongoloid ancestry. The genetic distances between the different populations of Uzbeks scattered across Uzbekistan is no greater than the distance between many of them and the Karakalpaks. This suggests that Karakalpaks and Uzbeks have very similar origins. The Karakalpaks have a somewhat greater bias towards the eastern markers than the Uzbeks.[151]

    Historical population:

    Year Population
    1 AD 2–2.5 million?
    2013 150–200 million

    The Turkic people display a great variety of ethnic types.[152] They possess physical features ranging from Caucasoid to Northern Mongoloid. Mongoloid and Caucasoid facial structure is common among many Turkic groups, such as Chuvash people, Tatars, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Bashkirs.

    The following incomplete list of Turkic people shows the respective groups' core areas of settlement and their estimated sizes (in millions):

    People Primary homeland Population Modern language Predominant religion and sect
    Turks Turkey
    60
    70 M
    Turkish Sunni Islam
    Azerbaijanis Iranian Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan
    42
    30–35 M
    Azerbaijani Shia Islam (65%), Sunni Islam (35%)[153][154] (Hanafi).
    Uzbeks Uzbekistan
    32
    28.3 M
    Uzbek Sunni Islam
    Kazakhs Kazakhstan
    15
    13.8 M
    Kazakh Sunni Islam
    Uyghurs Altishahr (China)
    15
    9 M
    Uyghur Sunni Islam
    Turkmens Turkmenistan
    03
    8 M
    Turkmen Sunni Islam
    Tatars Tatarstan (Russia)
    07
    7 M
    Tatar Sunni Islam
    Kyrgyzs Kyrgyzstan
    026
    4.5 M
    Kyrgyz Sunni Islam
    Bashkirs Bashkortostan (Russia)
    009
    2 M
    Bashkir Sunni Islam
    Crimean Tatars Crimea (Russia/Ukraine)
    009
    0.5 to 2 M
    Crimean Tatar Sunni Islam
    Qashqai Southern Iran (Iran)
    009
    0.9 M
    Qashqai Shia Islam
    Chuvashes Chuvashia (Russia)
    010
    1.7 M
    Chuvash Orthodox Christianity
    Karakalpaks Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan)
    007
    0.6 M
    Karakalpak Sunni Islam
    Yakuts Yakutia (Russia)
    007
    0.5 M
    Sakha Orthodox Christianity
    Kumyks Dagestan (Russia)
    007
    0.4 M
    Kumyk Sunni Islam
    Karachays and Balkars Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia)
    007
    0.4 M
    Karachay-Balkar Sunni Islam
    Tuvans Tuva (Russia)
    009
    0.3 M
    Tuvan Tibetan Buddhism
    Gagauzs Gagauzia (Moldova)
    009
    0.2 M
    Gagauz Orthodox Christianity
    Turkic Karaites and Krymchaks Ukraine
    007
    0.2 M
    Karaim and Krymchak Judaism

    Cuisine

    Markets in the steppe region had a limited range of foodstuffs available—mostly grains, dried fruits, spices, and tea. Turks mostly herded sheep, goats and horses. Dairy was a staple of the nomadic diet and there are many Turkic words for various dairy products such as süt (milk), yagh (butter), ayran, qaymaq (similar to clotted cream), qi̅mi̅z (fermented mare's milk) and qurut (dried yoghurt). During the Middle Ages Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Tatars, who were historically part of the Turkic nomadic group known as the Golden Horde, continued to develop new variations of dairy products.[155]

    Nomadic Turks cooked their meals in a qazan, a pot similar to a cauldron; a wooden rack called a qasqan can be used to prepare certain steamed foods, like the traditional meat dumplings called manti. They also used a saj, a griddle that was traditionally placed on stones over a fire, and shish. In later times, the Persian tava was borrowed from the Persians for frying, but traditionally nomadic Turks did most of their cooking using the qazan, saj and shish. Meals were served in a bowl, called a chanaq, and eaten with a knife (bïchaq) and spoon (qashi̅q). Both bowl and spoon were historically made from wood. Other traditional utensils used in food preparation included a thin rolling pin called oqlaghu, a colander called süzgu̅çh, and a grinding stone called tāgirmān.[155]

    Medieval grain dishes included preparations of whole grains, soups, porridges, breads and pastries. Fried or toasted whole grains were called qawïrmach, while köchä was crushed grain that was cooked with dairy products. Salma were broad noodles that could be served with boiled or roasted meat; cut noodles were called tutmaj in the Middle Ages and are called kesme today.[155]

    There are many types of bread doughs in Turkic cuisine. Yupqa is the thinnest type of dough, bawi̅rsaq is a type of fried bread dough, and chälpäk is a deep fried flat bread. Qatlama is a fried bread that may be sprinkled with dried fruit or meat, rolled, and sliced like pinwheel sandwiches. Toqach and chöräk are varieties of bread, and böräk is a type of filled pie pastry.[155]

    Herd animals were usually slaughtered during the winter months and various types of sausages were prepared to preserve the meats, including a type of sausage called sujuk. Though prohibited by Islamic dietary restrictions, historically Turkic nomads also had a variety of blood sausage. One type of sausage, called qazi̅, was made from horsemeat and another variety was filled with a mixture of ground meat, offal and rice. Chopped meat was called qïyma and spit-roasted meat was söklünch—from the root sök- meaning "to tear off", the latter dish is known as kebab in modern times. Qawirma is a typical fried meat dish, and kullama is a soup of noodles and lamb.[155]

    Religion

    A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.

    Early Turkic mythology and Tengrism

    Pre-Islamic Turkic mythology was dominated by Shamanism, Animism and Tengrism. The Turkic animistic traditions were mostly focused on ancestor worship, polytheistic-animism and shamanism. Later this animistic tradition would form the more organized Tengrism.[156] The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire in 763.

    The wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the Göktürks. The horse and predatory birds, such as the eagle or falcon, are also main figures of Turkic mythology.[citation needed]

    Religious conversions

    Buddhism

    Tengri Bögü Khan made the now extinct Manichaeism the state religion of Uyghur Khaganate in 763 and it was also popular in Karluks. It was gradually replaced by the Mahayana Buddhism.[citation needed] It existed in the Buddhist Uyghur Gaochang up to the 12th century.[157]

    Tibetan Buddhism, or Vajrayana was the main religion after Manichaeism.[158] They worshipped Täŋri Täŋrisi Burxan,[159] Quanšï Im Pusar[160] and Maitri Burxan.[161] Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia. The Sari Uygurs "Yellow Yughurs" of Western China, as well as the Tuvans and Altai of Russia are the only remaining Buddhist Turkic peoples.

    Islam

    Most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims, although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism.

    The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash of Chuvashia and the Gagauz (Gökoğuz) of Moldova. The traditional religion of the Chuvash of Russia, while containing many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrianism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam. The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the 19th century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith.[162] Church of the East was popular among Turks such as the Naimans.[163] It even revived in Gaochang and expanded in Xinjiang in the Yuan dynasty period.[164][165][166] It disappeared after its collapse.[167][168]

    Today there are several groups that support a revival of the ancient traditions. Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many in Central Asia converted or openly practice animistic and shamanistic rituals. It is estimated that about 60% of Kyrgyz people practice a form of animistic rituals. In Kazakhstan there are about 54.000 followers of the ancient traditions.[169][170]

    Muslim Turks and non-Muslim Turks
    Uyghur king from Turpan region attended by servants

    The Muslim Kara-Khanid Turks performed a mass conversion campaign against the Buddhist Uyghur Turks during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang.

    The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri and other gods was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them – The Infidels – May God destroy them![171][172]

    The Basmil, Yabāḳu and Uyghur states were among the Turkic peoples who fought against the Kara-Khanids spread of Islam. The Islamic Kara-Khanids were made out of Tukhai, Yaghma, Çiğil and Karluk.[173]

    Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu.[174] The Yabaqu were a Turkic people.[175]

    The Muslim Kara-Khanid Turk Mahmud Kashgari insulted the Uyghur Buddhists as "Uighur dogs" and called them "Tats", which referred to the "Uighur infidels" according to the Tuxsi and Taghma, while other Turks called Persians "tat".[176][177] While Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turks diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uighur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks.[178][172]

    Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)

    Old sports

    The Kyz kuu (chase the girl) – it has been played by Turkic people at festivals since time immemorial.[179]

    The Jereed – Horses have been essential and even sacred animals for Turks living as nomadic tribes in the Central Asian steppes. Turks were born, grew up, lived, fought and died on horseback. So became jereed the most important sporting and ceremonial game of Turkish people.[180]

    The kokpar began with the nomadic Turkic peoples who have come from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries.[181]

    The jigit which is used in the Caucasus and Central Asia to describe a skillful and brave equestrian, or a brave person in general.[182]

    Gallery

    Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes

    Images of Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes.

    Medieval times

    Modern times

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ In order to distinguish from the Anatolian branch of the family, the Sultanate of Rum.[115][116]

    References

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    2. ^ Deutsches Orient-Institut, Orient, Vol. 41, Alfred Röper Publushing, 2000, p. 611
    3. ^ Yunusbayev, B; Metspalu, M; Metspalu, E; Valeev, A; Litvinov, S; Valiev, R; Akhmetova, V; Balanovska, E; Balanovsky, O; Turdikulova, S; Dalimova, D; Nymadawa, P; Bahmanimehr, A; Sahakyan, H; Tambets, K; Fedorova, S; Barashkov, N; Khidiyatova, I; Mihailov, E; Khusainova, R; Damba, L; Derenko, M; Malyarchuk, B; Osipova, L; Voevoda, M; Yepiskoposyan, L; Kivisild, T; Khusnutdinova, E; Villems, R (2015). "The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia". PLoS Genet. 11: e1005068. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068. PMC 4405460. PMID 25898006.
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    Further reading

    • Alpamysh, H.B. Paksoy: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford: AACAR, 1989)
    • H. B. Paksoy (1989). Alpamysh: Central Asian Identity Under Russian Rule. AACAR. ISBN 978-0-9621379-9-0.
    • Amanjolov A.S., "History of the Ancient Turkic Script", Almaty, "Mektep", 2003, ISBN 9965-16-204-2
    • Baichorov S.Ya., "Ancient Turkic runic monuments of the Europe", Stavropol, 1989 (in Russian).
    • Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages. Moscow (in Russian).
    • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009): Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
    • Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. Turkic languages in contact. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05212-0.
    • Chavannes, Édouard (1900): Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. Paris, Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969.
    • Clausen, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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