قوم دراویدی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسیEnglish
نژاد دراویدی
کل جمعیت
جمعیت تقریبی حدود ۲۱۷ میلیون نفر[نیازمند منبع]
زبان‌ها
زبان‌های دراویدی
دین
predominantly هندوئیسم، و سایر Jainism, بودائیسم، اسلام، مسیحیت.
مناطق دراویدی‌نشین در جنوب آسیا.

دراویدی به مردمان بومی شبه‌قاره هند گفته می‌شود آنان به زبان‌های متعددی سخن می‌گویند که همگی در یک خانوادهٔ زبانی دراویدی قرار دارند. زبان تامیل مهمترین این زبان‌هاست.

امروزه مردمی که به این نژاد تعلق دارند حدود یک‌چهارم جمعیت هند را تشکیل می‌دهند و اکثراً در جنوب هندوستان زندگی می‌کنند. سریلانکا، پاکستان، نپال و مالدیو کشورهای دیگری هستند که دراویدی‌ها در آن‌جا اقلیت قابل ملاحظه‌ای را شکل می‌دهند. البته پس از مهاجرت آریائیان در حدود سه تا چهار هزار سال پیش به شبه قاره هند، رفته رفته در بخش‌های بزرگی از هندوستان آمیزش گسترده‌ای میان آریائیان روشن‌پوست و دراویدیان تیره‌پوست صورت گرفت و امروزه بیشتر هندیان از تبار آمیخته این دو نژاد هستند.

دراویدیان حدود شش هزار سال پیش از سوی شمال به شبه‌قاره هند وارد شده بودند. پیش از حرکت به سوی جنوب، یک شاخه از آنها به سوی غرب کوچیدند. تیرهٔ براهویی ساکن در بلوچستان پاکستان و ایران، از تبار همین شاخه از دراویدیان است.

زبان براهویی امروزه نیز در برخی مناطق بلوچستان ایران و پاکستان صحبت می‌شود. در ایران از مردم شهرستان خاش می‌توان نام‌برد که با تیرهٔ براهویی آمیختگی نژادی دارند.

فرضیاتی هم در مورد ارتباط زبان‌های دراویدی با زبان عیلامی مطرح شده‌است. وجود یک زبان مشترک که زبان‌های دراویدی و ایلامی از آن منشعب شده‌اند، به معنای نیای مشترک ساکنان بومی ایران و هندوستان غیر از آریاییان به این سرزمین است.[۱]

دراویدی ها نژادی در جنوب هند هستند اما ریشه در تمدن عیلام دارند.

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. McAlpin, David W. , Proto Elamo Dravidian: The Evidence and Its Implications, American Philosophy Society, 1981
Dravidian
Geographic
distribution
South Asia and South East Asia, mainly South India and Sri Lanka
Linguistic classification One of the world's primary language families
Proto-language Proto-Dravidian
Subdivisions
  • Northern
  • Central
  • Southern
ISO 639-2 / 5 dra
Linguasphere 49= (phylozone)
Glottolog drav1251[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of subgroups of Dravidian languages:
Dravidian people
Total population
approx. 217 million   
Languages
Dravidian languages
Religion
predominantly Hinduism, and other Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism

Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages. There are around 200 million native speakers of Dravidian languages.[2] They form the majority of the population of South India. Dravidian-speaking people are natively found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan,[3] Nepal, Maldives, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.[4]

The third century BCE onwards saw the development of large Dravidian political states: Chola dynasty, Pandyan dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Vijayanagara Empire, Chera Dynasty, Chalukya dynasty and a number of smaller states. The Ganga dynasty, Kadamba dynasty, Hoysala Empire, Pallava dynasty, Hoysala Empire Satavahana dynasty, Andhra Ikshvaku, Vishnukundina, Western Chalukya Empire, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiya dynasty, Hoysala Empire and the Mysore kingdom were established by the Dravidian people.

Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organizations like the "Ayyavole and Manigramam" played an important role in the Southeast Asia trade.[5] Traders and religious leaders travelled to Southeast Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region. Locally developed scripts such as Grantha and Pallava script induced the development of many native scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script, Baybayin, and Thai.

Dravidian visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres, and the production of images of stone and bronze sculptures. The Nataraja sculpture from the Chola period has become notable as a symbol of Hinduism.

Etymology

The Sanskrit word drāviḍa is used to denote the geographical region of South India.[6] Southern Brahmins are known as Pancha Dravida while northern Brahmins are known as Pancha Gauda, denoting geographical region.

In Prakrit, words such as "Damela", "Dameda", "Dhamila" and "Damila," which later evolved from "Tamila," could have been used to denote an ethnic identity.[7] Epigraphic evidence of an ethnic group termed as such is found in ancient India where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BCE mentioning Damela or Dameda persons. The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a T(ra)mira samghata (Confederacy of Tamil rulers) dated to 150 BCE. It also mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence for 113 years by that time.[8] In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya (Tamil trader) datable to the 3rd century CE.[8] Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini (Tamil house-holder). In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha (Tamil dynasty).

Thamizhar is etymologically related to Tamil, the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'.[9] Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)."[10] The term Thamizhar was likely derived from the name of the ancient people Dravida > Dramila > Damila > Tamila > Tamilar.[11]

While the English word Dravidian was first employed by Robert Caldwell in his book of comparative Dravidian grammar based on the usage of the Sanskrit word drāviḍa in the work Tantravārttika by Kumārila Bhaṭṭa,[6] the word drāviḍa in Sansrkit has been historically used to denote geographical regions of Southern India as whole. Some theories concern the direction of derivation between tamiẓ and drāviḍa; such linguists as Zvelebil assert that the direction is from tamiẓ to drāviḍa.[12] The modern word Dravidian is devoid of any ethnic significance, and is only used to classify a linguistic family of the referred group.[7]

Origins

The origins of the Dravidians are a "very complex subject of research and debate." [13] They may have been indigenous to the Indian subcontinent,[14][15][16] but origins in, or influence from, West-Asia have also been proposed.[17][18][19][20][21]

Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, Dravidian speakers must have been widespread throughout the Indian subcontinent before the Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent.[22] According to Carole Davies, "many academic researchers have attempted to connect the Dravidians with the remnants of the great Indus Valley Civilisation, located in Northwestern India,"[13] most noteworthy Asko Parpola,[21] who did extensive research on the IVC-scripts.[21][23] The Brahui population of Balochistan in Pakistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages.[24] The Dravidian influence is also noted to have been found in ancient civilizations of India. The Ancient Dravidians are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Tamils, Malayalees, Telugus, Canarese.[25]

Ancestral components

Reich et al. (2009) discerned two major ancestral components in India,[26][27][28] namely the Ancestral North Indians (ANI) who are "genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans," and the Ancestral South Indians (ASI) which are clearly distinct from ANI[26] and "not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent."[29] Basu et al. (2016), discerned two additional components, Ancestral Tibeto-Burmese (ATB) and Ancestral Austro-Asiatic (AAA), noting that the ASI and the AAA were early settlers of India who differentiated after their arrival in India.[30][note 1] The ANI and ASI mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE-100 CE), whereafter a shift to endogamy took place,[28] possibly by the enforcement of "social values and norms" by the "Hindu Gupta rulers."[32] Northern Indians and higher castes are more related to West Eurasians, while southern Indians and lower castes are less related to West Eurasians.[33]

Moorjani et al. (2013) describe three scenarios regarding the bringing together of the two groups:

  1. migrations before the development of agriculture (8,000–9,000 years before present (BP);
  2. migration of western Asian people together with the spread of agriculture, maybe up to 4,600 years BP;
  3. migrations of western Eurasians from 3,000 to 4,000 years BP.[34]

According to Metspalu, the ANI diverged from the present populations of West Eurasia 12,500 years ago,[35] while according to Moorjani et al. (2013) these groups were plausibly present "unmixed" in India before 2,200 BCE.[28]

Lazaridi et al. (2016) "While the Early/Middle Bronze Age ‘Yamnaya’-related group (Steppe_EMBA) is a good genetic match (together with Neolithic Iran) for ANI, the later Middle/Late Bronze Age steppe population Sintashta-Andronovo (Steppe_MLBA) is not." [36] "ANI ancestry related to both the steppe and Neolithic Iran is found across South Asia making it difficult to associate it strongly with any particular language family (Indo-European or otherwise)."[36] "Nonetheless, the fact that we can reject West Eurasian population sources from Anatolia, mainland Europe, and the Levant diminishes the likelihood that these areas were sources of Indo-European (or other) languages in South Asia."[36][37]

Proposed agricultural origins

According to Burjor Avari, the Dravidian languages are believed to be indigenous to India,[38] According to Masica, the Dravidian languages are more likely than the Indo-Aryan languages to be indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.[15]

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam, located in present-day southwestern Iran.[18][39] In the 1990s, Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza have also argued that Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent,[17][40][41][note 2] but more recently Heggerty and Renfrew noted that "McAlpin's analysis of the language data, and thus his claims, remain far from orthodoxy", adding that Fuller finds no relation of Dravidian language with other languages, and thus assumes it to be native to India.[42] Renfrew and Bahn conclude that several scenarios are compatible with the data, and that "the linguistic jury is still very much out."[42]

Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[43] at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present,[19] which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."[19]

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East."[44] Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation."[45] According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."[45]

According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."[46]

Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley,[47] is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation.[20] It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.[48][49] According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh,[50] which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow."[50] They further noted that "the direct lineal descendants of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalocolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic Mehrgarh.[50]

History

Indus Valley Civilization

The Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization

Dravidian identification

The Indus Valley civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) located in Northwestern Indian subcontinent is often identified as having been Dravidian.[51] Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation.[52][53] The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification.[54][55]

Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language.[56] Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption.[57]

Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family".[58] Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.[59]

Decline and migration

Paleoclimatologists believe the fall of the Indus Valley Civilization and eastward migration during the late Harappan period was due to climate change in the region, with a 200-year old drought being the major factor.[60][61][62] The Indus Valley Civilization seemed to slowly lose their urban cohesion, and their cities were gradually abandoned during the late Harappan period, followed by eastward migrations before the Indo-Aryan migration into the Indian subcontinent.[61]

Dravidian and Indo-Aryan interactions

The Dravidian language influenced the Indo-Aryan languages. Dravidian languages show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either phonological or grammatical) borrowing from Indo-Aryan, whereas Indo-Aryan shows more structural than lexical borrowings from the Dravidian languages.[22] Many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature.[63] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[64][note 3] or synthesis[66] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans.[67][65][68][69]

According to Mallory there are an estimated thirty to forty Dravidian loanwords in Rig Veda.[70] Some of those for which Dravidian etymologies are certain include ಕುಲಾಯ kulāya "nest", ಕುಲ್ಫ kulpha "ankle", ದಂಡ daṇḍa "stick", ಕುಲ kūla "slope", ಬಿಲ bila "hollow", ಖಲ khala "threshing floor".[71]:81[71] While J. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed.[72]

According to Thomason and Kaufman, there is strong evidence that Dravidian influenced Indic through "shift", that is, native Dravidian speakers learning and adopting Indic languages.[73] According to Erdosy, the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Old Indo-Aryan is that the majority of early Old Indo-Aryan speakers had a Dravidian mother tongue which they gradually abandoned.Erdosy (1995:18) Even though the innovative traits in Indic could be explained by multiple internal explanations, early Dravidian influence is the only explanation that can account for all of the innovations at once. Early Dravidian influence accounts for several of the innovative traits in Indic better than any internal explanation that has been proposed.[74] According to Zvelebil, "several scholars have demonstrated that pre-Indo-Aryan and pre-Dravidian bilingualism in India provided conditions for the far-reaching influence of Dravidian on the Indo-Aryan tongues in the spheres of phonology, syntax and vocabulary."[75]

With the rise of the Kuru Kingdom a process of Sanskritization started which influenced all of India, with the populations of the north of the Indian subcontinent predominantly speaking the Indo-Aryan languages.[76]

Dravidian culture

Language

Dravidian language tree

The most commonly spoken Dravidian languages are Telugu (తెలుగు), Tamil (தமிழ்), Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), Malayalam (മലയാളം), and Brahui (براہوئی) and Tulu (ತುಳು). There are three subgroups within the Dravidian language family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian, and South Dravidian, matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent.

Dravidian grammatical impact on the structure and syntax of Indo-Aryan languages is considered far greater than the Indo-Aryan grammatical impact on Dravidian. Some linguists explain this anomaly by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan were built on a Dravidian substratum.[77] There are also hundreds of Dravidian loanwords in Indo-Aryan languages, and vice versa.

Religious belief

Ancient Dravidian religion constituted of a non-Vedic form of Hinduism in that they were either historically or are at present Āgamic. The Agamas are non-Vedic in origin [78] and have been dated either as post-Vedic texts [79] or as pre-Vedic compositions.[80] The Agamas are a collection of Tamil and Sanskrit scriptures chiefly constituting the methods of temple construction and creation of murti, worship means of deities, philosophical doctrines, meditative practices, attainment of sixfold desires and four kinds of yoga.[81] The worship of tutelary deities, sacred flora and fauna in Hinduism is also recognized as a survival of the pre-Vedic Dravidian religion.[82] Dravidian linguistic influence on early Vedic religion is evident; many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian. The linguistic evidence for Dravidian impact grows increasingly strong as we move from the Samhitas down through the later Vedic works and into the classical post-Vedic literature.[63] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[64][note 3] or synthesis[66] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans that went on to influence and shape Hinduism, Sramana, Jainism, Buddhism, Charvaka, and Ājīvika.[67][65][68][69]

Sage Agastya, father of Tamil literature

Ancient Tamil grammatical works Tolkappiyam, the ten anthologies Pattuppāṭṭu, and the eight anthologies Eṭṭuttokai shed light on early ancient Dravidian religion. Seyyon was glorified as the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent, as the favored god of the Tamils.[83] Sivan was also seen as the supreme God.[83] Early iconography of Seyyon[84] and Sivan[85][86][87] and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to the Indus Valley Civilization.[88][89] The Sangam landscape was classified into five categories, thinais, based on the mood, the season and the land. Tolkappiyam mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Seyyon in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumaal in Mullai-the forests, and Kotravai in Marutham-the plains, and Wanji-ko in the Neithal-the coasts and the seas. Other gods mentioned were Mayyon and Vaali who are all major deities in Hinduism today. This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[64][note 3] or synthesis[66] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, traditions, philosophy, flora and fauna that went on to influence and shape Indian civilization.[67][65][68][69]

Meenakshi Amman temple, dedicated to Goddess Meenakshi, tutelary deity of Madurai city

Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance.[90] The king was 'the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a "koyil", which means the "residence of a god". The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil (Tamil: கோயில்). Ritual worship was also given to kings.[91][92] Modern words for god like "kō" (Tamil: கோ "king"), "iṟai" (இறை "emperor") and "āṇḍavar" (ஆண்டவன் "conqueror") now primarily refer to gods. These elements were incorporated later into Hinduism like the legendary marriage of Shiva to Queen Mīnātchi who ruled Madurai or Wanji-ko, a god who later merged into Indra.[93] Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the "Three Glorified by Heaven", (Tamilவாண்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar ?).[94] In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple.[95]

The cult of the mother goddess is treated as an indication of a society which venerated femininity. This mother goddess was conceived as a virgin, one who has given birth to all and one, and were typically associated with Shaktism.[96] The temples of the Sangam days, mainly of Madurai, seem to have had priestesses to the deity, which also appear predominantly a goddess.[97] In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai.[98]

Among the early Dravidians the practice of erecting memorial stones "Natukal and Viragal’' had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about the 16th century.[99] It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory.[100]

Architecture and visual art

Nataraja, example of Chola Empire bronze has become notable as a symbol of Hinduism.
Typical layout of Dravidian temple architecture, 9th century A.D

Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance.[90] The king was 'the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a "koyil", which means the "residence of a god". The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil (Tamil: கோயில்). Titual worship was also given to kings.[91][92] Modern words for god like "kō" (Tamil: கோ "king"), "iṟai" (இறை "emperor") and "āṇḍavar" (ஆண்டவன் "conqueror") now primarily refer to gods.[93] Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the "Three Glorified by Heaven", (Tamilவாண்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar ?).[94] In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple.[95]

Mayamata and Manasara shilpa texts estimated to be in circulation by the 5th to 7th century AD, are guidebooks on the Dravidian style of Vastu Shastra design, construction, sculpture and joinery technique.[101][102] Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another text from the 9th century describing the art of building in India in south and central India.[101][103] In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit manual from the 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples.[104][105][106] Traditional Dravidian architecture and symbolism are also based on Agamas. The Agamas are non-Vedic in origin[78] and have been dated either as post-Vedic texts [79] or as pre-Vedic compositions.[80] The Agamas are a collection of Tamil and Sanskrit scriptures chiefly constituting the methods of temple construction and creation of murti, worship means of deities, philosophical doctrines, meditative practices, attainment of sixfold desires and four kinds of yoga.[81]

Chola style temples consist almost invariably of the three following parts, arranged in differing manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:[107]

  1. The porches or Mantapas, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.
  2. Gate-pyramids, Gopuras, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples. Gopuras are very common in Dravidian temples.
  3. Pillared halls (Chaultris or Chawadis) are used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

Besides these, a south Indian temple usually has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni – to be used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests – dwellings for all the grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.[107]

Theatre, dance and music

Kathakali is the traditional theater form of Kerala.
A Kuchipudi dancer.

Literary evidence of traditional form of theatre, dance and music dates back to the 3rd century BCE.[108] Ancient literary works, such as the Cilappatikaram, describe a system of music.[108] The theatrical culture flourished during the early Sangam age. Theatre-dance traditions have a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani.[109] Dance forms such as Bharatanatyam are based older temple dance forms known as Catir Kacceri as practised by courtesans and a class of women known as Devadasis.[110]

Carnatic music originated in the region of modern-day Karnataka and spread rapidly into other Dravidian regions. With the growing influence of Persian and Sufi music on Indian music, a clear distinction in style appeared from the 12th century onwards. Many literary works were composed in Carnatic style and it soon spread wide in the Dravidian regions. The most notable Carnatic musician is Purandara Dasa who lived in the court of Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara empire. He formulated the basic structure of Carnatic music and is regarded as the Pitamaha (lit, "father" or the "grandfather") of Carnatic Music. Kanakadasa is another notable Carnatic musician who was Purandaradasa's contemporary.

Each of the major Dravidian languages has its own film industry like Kollywood (Tamil), Tollywood (Telugu), Sandalwood (Kannada), Mollywood (Malayalam). Kollywood and Tollywood produce most films in India.[111]

Costume

Dravidian speakers in southern India wear varied traditional costumes depending on their region, largely influenced by local customs and traditions.

Martial arts and sports

Kalaripayattu martial art form which originated during the Sangam period from Kerala

In Mahabaratha was mentioned, that Bhishma claimed that Southerns are skilled with sword-fighting in general and Sahadeva was chosen for the conquest of the southern kingdoms, because of his swordman skills.[112] In South India various types of martial arts are practiced like Kalaripayattu and Silambam. It is speculated that Bodhidarma was a sixth century Pallava prince, who became a Buddhist monk, although the credibility of the same is debatable.[113] Some modern hypothesis claim that he introduced Kalaripayattu in China, which contributed to the development of modern-day Kung Fu and Karate in Japan.[114]

In ancient times there were fights ankam, public duels to the death, to solve disputes between his opposing rules.[115] Among some communities, young girls received preliminary training up until the onset of menses.[115] In vadakkan pattukal ballads, at least a few women warriors continued to practice and achieved a high degree of expertise.[115]

Sports like Kambala, Jallikattu, Kabaddi, Vallam Kali, Lambs and Tigers are parts of Dravidian culture.

Traditional weapons

Weapons used in Kalaripayattu.

Ethnic groups

The largest-Dravidian ethnic groups are the Tamils from Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore, the Kannadigas from Karnataka, the Telugus from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, the Malayalis from Kerala, and the Tulu people from Karnataka. Certain communities of Marathis from Maharashtra are considered as Scytho-Dravidians.[116][117]

List of Dravidian people based on population

Name Countries with significant populations Population Notes
Telugus  India
 Malaysia
 United States of America
 Europe
 Mauritius
85.1 million[118] They belong to the central Dravidian subgroup. Telugus are native to Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Puducherry. There is also a minority group in Sri Lanka and Singapore.
Tamils  India
 United States of America
 Malaysia
 Europe
 Singapore
 Sri Lanka
 Mauritius
75 million[119] They belong to the south-Dravidian linguistic subgroup. Tamils are native to Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Northern-eastern Sri Lanka, but are also found parts of Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, although they are also widespread throughout in many countries like South Africa, Singapore and Malaysia.
Kannadigas  India 47.9 million[120] Kannadigas belong to the south-Dravidian subgroup. Kannadigas are native to Karnataka in India but considerable population is also found in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Kerala.
Malayalis  India
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
 United States of America
 Singapore
32.2 million[120] Malayalis belong to the south-Dravidian linguistic subgroup, and are native to Kerala and Lakshadweep, but are also found in Puducherry and parts of Tamil Nadu
Brahuis  Pakistan
 Afghanistan
2.5 million Brahuis belong to the north-Dravidian subgroup. The majority are found in Balochistan, Pakistan, with smaller numbers in Southwestern Afghanistan.
Tuluvas  India 2 million (approx.) They belong to the south Dravidian subgroup, and are found in coastal Karnataka in India.
Gondis  India 1.3 million (approx.) Gondi belong to the central Dravidian subgroup. They are spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Basu et al. (2016): "The absence of significant resemblance with any of the neighboring populations is indicative of the ASI and the AAA being early settlers in India, possibly arriving on the “southern exit” wave out of Africa. Differentiation between the ASI and the AAA possibly took place after their arrival in India."[31]
  2. ^ Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in southern Asia. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent."[41]

    Derenko refers to:
    * Renfrew (1987), Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins
    * Renfrew (1996), Language families and the spread of farming. In: Harris DR, editor, The origins and spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 70–92
    * Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza (1994), The History and Geography of Human Genes.
  3. ^ a b c Lockard: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis."[64] Lockard: "Hinduism can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries."[65]

References

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Sources

External links