لونا ۲ (به انگلیسی: Luna 2) دومین فضاپیمای برنامه لونا ساخته شوروی است. لونا ۲ اولین شیء ساخت بشر است که به سطح یک جسم فضایی رسید. در روز ۱۴ سپتامبر ۱۹۵۹ لونا ۲ در نقطهای در شرق دریای رگبارها نزدیک دهانههای ارشمیدس، اوتلیکوس و آریستید به سطح ماه برخورد کرد.
پرتاب لونا قرار بود در ۹ سپتامبر اتفاق بیفتد اما نقص فنی در روشن شدن یکی از موتورها باعث شد پرتاب به مدت سه روز جهت تعمیر و تعویض بوستر موشک به تعویق بیفتد. لونا ۲ و لونا ۱ هردو از مسیر مستقیم ۳۶ ساعته به سمت ماه پرواز کردند. سیستم گرانشی زمین-ماه مسیر پرتاب را خم کرد. به دلیل همین اثر گرانشی پرتاب باید در زمانی انجام میشد که نقطهٔ پرتاب پشت به ماه باشد. محل برخورد لونا ۲ با سطح ماه ۸۰۰ کیلومتر از مرکز قرص روشن ماه فاصله داشت. برخورد در ساعت ۲۱:۰۲:۲۴ سیزدهم سپتامبر ۱۹۵۹ به وقوع پیوست.
طراحی لونا ۲ شبیه لونا ۱ بود. یک جسم کروی که از آن آنتنها و دستگاههای اندازهگیری علمی خارج شدهاند. دستگاههای نصب شده روی لونا ۲ نیز خیلی شبیه به لونا ۱ بودند. یک آشکارساز سنتیلاسیون، چند شمارشگر گایگر، مغناطیس سنج، چند اندازهگیر تابش چرنکوف، و تشخیص دهندهٔ گرد و غبار فضایی روی لونا ۲ نصب شده بودند. لونا ۲ مستقل از موشک پرتاب کننده پیشرانهای برای تصحیح مسیر نداشت.
کمربند وان آلن[ویرایش]
لونا ۲ در حین گذر از کمربند وان آلن تغییرات وابسته به زمان در شار الکترونها و طیف انرژی در این کمربند را اندازهگیری و اثبات کرد.
لونا ۲ مانند لونا ۱ مجهز به یک مغناطیس سنج سه محوره بود که البته دقت متفاوتی داشت. دورهٔ گردش وضعی این فضاپیما ۸۴۰ ثانیه و دورهٔ حرکت تقدیمی آن ۸۶ ثانیه بود. نرخ نمونه برداری ابزار مغناطیس سنج تقریباً یک نمونه بر دقیقه بود. بنا به گفتهٔ مدیر گروه تحقیقاتی خطاهای اندازهگیری به حدی بودند که دقت اندازهگیری بین ۵۰ تا ۱۰۰ نانو تسلا را به ارمغان آورده بود. نتایج به دست آمده از دادههای فضاپیما در کمربندهای تشعشعی وان آلن مشابه نتایج مخابره شده از لونا ۱ بود. این فضاپیما در لحظهٔ برخورد به سطح ماه مقدار حداکثر ۱۰۰ نانو تسلا میدان مغناطیسی را در سطح ماه به ثبت رساند.
این این فضاپیما چند پرچم شوروی نیز حمل میکرد. دوتا از آنها که داخل فضاپیما کار گذاشته شده بودند کروی شکل با طرحهای پنجضلعی روی سطحشان بودند. روی هر یک از این پنجضلعیها نشان ارتش شوروی و حروف سیریلیک СССР (مخفف اتحاد جماهیر شوروی در زبان روسی) و در پشت هر یک عبارت СССР СЕНТЯБРЬ 1959 به معنی «اتحاد جماهیر شوروی سپتامبر ۱۹۵۹» حکاکی شده بود. داخل هر دو کره مواد منفجره کارگذاشته شده بود تا با انفجار آنها ضربهٔ حاصل از برخورد نرمتر شود و قطعات پنجضلعی شکل تبخیر نشوند.
پرچم سوم در قطعهٔ مرحله آخر راکت پرتاب کنندهٔ لونا ۲ قرار داشت که سی دقیقه پس از خود فضاپیما با سطح ماه برخورد کرد. این پرچم کپسولی پر از مایع بود که نوارهایی از جنس آلومینیوم به آن متصل شده بودند. روی هر کدام از این نوارها نشان ارتش شوروی و عبارات 1959 СЕНТЯБРЬ (به فارسی: 1959 سپتامبر) و СОЮЗ СОВЕТСКИХ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСПУБЛИК (به فارسی: اتحاد جماهیر شوروی) حک شده بودند.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Luna 2 (Russian: Луна 2), originally named the Second Soviet Cosmic Rocket and nicknamed Lunik 2 in contemporaneous media, was the sixth of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
The spacecraft was launched on 12 September 1959 by the Luna 8K72. It followed a direct path to the Moon. In addition to the radio transmitters sending telemetry information back to Earth, the spacecraft released a sodium gas cloud so the spacecraft's movement could be visually observed. On 13 September 1959, it impacted the Moon's surface east of Mare Imbrium near the craters Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus. It was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, and the first human-made object to make contact with another celestial body.
Prior to impact, two sphere-shaped pennants with USSR and the launch date engraved in Cyrillic were detonated, sending pentagonal shields in all directions. Luna 2 did not detect radiation or magnetic belts around the Moon.
Luna 1 and the three spacecraft of Luna programme before it were part of the Ye-1 series of spacecraft with a mass of 156 kg (344 lb). Luna missions that failed to successfully launch or achieve good results remained unnamed and were not publicly acknowledged. The first unnamed probe exploded on launch on 23 September 1958. Two more launches were unsuccessfully attempted on 12 October and 4 December. Luna 1 was the fourth launch attempt and the first partial success of the program. It launched on 2 January 1959 and missed the Moon by 5,965 kilometres (3,706 miles).
One mission separated Luna 1 and Luna 2, a launch failure that occurred with an unnamed probe on 18 June 1959. Luna 2 would be the Soviet Union's sixth attempt to impact the Moon. It was the second of the Ye-1a series, modified to carry a heavier payload of 156 kg (344 lb) and had a combined mass of 390.2 kg (860 lb). Luna 2 was similar in design to Luna 1, a spherical space probe with protruding antennas and instrumentation. The instrumentation was also similar to Luna 1, which included a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer, a piezoelectric detector, a scintillation counter, ion traps and two gas-discharge counters, while the Luna 2 included six gas-discharge counters. There were no propulsion systems on Luna 2 itself.
Luna 2 carried five different types of instruments to conduct various tests while it was on its way to the Moon. The scintillation counters were used to measure any ionizing radiation and the Cherenkov radiation detectors to measure electromagnetic radiation caused by charged particles. The primary scientific purpose of the Geiger Counter carried on Luna 2 was to determine the electron spectrum of the Van Allen radiation belt. It consisted of three STS-5 gas-discharge counters mounted on the outside of an airtight container. The last instrument on Luna 2 was a three component fluxgate magnetometer. It was similar to that used on Luna 1 but its dynamic range was reduced by a factor of 4 to ±750 gammas so that the quantisation uncertainty was ±12 gammas. The probe's instrumentation was powered by silver-zinc and mercury-oxide batteries.
The spacecraft also carried Soviet pennants which were located on the probe and on the Luna 2 rocket. The two sphere-shaped pennants in the probe had surfaces covered by 72 pentagonal elements in pattern similar to an association football. In the centre was an explosive charge designed to shatter the sphere, sending the pentagonal shields in all directions. Each pentagonal element was made of titanium alloy; the centre regular pentagon had the State Emblem of the Soviet Union with the Cyrillic letters СССР ("USSR") engraved below and was surrounded by five non-regular pentagons which were each engraved with СССР СЕНТЯБРЬ 1959 ("USSR SEPTEMBER 1959"). The third pennant was similar engravings on aluminium strips which were embossed on the last stage of the Luna 2 rocket.
The scientists took extra, unspecified precautions in preventing biological contamination of the Moon.
Launch and trajectory
A launch was first attempted on 9 September 1959, but the first stage engines failed to reach full thrust, and the launch was aborted while the rocket was on the launch pad. The second attempt occurred on 12 September 1959, and Luna 2 lifted off at 06:39:42 UTC.[a]
Once the vehicle reached Earth's escape velocity, the upper stage was detached allowing the probe to travel on its path to the Moon. Luna 2 pirouetted slowly, making a full rotation every 14 minutes, while sending radio signals at 183.6, 19.993 and 39.986 megahertz. The probe started transmitting information back to Earth using three different transmitters. These transmitters provided precise information on its course, allowing scientists to calculate that Luna 2 would hit its mark on the Moon around 00:05 on 14 September (Moscow Time), which was announced on Radio Moscow.
Because of claims that information received from Luna 1 was fake, the Russian scientists sent a telex to astronomer Bernard Lovell at Jodrell Bank Observatory at the University of Manchester. Having received the intended time of impact, and the transmission and trajectory details, it was Lovell who confirmed the mission's success to outside observers. However, the American media was still sceptical of the data until Lovell was able to prove that the radio signal was coming from Luna 2 by showing the Doppler shift from its transmissions.
Luna 2 took a direct path to the Moon, starting with an initial velocity from earth of 11.2 km/s (25,000 mph) and impacting the moon at about 3.3 km/s (7,400 mph). It hit the Moon about 0° west and 29.1° north of the centre of the visible disk at 00:02:24 (Moscow Time) on 14 September 1959.[a] The probe became the first human-made object to hit another celestial body. To be able to provide a visual from Earth on 13 September, the Luna 2 released a vapour cloud that expanded to a 650-kilometre (400 mi) diameter and was seen by observatories in Alma Ata, Byurakan, Abastumani, Tbilisi, and Stalinabad. This vapour cloud also acted as an experiment to see how the sodium gas would act in a vacuum and zero gravity. The last stage of the rocket that carried Luna 2 also hit the Moon surface about 30 minutes after Luna 2, but there was uncertainty as to where it landed.
Lovell began tracking the probe about five hours before it impacted the Moon and also recorded the transmission from the probe which ends abruptly. He played the recording during a phone call to reporters in New York to finally convince most of media observers of the mission's authenticity.
The radiation detectors and magnetometer were searching for lunar magnetic and radiation fields similar to the Van Allen radiation belt around Earth, sending information about once every minute until its last transmission which came about 55 km away from the lunar surface. Although it did prove previous measurements of the Van Allen radiation belts that were taken from Luna 1 around the Earth, it was not able to detect any type of radiation belts around the Moon.
Luna 2 showed time variations in the electron flux and energy spectrum in the Van Allen radiation belt. Using ion traps on board, the satellite made the first direct measurement of solar wind flux from outside the Earth's magnetosphere. On its approach to the lunar surface, the probe did not detect any notable magnetic field to within 55 kilometres (30 nmi) from the Moon. It also did not detect a radiation belt around the Moon but the four ion traps measured an increase in the ion particle flux at an altitude of 8,000 km (4,300 nmi) which suggested the presence of an ionosphere. The probe generated scientific data that was printed on 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) of teletype which were analysed and published in spring 1960.
For a time, Americans were starting to believe that they were making progress in the Space Race and that although the Soviet Union might have had larger rockets, the United States had better guidance systems. This myth was busted after the Soviets were able to crash Luna 2 onto the Moon. At that time the closest Americans had come to the Moon was about 37,000 kilometres (23,000 mi) with Pioneer 4. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, on his only visit to the US, gave President Dwight D. Eisenhower a replica of the Soviet pennants that Luna 2 had just placed onto the lunar surface. Luna 2 and its predecessors all came to be used throughout the USSR and around the world as pro-communist propaganda. Donald W. Cox wrote in his book The Space Race,
Luna 2 was a success for the Soviets, and was the first in a series of missions that were intentionally crashed on the Moon. The later US-made Ranger missions ended in similar impacts. Such crashes have remained useful even after the technique of soft landing was mastered. NASA used hard spacecraft impacts to test whether shadowed Moon craters contain ice by analyzing the debris that got thrown out.
The sphere presented to the US is kept at the Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum in Abilene, Kansas. A copy of the spherical pennant is located at the Kansas Cosmosphere in Hutchinson, Kansas.
On 1 November 1959, the Soviet Union released two stamps commemorating the spacecraft. They depicted the trajectory of the mission.