مارس

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ش ی د س چ پ ج
۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶
۷ ۸ ۹ ۱۰ ۱۱ ۱۲ ۱۳
۱۴ ۱۵ ۱۶ ۱۷ ۱۸ ۱۹ ۲۰
۲۱ ۲۲ ۲۳ ۲۴ ۲۵ ۲۶ ۲۷
۲۸ ۲۹ ۳۰ ۳۱  
۲۰۲۰ میلادی

مارس (به فرانسوی: Mars) سومین ماه سال میلادی در گاهشماری گریگوری و گاه‌شماری ژولینی است. این ماه یکی از هفت ماهی است که ۳۱ روز دارد.

مارس در نیم‌کرهٔ شمالی از نظر فصلی با ماه سپتامبر در نیم‌کرهٔ جنوبی برابر است. در نیم‌کرهٔ شمالی آغاز فصل بهار در ۲۱ مارس است در حالی که این روز در نیم‌کرهٔ جنوبی نخستین روز پاییز است.

مارس در همان روزی از هفته آغاز می‌شود که نوامبر و فوریه در سال‌های معمولی آغاز می‌شوند و در روزی از هفته تمام می‌شود که ژوئن در آن به پایان می‌رسد.ایران فارسی

گذشته[ویرایش]

تخم‌مرغ عید پاک، عید پاک معمولاً در مارس یا آوریل جشن گرفته می‌شود.

گذشتهٔ نام مارس به دوران امپراتوری روم باستان بازمی‌گردد. در آن دوران مارس نخستین ماه سال بود و به آن Martius گفته می‌شد این نام از روی نام خدای رومی، مارس یا آرس خدای جنگ در یونان گرفته شده بود. مارس به این دلیل نخستین ماه سال بود که آب و هوای رم مدیترانه‌ای بود و ۱ مارس نخستین روز از بهار، و برگزیدن آن به عنوان نخستین روز سال نو منطقی به نظر می‌آمد همچنین این ماه آغاز فصل چادر زدن‌های نظامی هم بود. برخی می‌گویند ژانویه در دوران حکومت نوما پمپیلیوس در سال ۷۱۳ پیش از میلاد نخستین ماه سال شد و برخی دیگر دوران دسمویریس در ۴۵۰ پیش از میلاد را زمان جابجایی ماه‌ها می‌دانند (نویسندگان رومی متفاوت نوشته‌اند)

نام‌های دیگر[ویرایش]

در زبان فنلاندی به این ماه maaliskuu گفته می‌شود البته ریشهٔ نام آن maallinen kuu به معنی «ماه خاکی» است؛ چون در دورهٔ این ماه برف‌ها آب می‌شود و maaliskuu یا زمین (خاک) در نهایت دیده می‌شود. در زبان اوکراینی به این ماه березень گفته می‌شود که به معنی درخت توس است. در زبان ترکی استانبولی به این ماه Mart گفته می‌شود که از روی نام خدای رومی مارس گرفته شده‌است.

رویدادهای مارس[ویرایش]

نمادها[ویرایش]

نرگس، گل ماه مارس

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]


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March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March.

March begins on the same day of the week as November and ends on the same day of the week as June every year. It begins on the same day of the week as February in common years only. In years preceding common years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as August of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as November of the following year and in leap years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as May of the following year. In common years, it begins on the same day of the week as June of the previous year and in leap years, September and December of the previous year. In common years, March ends on the same day of the week as September of the previous year and in leap years, April and December of the previous year.[1]

Origin

March, from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, a book of prayers to be said at canonical hours

The name of March comes from Martius, the first month of the earliest Roman calendar. It was named after Mars, the Roman god of war, and an ancestor of the Roman people through his sons Romulus and Remus. His month Martius was the beginning of the season for warfare,[2] and the festivals held in his honor during the month were mirrored by others in October, when the season for these activities came to a close.[3] Martius remained the first month of the Roman calendar year perhaps as late as 153 BC,[4] and several religious observances in the first half of the month were originally new year's celebrations.[5] Even in late antiquity, Roman mosaics picturing the months sometimes still placed March first.[6]

March 1 began the numbered year in Russia until the end of the 15th century. Great Britain and its colonies continued to use March 25 until 1752, when they finally adopted the Gregorian calendar (the fiscal year in the UK continues to begin on the 6th April, initially identical to 25 March in the former Julian calendar). Many other cultures and religions still celebrate the beginning of the New Year in March.

March is the first month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, Asia and part of Africa) and the first month of fall or autumn in the Southern Hemisphere (South America, part of Africa, and Oceania).

Ancient Roman observances celebrated in March include Agonium Martiale, celebrated on March 1, March 14, and March 17, Matronalia, celebrated on March 1, Junonalia, celebrated on March 7, Equirria, celebrated on March 14, Mamuralia, celebrated on either March 14 or March 15, Hilaria on March 15 and then through March 22–28, Argei, celebrated on March 16–17, Liberalia and Bacchanalia, celebrated March 17, Quinquatria, celebrated March 19–23, and Tubilustrium, celebrated March 23. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Other names

In Finnish, the month is called maaliskuu, which is believed to originate from maallinen kuu, during March, earth finally becomes visible under the snow (other etymological theories have however been put forward). In Ukrainian, the month is called березень/berezenʹ, meaning birch tree, and březen in Czech. Historical names for March include the Saxon Lentmonat, named after the March equinox and gradual lengthening of days, and the eventual namesake of Lent. Saxons also called March Rhed-monat or Hreth-monath (deriving from their goddess Rhedam/Hreth), and Angles called it Hyld-monath.

In Slovene, the traditional name is sušec, meaning the month when the earth becomes dry enough so that it is possible to cultivate it. The name was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. Other names were used too, for example brezen and breznik, "the month of birches".[7] The Turkish word Mart is given after the name of Mars the god.

March symbols

The Daffodil, the floral emblem of March
Aquamarine gemstones
Aquamarine gemstones
Polished bloodstones
Polished bloodstones

March observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.

Month-long observances

United States

Non-Gregorian observances, 2020

(All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

Movable observances: 2020

First Sunday: March 1

Second week: March 1–7

School day closest to March 2: March 2

First Monday: March 2

First Tuesday: March 3

First Thursday: March 5

First Friday: March 6

Second Sunday: March 8

Week of March 8: March 8–14

Monday closest to March 9, unless March 9 falls on a Saturday: March 9

Second Monday: March 9

Second Wednesday: March 11

Second Thursday: March 12

Friday of the 13th of month: March 13

Friday of the second full week of March: March 13

Third week in March: March 15–21

Third Monday: March 16

March 19th, unless the 19th is a Sunday, then March 20: March 19

Third Wednesday: March 18

March equinox: March 20

Fourth Monday: March 23

Fourth Tuesday: March 24

Last Saturday: March 28

Last Sunday: March 29

Last Monday: March 30

Fixed observances

References

  1. ^ "The Month of March". Retrieved 2020-03-08.
  2. ^ Mary Beard, John North, and Simon Price, Religions of Rome (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 47–48 and 53.
  3. ^ Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 37. The views of Georg Wissowa on the festivals of Mars framing the military campaigning season are summarized by C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), p. 264, with bibliography.
  4. ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), p. 84; Gary Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History (Routledge, 2012), p. 14 (on the uncertainty of when the change occurred).
  5. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 85ff.
  6. ^ Aïcha Ben Abed, Tunisian Mosaics: Treasures from Roman Africa (Getty Publications, 2006), p. 113.
  7. ^ "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec] (PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "March Birth Flower : Flower Meaning".
  9. ^ The Earth passed the junction of the signs at 03:49 UT/GMT March 20, 2020, and will pass it again at 09:37 UT/GMT March 20, 2021.
  10. ^ "Astrology Calendar", yourzodiacsign. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030.
  11. ^ "National Cerebral Palsy Awareness Month – UCP". ucp.org.
  12. ^ "Homepage". 2 February 2018.

External links