قلمرو وابسته یا منطقهٔ وابسته به محدوده یا قلمرو یا سرزمینی گفته میشود که از نظر سیاسی استقلال ندارد و زیر نظر یک کشور دیگر اداره میشود. معمولاً این مناطق خارج از خاک اصلی کشورها واقع شدهاند یا با خاک اصلی کشور ارتباط خشکی ندارند.
A dependency is commonly distinguished from country subdivisions by not being considered to be an integral territory of the governing state. Administrative subdivisions instead are understood as typically representing a division of the state proper. A dependent territory conversely often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling central state. Historically, most colonies were considered dependencies. Those dependent territories currently remaining generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Not all autonomous entities, though, are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.
Some political entities inhabit a special position guaranteed by international treaty or other agreement: creating a certain level of autonomy (e.g., differences in immigration rules). These are sometimes considered or at least grouped with dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).
This list includes all territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state, including several territories that are not on the list of non-self-governing territories of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defense of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Cook Islands Government. The government of New Zealand does not consider the Cook Islands to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.
Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defense of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Government of Niue. The government of New Zealand does not consider Niue to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.
Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the 2⁄3 margin.
Summary: the United Kingdom has 13 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel, 1 uninhabited, 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas), 3 Crown dependencies (autonomous), and 1 dependency claim.
Summary: the United States has 11 dependent territories and 2 dependency claims. The uninhabited Palmyra Atoll is administered similarly to some of these territories, but unlike the others is a fully incorporated part of the United States.
Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Administered by Colombia. Claimed by the U.S. (under Guano Islands Act) and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).
Administered by Colombia; site of a naval garrison. Claimed by the U.S. (since 1879 under Guano Islands Act), Honduras, and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).
Lists of similar entities
The following entities are according to the law of their state, integral parts of the state, but exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories. This list is generally limited to entities that are either subject to an international treaty on their status, uninhabited, or have a unique level of autonomy and are largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs. As a result, it does not include most entities with no unique autonomy, such as the overseas regions of France, the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, or Alaska and Hawaii, or only limited unique autonomy, such as the Autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous communities of Spain, or Zanzibar. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Summary:Australia has six territories in its administration and one dependency claim.
Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated (with the exception of Coral Sea Islands which was part of Queensland). They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.
Summary:China has two special administrative regions (SARs) that are governed according to the constitution and respective basic laws. The SARs greatly differ from mainland China in administrative, economic, legislative and judicial terms, including by currency, left- versus right-hand traffic, official languages and immigration control.
The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy in Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarized status.
Summary: The Kingdom of the Netherlands (“Kingdom”) comprised three Caribbean countries with autonomy in internal affairs (listed below) and one country (the Netherlands) with most of its area in Europe but for three Caribbean municipalities. The three municipalities in the Caribbean—Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius—are not listed because they are directly administered by the Government of the Netherlands. All Kingdom citizens share the same nationality and are thus citizens of the European Union.
Summary:Norway has, in the Arctic, one inhabited archipelago whose Norwegian sovereignty is limited—Svalbard. Unlike the country's Antarctic dependent territory (Bouvet Island) and dependency claims (see above), Svalbard is part of the Kingdom of Norway.
The United States one territory (Palmyra Atoll) that is considered to be an integral part of the United States,[note 3] but is still treated like a dependency in many ways. For example, Palmyra Atoll has no government and no permanent population; it is grouped within ISO 3166-2: UM as one of the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands (along with eight unincorporated territories), and it has its country article on the CIA World Factbook. Additionally, like the other territories, Palmyra Atoll has its own country-level GEC code (LQ).
Officially, Palmyra Atoll is an "incorporated, unorganized" territory. The CIA World Factbook says Palmyra Atoll is "part privately owned by the Nature Conservancy and part US Government-owned and administered as a nature preserve". At any time, Palmyra Atoll has between four and twenty staff and scientists, but has no permanent population.
Governed by the United States as an incorporated unorganized territory.
US-UM-95 or UM-95
Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the U.K. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defense and international representation and has ultimate responsibility for ensuring good government. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but neither are they integrated into the U.K. (nor the European Union). The U.K. Parliament retains the ability to legislate for the Crown dependencies even without agreement of their legislatures. No Crown dependency has representation in the U.K. Parliament.
Although British Overseas Territories, Bermuda and Gibraltar have similar relationships to the U.K. as the Crown dependencies. While Britain is officially responsible for defense and international representation, these jurisdictions maintain their militaries and have been granted limited diplomatic powers, in addition to having internal self-government.
Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States. The mutually negotiated Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in Political Union with the United States was approved in 1976. The Covenant was fully implemented on November 3, 1986, under Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents. Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act. The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Association and at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States. For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory… belonging to the United States.". Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desire for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.
The Kingdom of Denmark also operates similarly: another federacy. The Faroes and Greenland are two self-governing territories or regions within the Kingdom. The relationship between Denmark proper and these two territories is semi-officially termed the Rigsfællesskabet (“Unity of the Realm”).
^ abcFirst Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (2008-01-30). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2008-02-07. The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories.
^Territories and Information Law Division; First Assistant Secretary, Territories and Information Law Division (7 September 2009). "Cocos Islands Governance and Administration". Territories of Australia. Australian Government, Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
^The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803–1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico under the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")