قوم ساخور

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
مناطق سکونت مردمان ساخور در قفقاز
مردمان ساخوری
йихъбы (Yiqby)
کل جمعیت
۴۵٬۰۰۰ (تخمینی)
مناطق با جمعیت قابل توجه
 روسیه۱۲٬۷۹۶[۱]
 جمهوری آذربایجان۱۶٬۰۰۰
Flag of Dagestan.svgداغستان۹٫۷۷۱[۲]
 اوکراین۸۳[۳]
زبان‌ها
ساخوری، آذربایجانی، روسی، لزگی
دین
اهل تسنن[۴][۵]

مردمان ساخوری (به ساخوری: йихъбы، به روسی: Цахуры، به آذربایجانی: Saxurlar) قومی هستند که در روسیه مناطق جنوبی (داغستان) و مناطق شمالی جمهوری آذربایجان در شهرستان‌های زاقاتالا،[۶] بالاکن[۷] و قاخ[۸] زندگی می‌کنند و به زبان ساخوری صحبت می‌کنند.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (روسی)
  2. Ergebnisse der Volkszählung Russlands 2010, Excel-Tabelle 7, Zeile 457.
  3. State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  4. Большая советская энциклопедия: Цахуры
  5. Советская историческая энциклопедия: ЦАХУРЫ—Лит.: Народы Кавказа, т. 1, М.، 1960.
  6. Zaqatala Rayon Məhkəməsi: Zaqatala rayonu haqqında qısa məlumat
  7. Balakən Rayon Məhkəməsi: Balakən rayonu haqqında qısa məlumat
  8. Qax rayon İcra Hakimiyyəti: Rayon haqqında: Əhalisi
Tsakhur
йыхъбы (Yiqby), цIаIхбы
Tsakhur child in Qum (Azerbaijan).JPG
Tsakhur child from Qum (Azerbaijan)
Total population
c. 100,000
Regions with significant populations
 Russia12,796[1]
 Azerbaijan12,289[2]
 Ukraine83[3]
Languages
Tsakhur, Lezgian, Azerbaijani, Russian
Religion
Sunni Islam

The Tsakhur or Caxur (Azerbaijani: saxurlar, Russian: цахурский) people are an ethnic group of northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan (Russia). The group numbers around 30,000 people and are called yiqy (pl. yiqby), but are generally known by the name Tsakhur, which derives from the name of a Dagestani village, where they make up the majority.

History

Tsakhurs are first mentioned in the 7th-century Armenian and Georgian sources where they are named Tsakhaik. After the conquest of Caucasian Albania by the Arabs, Tsakhurs formed a semi-independent state (later a sultanate) of Tsuketi and southwestern Dagestan. By the 11th century, Tsakhurs who had mostly been Christian, converted to Islam. From the 15th century some began moving south across the mountains to what is now the Zaqatala District of Azerbaijan. In the 18th century the capital of the state moved south from Tsakhur in Dagestan to İlisu and came to be called the Elisu Sultanate. West of the Sultanate Tsakhurs formed the Djaro-Belokani free communities. The sultanate was in the sphere of influence of the Shaki Khanate. It became part of the Russian Empire by the beginning of the 19th century.

Geography

Tsakhurs live in Azerbaijan's Zaqatala region, where they make up 14% of the population, and in Gakh, where they constitute less than 2%. In Dagestan, they live in the mountainous parts of the Rutulsky district. According to Wolfgang Schulze, there are 9 villages in Azerbaijan, where Tsakhurs make up the majority of the population, all of them in Zaqatala. 13 more villages in Zaqatala and Gakh have a significant Tsakhur minority.[4]

Language

Most Tsakhurs speak the Tsakhur language as their native language. The rate of bilingualism in Tsakhur and Azeri is high. Other languages popular among Tsakhurs include Russian and Lezgian.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (in Russian)
  2. ^ "National composition of population by regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan, person". Council of Europe. p. 2. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  3. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  4. ^ The Sociolinguistic Situation of the Tsakhur in Azerbaijan by John M. Clifton et al. SIL International, 2005

External links