محمد بن علی سنوسی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
محمد بن علی سنوسی
پایه‌گذار سلسله سنوسیه
Sidi Mohammad Ibn Ali al-Sanussi.jpg
جانشینمحمد ال سنوسیه
خاندانسنوسیه
پدرسید علی سنوسیه
زادروز1787
مستغانم,  الجزایر
مرگ1859
جغبوب,  لیبی
دین و مذهباسلام سنی (تصوف)

محمد ابن علی سنوسی الخطابی الحسنی الادریسی مشهور به سنوسی کبیر، (به انگلیسی: Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi)،(به عربی: محمد بن علی السنوسی) (۱۲۳۸-۱۱۶۶ هجری خورشیدی) (۱۸۵۹-۱۷۸۷ میلادی)، بنیانگذار طریقت سنوسیه بود. این طریقت در ۱۸۳۷ بنیانگذاری گردید.

وی در وستیا، نزدیک شهر مستغانم در الجزایر زاده شد.

منابع[ویرایش]

مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا. «Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، بازبینی‌شده در ۲۱ ژانویه ۲۰۱۲.

Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi
Founder of the Senussi dynasty
SuccessorPrince Muhammad
Born1787
Mostaganem, Ottoman Empire Ottoman Algeria
Died1859
Jaghbub, Libya, Ottoman Empire Ottoman Tripolitania
HouseSenussi
FatherSayyid Ali as-Senussi
ReligionIslam

Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi in full Sīdī Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Sanūsī al-Mujāhirī al-Ḥasanī al-Idrīsī, (1787–1859) was an Arab Muslim theologian and leader who founded of the Senussi mystical order in 1837. His militant mystical movement proved very significant and helped Libya to win its freedom from Italy on 10 February 1947. Omar Mukhtar was one of the most significant leaders of the Senussi military campaign launched by Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi. Al-Sanūsī’s grandson Idrīs I ruled as king of Libya from 1951 to 1969.[1]

Life

Al-Senussi was born in al-Wasita near Mostaganem, Algeria,[2] and was named al-Senussi after a venerated Muslim teacher. He was a member of the Walad Sidi Abdalla tribe, and was a sharif tracing his descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Mohammed.[citation needed] He took his last name from one of his teachers, who hailed from the Beni Snous Berbers of the Tlemcen region. He studied at a madrassa in Fez, Morocco and was instructed in religious orders in Morocco, then traveled in the Sahara preaching a purifying reform of the faith in Tunisia and Tripoli, gaining many adherents, and thence moved to Cairo to study at Al-Azhar University.[citation needed]

Unable to cross Algeria because of the French occupation, the beginning, the centre of Imam Mohammed Ali El Senussi’s call was Jebel Akhdar and he built a mosque in Bayda of Cyrenaica and named it after himself, then he moved to Jaghbub in Cyrenaica from where the mosques spread to the remaining cities of Barqa and Tripoli.[3]

He built a great mosque and a university, which was shut down on the orders of Muammar al-Gaddafi in 1984; at the same time, the graves and remains of the Senussi family were desecrated.[citation needed] After the death of Muhammad as-Sanussi his son Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi bin Sayyid Muhammad as-Senussi (1859–1902) became the new leader of the Senussi order, and moved it south from Jaghbub to Kufra.[2] His grandson through Muhammad became King Idris, the only King of Libya.[citation needed]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
ibn Ali
as-Senussi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
as-Sharif
as-Senussi
 
 
Muhammad al-Mahdi
bin Muhammad
as-Senussi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmed
as-Sharif
as-Senussi
 
 
 
Muhammad
al-Abid
as-Senussi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
ar-Reda
 
King Idris I
of Libya
 
Queen Fatimah
as-Sharif
 
az-Zubayr
bin Ahmad
as-Sharif
 
Abdullah bin
Muhammad al-
Abid as-Senussi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan
as-Senussi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmed
as-Senussi

(member
of NTC)
 
Idris bin
Abdullah
as-Senussi

(claimant)
 
 
 
Mohammed
as-Senussi

References

  • S. Khuda Bukhsh, Studies Indian and Islamic, Routledge 2001, p. 28 ISBN 0-415-24464-1 [1] (retrieved 26-09-2011)

Notes

  1. ^ "Al-Sanūsī | Islamic religious leader". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  2. ^ a b Shillington, Kevin (2005) "Libya: Muhammad Al-Sanusi (c.1787–1859) and the Sanusiyya" Encyclopedia of African History Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, p. 830-831, ISBN 1-57958-245-1
  3. ^ The Senussi Family Archived 2012-12-26 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 1 October 2011.
Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi
Senussi dynasty
Born: 1787
Religious titles
Preceded by
None
Chief of the Senussi order
1843-1859
Succeeded by
Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi