ابوجعفر، محمد بن علی الجواد التقی (به عربی: محمد بن علی الجواد) نهمین امام شیعیان که از وی با عنوان امام محمد تقی یا امام جواد یاد میکنند. کنیهاش «ابوجعفر» و لقب او «جواد» و «تقی» میباشد. وی فرزند علی بن موسی الرضا و سبیکه بوده که در ۱۰ رجب سال ۱۹۵ هجری در مدینه به دنیا آمد.
از پیغمبر اسلام نقل شدهاست که گفت: «بِأَبي ابْنِ خِيَرَةِ الإماءِ النَوبِيةِ الطَيِّبَةِ (ترجمه: پدرم فدای پسر بهترین کنیزان که اهل نوبه و پاکیزه است) ». همچنین شیخ صدوق نقل میکند که: ... الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهما السّلام قال: دخلت على رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم فقال: ... و إنّ اللّه عزّ و جلّ ركّب في صلبه [أي في صلب أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السّلام] نطفة مباركة، طيّبة، زكيّة، رضيّة، مرضيّة. و سمّاها محمد بن علي، فهو شفيع شيعته، و وارث علم جدّه، له علامة بيّنة و حجّة ظاهرة ... (ترجمه: راوی میگوید: نزد پیغمبر (ص) رفتم. گفت: خدای -عزوجل- از پشت او [امام رضا] نطفهای فرخنده، پاک، نیکو، پسندیده، موردخشنودی کردهاست و «محمد علی» نامیدهاستش. او شفیع پیروانش و وارث دانش نیایش است. دانش آشکار و حجتی و نمایان دارد...) .
در تاریخ گفتهاند که علی بن موسای رضا سالها بچهدار نمیشد و امام موسی بن جعفر به وی مژدهٔ فرزندی داد. شیخ کلینی نیز نقل میکند: عن يزيد بن سليط الزيدي، قال: لقيت أبا إبراهيم عليه السّلام و نحن نريد العمرة ... قال لي: يا يزيد! و إذا مررت بهذا الموضع و لقيته [أي علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السّلام] و ستلقاه، فبشّره: أنّه سيولد له غلام، أمين، مأمون، مبارك ... (ترجمه: راوی گوید: میخواستیم به عمره رویم که امام کاظم (ع) را دیدم... به من فرمود: یزید! هنگامی که از آنجا گذشتی و دیدیش [امام رضا را] -که او را خواهی دید- به نوید ده که پسری خواهد زایید که امانتدار و ایمن و خجسته است ...) .
هنگام کشتهشدن علی بن موسی الرضا در خراسان، جواد حدود ۸ سال سن داشت و برای همین شیعیان آن زمان به امامت او شک کردند و در این رابطه جلسههای پرسش و پاسخ برگزار نمودند. محمد تقی اولین امامی بود که در خردسالی به این مقام میرسید. به اعتقاد شیعه رضا پیش از مرگش، او را بهعنوان امام بعد از خود معرفی کرده بود.
سالشمار امامت امامان دوازدهگانه شیعه
علی المرتضی ۶۳۲ تا ۶۶۱ (۲۹ سال) (۱) حسن المجتبی ۶۶۱ تا ۶۷۰ (۹ سال) (۲) حسین الشهید ۶۷۰ تا ۶۸۰ (۱۰ سال) (۳) علی السجاد ۶۸۰ تا ۷۱۲ (۳۲ سال) (۴) محمد الباقر ۷۱۲ تا ۷۳۲ (۲۰ سال) (۵) جعفر الصادق ۷۳۲ تا ۷۶۵ (۳۳ سال) (۶)موسی الکاظم ۷۶۵ تا ۷۹۹ (۳۴ سال) (۷) علی الرضا ۷۹۹ تا ۸۱۷ (۱۸ سال) (۸) (۹) محمد التقی ۸۱۷ تا ۸۳۵ (۱۸ سال)علی النقی ۸۳۵ تا ۸۶۸ (۳۳ سال) (۱۰) حسن العسکری ۸۶۷ تا ۸۷۴ (۷ سال) (۱۱) محمد المهدی از ۸۷۴ تا زمان حال (تاکنون ۱۱۴۰ سال) (۱۲)
بعد از کشتهشدن رضا و به امامت رسیدن جواد، به دستور مأمون او را از مدینه به بغداد منتقل کردند و دخترش امفضل را به ازدواجش درآوردند که شیعیان این ازدواج را تحمیلی و با اهداف سیاسی میدانند. محمد تقی از دختر مأمون فرزندی نداشت و فرزندانش ماحصل ازدواجش با زن دیگری به نام سمانهٔ مغربیه بودهاند.
جواد با وجود فشارهای حاکمان بنیعباس، اصحاب و شاگردان زیادی تربیت کرد که نام آنها در برخی کتب شیعه در حدود ۲۶۰ نفر ذکر شده که عبدالعظیم حسنی، ابوهاشم جعفری، ابراهیم بن مهزیار اهوازی، حسین بن سعید اهوازی، دعبل خزاعی، حسن بن محبوب سراد کوفی، اسماعیل بن بزیع و صفوان بن یحیی از معروفترینشان هستند.
محمد تقی در چند نوبت با فقیهان بزرگ زمان خود مناظراتی برگزار کرد که اغلب در مجلس خلیفهٔ وقت صورت میگرفت. از جملهٔ مناظرهکنندگان با او، یحیی بن اکثم (فقیه و مشاور مأمون و بعدها قاضیالقضات مسلمین) و ابن ابیداود (فقیه مورد وثوق مأمون و معتصم و قاضی بغداد در زمان متوکل) بودند. نقل شده در هنگام مناظره با ابن اکثم که در زمان مأمون انجام شد، سن جواد ۹ سال بودهاست. درخشش او در این مناظره در نوع استدلال و تکیه بر اصول فقه اسلامی چنان زیاد بود که خلیفه را به تحسینش واداشت. در مناظره با ابن ابیداود، معتصم حکم فقهی صادر شده از جواد را به دلیل استدلال قرآنی او بر حکم فقهی ابن ابیداود ترجیح داده و دستور به اجرای آن داد.
در سال ۲۱۸ هجری جواد به همراه همسرش سمانه و پسرش هادی به سفر حج رفتند که در همان سال مأمون مرد و مردم با برادش معتصم بیعت کردند. محمد تقی فرزندش را در مدینه گذاشته و خود و همسرش به عراق برگشتند. رابطهٔ میان او و معتصم خوب نبود و به همین جهت خلیفه سعی میکرد وی را از بین ببرد.
در مرگ جواد چند قول مشهور است که در همهٔ موارد دستداشتن معتصم و مسمومشدن او وجود دارد. یک قول میگوید که توسط همسرش به دستور خلیفه مسوم شده و بنابه قولی دیگر به وسیلهٔ شخصی به نام «اشناس» به دستور معتصم شربت مسومی را به وی مینوشانند و وی را در ۲۵ سالگی، مسموم و به قتل میرسانند. مرگ او در آخر ذیالقعده سال ۲۲۰ هجری و در بغداد رخ دادهاست.
نوشتار اصلی: حرم کاظمین
آرامگاه جواد در شهر کاظمین در شمال بغداد و در کنار جدش موسی کاظم است و یکی از گنبدهای این حرم متعلق به اوست. حرم کاظمین یکی از مهمترین زیارتگاههای شیعیان در عراق به شمار میرود و روزانه مورد بازدید هزاران نفر قرار میگیرد. در نزدیکی این حرم، آرامگاه شیخ مفید (اولین مرجع تقلید شیعه بعد از غیبت کبری)، خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی، سید مرتضی و برادرش سید رضی، ابن قولویه و برخی دیگر از علمای بزرگ شیعه وجود دارد.
پیوند به بیرون
Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā (Arabic: محمد ابن علی ابن موسی ) sometimes called Abu Ja'far was known as al-Jawād (The generous) and al-Taqī (the pious).He was a descendant of Prophet Muhammad and the ninth Shia Imam after his father Ali al-Ridha and before his son Ali al-Hadi. After Ali al-Ridha's death, the Abbasid Caliph, al-Ma'mun, summoned al-Jawad to himself, and to keep him in Baghdad, he got his daughter to marry him. Later on, al-Jawad was allowed to return to Medina, where he devoted his life to teaching. After Al-Ma'mun's death, however, he was summoned to Baghdad again, and according to Shiite accounts was poisoned by his wife, the daughter of al-Ma'mun, at the instigation of the new caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Dying at the age of 25, he was the shortest-lived of the Twelve Imams.
Quotations related to Muhammad al-Taqī al-Jawād at Wikiquote
Birth and early life
Muhammad (ibn Ali) known as al-Jawad and al-Taqi was also called Ibn al-Ridha (the son of al-Ridha), though his father would call him with the name Abu Ja'far;. In order not to be confused with Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam, who was also called Abu Ja'far, historians have mentioned this Imam as Abu Ja'far the Second. He was born in Medina, and according to Kulaini, his mother was a bondmaid from Nubia whose name was Habibi. However, some say that she was Khaizaran, a girl from the Byzantine Empire, and some others believe she was of the household of Maria al-Qibtiyya who was the slave mother of Muhammad's little son Ibrahim.
Al-Jawad's father, Ali al-Ridha, used to tell his companions that he expected a son who would take the position of Imamate after him. However, it took Shiites a long time before they could see the mentioned son with their own eyes. He was only four years old when his father left him behind in Medina to respond al-Ma'mun's summon who asked him to go there and be his successor. The Shiites could not help asking whether a child at that age could take on such a responsibility if something happened to Imam Ali al-Ridha; and al-Ridha used to illustrate the story of Jesus who had become a prophet at a younger age.
Muhammad al-Jawad was called al-Jawad (the generous) due to his benevolence to people. It is said that even in his early life when his father was away in Khorasan (Iran), his companions used to make him leave his house through a gate where he would not be bothered by those who used to gather at his door in the hope of being helped. It is said that upon hearing this his father, Ali al-Ridha, wrote a letter to him from Khorasan advising him not to listen to those who would tell him not to enter and leave (the house) through the main gate, explaining that it was because of their stinginess in that they feared someone may receive some goodness (alms) from him, "Whenever you want to go out, keep some gold and silver with you. No one should ask you for anything without your giving it to him. If one of your uncles asks you to be pious to him, do not give him less than fifty dinars, and you may give him more if you want. If one of your aunts asks you, do not give her less than twenty-five dinars, and you may give her more if you want...." wrote Ali al-Ridha.
Early maturity and his Imamate
Muhammad al-Jawad, who was also called al-Taqi, (meaning "the Pious") was nine years of age (some say seven) at the time of his father's death in Korasan (Iran), however, he did not act upon childish impulses. His possession of extraordinary knowledge at a young age is said to be similar to that of the Islamic tradition of Jesus who was called to leadership and his prophetic mission while still a child.[a]
The Shiite account of al-Ma'mun's first meeting with Muhammad al-Jawad is interesting. Once when al-Ma'mun was out hunting with his hunting birds he passed through a road where boys were playing. Among them was Muhammad al-Jawad. When al-Ma'mun's horsemen approached the boys ran away except al-Jawad who remained there. Noting this al-Ma'mun stopped his carriage and asked, "Boy, what kept you from running away with the others?" Al-Jawad replied, "The road was not so narrow that I should fear there would not be room for you to pass, and I have not been guilty of any offence that I should be afraid, and I considered that you were the sort of man who would not injure one who had done no wrong." The Caliph was very delighted, after he had gone on a short distance one of his hunting birds brought him a small fish, which he hid in his fist and returned and asked the boy, who was still standing there "What have I in my hand?" The young Imam answered that the "The creator of living things has created in the sea a small fish that is fished by the falcons of the kings and caliphs to try with it the progeny of al-Mustafa. Al-Ma'mun was much pleased and asked the child about his lineage, to which Imam al-Jawad responded accordingly. It was soon after this that the Caliph called together a great gathering in which all kinds of questions were asked from the young Imam, who astonished them all with his judgment and learning. After which al-Ma'mun declared formally that he gave him his daughter in marriage thereby.
It is said that Yahya ibn Aktham, the Chief Justice of the Abbasid empire, who was also present at al-Ma'mun's assembly, was ready to try the Imam in presence of al-Ma'mun by asking a question concerning the atonement for a person who hunts a game while he was dressed in the pilgrimage garb (Ihram), to which the young Imam responded by asking first:"whether the game killed was outside the sanctified area or inside it; whether the hunter was aware of his sin or did so in ignorance; did he kill the game on purpose or by mistake, was the hunter a slave or a free man, was he adult or minor, did he commit the sin for the first time or had he done so before, was the hunted game a bird or something else, was it a small animal or a big one, is the sinner sorry for the misdeed or does he insist on it, did he kill it secretly at night or openly during daylight, was he putting on the pilgrimage garb for Hajj or for the Umrah?..." which astonished Abbasid who were critical of al-Ma'mun who wanted to marry his daughter to al-Jawad.
Another assembly was held in Medina when a number of prominent men (who took account of al-Jawad's youth and were in doubt as to whether he was really the Imam) from all over the Islamic world came to the annual pilgrimage; and it is said that they were so impressed with him that their doubts were eliminated. Kulaini narrates that the superintendent of the Shrine gave him a test that "lasted for several days, in which he answered thirty thousand questions to their great amazement!"
Marriage and lifestyle during Abbasid rule
According to Shiite traditions, after al-Ma'mun poisoned Ali al-Ridha, he summoned his son, al-Jawad, from Medina to Baghdad in order to marry his daughter, Ummul Fadhl in spite of the Abbasid's strenuous attempts to forestall it. According to Ya'qubi he bestowed upon the bridgroom, one hundred thousand Dirham , and said, "Surely I would like to be a grandfather in the line of the Apostle of God and of Ali ibn Abu Talib." However, the next Imam Ali al-Hadi was not the son of Ummul Fadhl, the daughter of Ma'mun, but was born from a slave girl named Sumaneh, who was originally a Berber (from the Maghreb i.e. Northwest Africa). Nevertheless, al-Ma'mun showed his continued interest and regard for the Shiites and the young Imam would come to the Ma'mun's palace for conversation with the learned men he would meet there from time to time.
After living in Baghdad for eight years, al-Jawad along with Umul Fadhl returned to Medina. There he found his relationship with his wife strained and upon the death of al-Ma'mun in 833 his fortunes deteriorated. Since Umul Fazal did not have any issues (children) Muhammad al-Jawad married a slave girl who gave him a son and successor, Ali al-Hadi. Ummul Fadhl remained spiteful towards al-Jawad until she assassinated him with poison, as some historians say. The successor to his father-in-law was Al-Mu'tasim who imperiled al-Jawad's position with the dislike he had for the young Imam. In 835 the Caliph called him back to Baghdad. The latter left his son Ali al-Hadi (the tenth Shiite Imam) with his mother Soumaneh and set out for Baghdad, where he resided for one more year before he died.
After marriage with al-Ma'mun's daughter, al-Jawad was allowed to return to Medina with his wife. His married life, however, is said to have been unhappy as the manner of his wife was not favorable. In order to create enmity against him she used to write to her father disapproving letters about her husband saying that he associated with slave girls. Nevertheless, al-Ma'mun did not heed her complaints declaring that if she ever came to see him again with complaints against her husband, he would refuse to see her. The Imam al-Jawad, therefore, was not arrested or harassed during the rule of Ma'mun. After the death of Ma'mun, his brother, Al-Mu'tasim, sent for the Imam to come to Baghdad. This was in the beginning of the year in which the Imam died. There are various accounts of the circumstances of his death. According to Ibn Sheher Ashoob it was al-Mu'tasim who encouraged al-Ma'mun's daughter, Umul Fazal, to poison him. He died, thus, in the year 220/835 and was buried beside the grave of his grandfather Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Shitte Shi’ah Imam) within Al-Kadhimiya Mosque, in Kadhimayn, Iraq– a popular site for visitation and pilgrimage by Shiite Muslims.