مالک بن نویره

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مالک بن نویره از سران قبیله بنی‌تمیم بود که در زمان محمد اسلام آورد اما پس از او با ابوبکر بیعت نکرد و صدقات جمع شده را برای او نفرستاد. ابوبکر او را بخاطر نپرداختن زکات متهم به ارتداد کرد و خالد بن ولید را به سوی او فرستاد. خالد مالک را ابتدا اسیر کرد و سپس کشت و با همسرش همبستر شد و مرتکب زنا شد. [۱] جنایتی که (خالدبن ولید)در حق مالک انجام داد موجب اعتراض عمر بن خطاب به ابوبکر شد اما ابوبکر اعلام کرد که خالد خطا کرده است۴)ابن الاثیر، اسد الغابة، ۱۴۲۲ق، ج۴، ص۴۰ [۲]

مالک یکی از دوستداران اهل بیت پیامبر و حامی خلافت علی بن ابی‌طالب معرفی گردیده است که در حضور پیغمبر اسلام ایمان به ولایت علی آورده است و نپرداختن زکات به ابوبکر باعث مرتد دانستن او شده است.[۳]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. «ماجرای قتل مالک بن نویره». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۱ فوریه ۲۰۱۳. دریافت‌شده در ۲۵ دسامبر ۲۰۱۲.
  2. «کشتن مالک بن نویره». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۱۱ مارس ۲۰۱۳. دریافت‌شده در ۲۵ دسامبر ۲۰۱۲.
  3. http://www.aqaed.com/faq/5424/

Malik ibn Nuwaira (Arabic: مالك بن نويرة‎), also spelled as Malik ibn Nuwera, was a Sahabi and chief of the Bani Yarbu', a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim which inhabited the north-eastern region of Arabia, between Bahrain and Najd. The tribe was pagan until Islam came to Arabia. The centre of Malik's clan was Butah.

Famous for his generosity and hospitality, Malik is said to have kept a light burning outside his house all night so that any traveller passing that way would know where to find shelter and food. He would get up during the night to check the light. A strikingly handsome man, he had a thick head of hair and his face, a contemporary has said, was "as fine as the moon." He was skilful in the use of weapons and noted for his courage and chivalry, and he was an accomplished poet. Malik possessed all the qualities which the Arabs looked for in the perfect male. He was married to Layla bint al-Minhal who was considered to be one of the most beautiful women in Arabia.

In view of his distinguished position in the tribe and his unquestionable talents, Muhammad appointed him as an officer over the clan of Bani Handhalah. His main responsibility was the collection of taxes and their despatch to Madinah. Later, when the news of Muhammed's death reached Butah, Malik had just collected a good deal of tax but not yet despatched it to Madinah. He at once opened the coffers and returned the money to the taxpayers. "O Bani Handhalah!" he announced, "your wealth is now our own."

Malik was a chief of some distinction; a warrior, noted for his generosity; and a famous poet. Bravery, generosity and poetry were the three qualities most admired among the Arabs.

Attack on Malik ibn Nuwayra

During the Ridda wars, which broke out in Arabia after the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr sent his most talented general, Khalid bin Waleed, into Najd with 4000 men, to submit the tribes of the surrounding areas. Malik was guilty for his acts against the state of Madinah. After the death of Muhammad, he broke in open revolt against Madinah. At the time of Muhammad, he had been appointed as a tax collector for the Tribe of Banu Tamim. As soon as Malik heard of the appointment of Abu Bakr as caliph, he gave back all the tax to his tribesmen, saying that "I will only pay taxes to the man chosen at Ghadeer " (Ali ibn Abu Taleb)[citation needed]. He gave back all the tax to his tribes people, saying that "Now you are the owner of your wealth".[1] Moreover he was to be charged because he signed a pact with the self-proclaimed prophet Sajjah. This agreement stated that first they would deal with local enemy tribes together, and then they would confront the state of Madinah.[2] When Malik heard about Khalid bin Walid's victories against powerful Arab tribes, he ordered his tribesmen not to engage the approaching Khalid in battle, to stay at home, and hope for peace.[3] Malik himself apparently moved away across the desert with his family. Also, so as to prove himself loyal to the state of Madinah (the future Islamic empire), he collected the tax and sent it to Madinah. His riders were stopped by Khalid's army at the town of Battah. Khalid asked them about the signing of a pact with Sajjah but they said it was only to exact revenge on their terrible enemies.[4] When Khalid reached Najd, he found no opposing army, so he sent his cavalry to nearby villages and ordered them to call the Azaan (call for prayers) to each party they meet. Zirrar bin Azwar, a group leader, arrested the family of Malik claiming they did not answer the call to prayer.

Malik ibn Nuwayra's Death

Sunni View

When arrested, Malik was asked by Khalid about his crimes. Malik's response was "your master said this your master said that" referring to the caliph Abu bakir. Khalid declared Malik a rebel apostate and ordered his execution and then married his wife, Layla bint al-Minhal. Although Shia claim that Khalid married his wife on the same night, the Sunni argue that Islamically, Khalid would have had to wait for her to complete the waiting period or iddah of a widow which is four months and ten days before he would have been able to marry her. Abu Qatada al-Ansari was a companion of Muhammad who accompanied Khalid from Medina. He was so shocked at Malik's murder by Khalid that he immediately returned to Medina telling Abu Bakr that he would not serve under a commander who had killed a Muslim.[5] The death of Malik and Khalid's taking of his wife, Layla, created a controversy. Some officers of his army—including a prominent companion of Muhammad, Abu Qatadah—believed that Khalid killed Malik to take his wife. After the pressure exerted by Umar—Khalid's cousin and one of Caliph Abu Bakr's main advisors—Abu Bakr called Khalid back to Madina to explain himself.

Umar demanded from Abu Bakr the immediate dismissal of Khalid. He said that Khalid had to be put on trial for the twin crimes of murder and adultery. According to Islamic law, Khalid had to be stoned to death. But Abu Bakr defended Khalid, and said that he had simply made "an error of judgment and how can I punish the one whose sword is praised by Allah" [6]

Shia View

When arrested, Malik was asked by Khalid about his crimes. Khalid's interpretation of Malik's response was "your master said this, your master said that" (referring to Abu Bakr). Khalid understood this to be a transparent attempt by Malik to save his own life by any means at his disposal. Khalid declared Malik a rebel apostate and ordered his execution.[7] Khalid ordered Malik's killing because in his view Malik had betrayed the Islamic state of Madinah. He ordered the execution. Umar ibn Al Khattab ordered Khalid to be punished, but Abu Bakr defended him saying it was "How can I punish the one whose sword is praised by Allah."

See also

References

  1. ^ reference=al-Balazuri: book no: 1, page no:107.
  2. ^ reference=al-Tabari: Vol. 2, page no: 496.
  3. ^ reference= Tabari: Vol. 2, Page no: 501-502.
  4. ^ reference= Tabari: Vol. p. 501-2.
  5. ^ (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, Ali Razwy, Chapter 55)
  6. ^ (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, Ali Razwy, Chapter 55)
  7. ^ reference=Tabari: Vol. 2, Page no: 5)

External links