بنیانگذار قادریه را عبدالقادر گیلانی میدانند که در بغداد مدفون است.
باورها و اعتقادات[ویرایش]
پیروان این مکتب به وحدت وجودی معتقد هستند و به محبت و خدمت شهرت دارند. اگرچه در اصل از بین حنبلیها برخاستهاند، تا حدود زیادی اهل تسامح بودند. در این طریقت به حفظ سنت و شعائر تأکید میشود. بخش اعظم پیروان طریقتهای صوفیه در بالکان با توجه به عدم بهرهمندی از منابع اصیل اسلامی و شیوخ واقعی در بسیاری از موارد به انحراف کشیده شدهاند. این طریقت که اصالتاً متعلق به اهل سنت میباشد و از طریقتهای اربعه اهل سنت میباشد اما در میان مسلمانان پیروان بسیاری دارد. پیروان مکتب قادری قائل به سماع و وجد هستند و شادی جسم را سبب پاکی روح میدانند.
این فرقه در سده شانزدهم میلادی در هند مستقر شد و در همانجا برخی از پشتونها را به سوی خود جذب نمود. در میان قبایل پشتون، فرقه قادریه پیروان بسیاری دارد که رهبری آن به دست خاندان گیلانی است.[نیازمند منبع] نقیب صاحب، پدر سید احمد گیلانی، در دهه دوم قرن نوزدهم میلادی در حومه جلالآباد در شرق افغانستان رهبری این فرقه را بر عهده داشت که پس از او رهبری به فرزندش (احمد گیلانی) رسید. وی نیز در کنار رهبری فرقه قادریه به کارهای سیاسی و تأسیس حزب محاذ ملی افغانستان پرداخت که این حزب در کنار سایر تنظیمهای جهادی در جنگ علیه روسها نقش فعالی داشت. خاندان گیلانی از اقوام سببی محمد ظاهر شاه میباشند.
در ترکیهٔ عثمانی پیروان زیادی داشتهاست.
The Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادِرية, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Kadiri, Qadiri, Quadri or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order). The tariqa got its name from Abdul Qadir Gilani (1077–1166, also transliterated Jilani), who was from Gilan. The order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.
The order, with its many offshoots, is widespread, particularly in the Arabic-speaking world, and can also be found in Turkey, Indonesia, Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Balkans, Russia, Palestine, Israel, China, and East and West Africa.
The founder of the Qadiriyya, Abdul Qadir Gilani, was a respected scholar and preacher. Having been a pupil at the madrasa of Abu Sa'id al-Mubarak, he became the leader of this school after al-Mubarak's death in 1119. Being the new sheikh, he and his large family lived in the madrasa until his death in 1166, when his son, Abdul Razzaq, succeeded his father as sheikh. Abdul Razzaq published a hagiography of his father, emphasizing his reputation as founder of a distinct and prestigious Sufi order.
The Qadiriyya flourished, surviving the Mongolian conquest of Baghdad in 1258, and remained an influential Sunni institution. After the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, the legend of Gilani was further spread by a text entitled The Joy of the Secrets in Abdul-Qadir's Mysterious Deeds (Bahjat al-asrar fi ba'd manaqib 'Abd al-Qadir) attributed to Nur al-Din 'Ali al-Shattanufi, who depicted Gilani as the ultimate channel of divine grace and helped the Qadiri order to spread far beyond the region of Baghdad.
By the end of the fifteenth century, the Qadiriyya had distinct branches and had spread to Morocco, Spain, Turkey, India, Ethiopia, Somalia, and present-day Mali. Established Sufi sheikhs often adopted the Qadiriyya tradition without abandoning leadership of their local communities. During the Safavid dynasty's rule of Baghdad from 1508 to 1534, the sheikh of the Qadiriyya was appointed chief Sufi of Baghdad and the surrounding lands.[who?] Shortly after the Ottoman Empire conquered Baghdad in 1534, Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned a dome to be built on the mausoleum of Abdul-Qadir Gilani, establishing the Qadiriyya as his main allies in Iraq.
Khawaja Abdul-Allah, a sheikh of the Qadiriyya and a descendant of Muhammad, is reported to have entered China in 1674 and traveled the country preaching until his death in 1689. One of Abdul-Allah's students, Qi Jingyi Hilal al-Din, is said to have permanently rooted Qadiri Sufism in China. He was buried in Linxia City, which became the center of the Qadiriyya in China. By the seventeenth century, the Qadiriyya had reached Ottoman-occupied areas of Europe.
Sultan Bahu contributed to the spread of Qadiriyya in western India. His method of spreading the teachings of the Sufi doctrine of Faqr was through his Punjabi couplets and other writings, which numbered more than 140. He granted the method of dhikr and stressed that the way to reach divinity was not through asceticism or excessive or lengthy prayers but through selfless love carved out of annihilation in God, which he called fana.
Sheikh Sidi Ahmad al-Bakka'i (Arabic: الشيخ سيدي أحمد البكاي بودمعة of the Kunta family, born in the region of the Noun river, d. 1504 in Akka) established a Qadiri zawiya (Sufi residence) in Walata. In the sixteenth century the family spread across the Sahara to Timbuktu, Agades, Bornu, Hausaland, and other places, and in the eighteenth century large numbers of Kunta moved to the region of the middle Niger where they established the village of Mabruk. Sidi Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti (1728–1811) united the Kunta factions by successful negotiation, and established an extensive confederation. Under his influence the Maliki school of Islamic law was reinvigorated and the Qadiriyyah order spread throughout Mauritania, the middle Niger region, Guinea, the Ivory Coast, Futa Toro, and Futa Jallon. Kunta colonies in the Senegambian region became centers of Muslim teaching.
The spiritual chain (silsila) is listed as follows:
Another version is as follows:
Halisa – Halisiyya
The Halisa offshoot was founded by Abdurrahman Halis Talabani (1212 – 1275 Hijra) in Kerkuk, Iraq. Hungry and miserable people were fed all day in his Tekke without regard for religion. Dawlati Osmaniyya donated money and gifts to his Tekke in Kerkuk. Sultan Abdul-Majid Khan's (Khalife of İslam, Sultan of Ottoman Empire) wife Sultana Hatun sent many gifts and donations to his Tekke as a follower. Among his followers were many leaders, rulers, and military and government officials. It was known to everyone that he lived in complete conviction. Because of the example Talibani set as a religious figure, the people's ties to him were solid and strong.
After his death, his branch was populated[clarification needed] in Turkey, and he was followed by Dede Osman Avni Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Ömer Hüdai Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Muhammed Baba, Sheikh Al-Haj Mustafa Hayri Baba, and Sheikh Al-Haj Mehmet Baba.
Also known as Qadiriya Sultaniya, the order was started by Sultan Bahu in the seventeenth century and spread in the western part of Indian Subcontinent. Hence, it follows most of the Qadiriyya approach. In contrast, it does not follow a specific dress code or require seclusion or other lengthy exercises. Its mainstream philosophy is contemplation of belovedness towards God.
The Qadiriyya–Mukhtariyya Brotherhood
This branch of the Qadiriyya came into being in the eighteenth century resulting from a revivalist movement led by Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti, a Sufi of the western Sahara who wished to establish Qadiri Sufism as the dominant religion in the region. In contrast to other branches of the Qadiriyya that do not have a centralized authority, the Mukhtariyya brotherhood was highly centralized. Its leaders focused on economic prosperity as well as spiritual well-being, sending their disciples on trade caravans as far away as Europe.
The Qadiriyya Harariya
The founder of the Qadiriyya Harariya tariqa was Shaykh Hachime Harari. His shrine is located in Harar City, Ethiopia. All the shrines of the shaykhs are in Ethiopia and two Shrines of the shaykhs silsila are in Borama City, in the north of Somalia. The current shaykh is Mohamed Nasrudin bin Shaykh Ibrahim Kulmiye of Somalia. The tariqa spread in three countries: Djibouti, Somalia, and Ethiopia.
Founded by AlaHazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan . The current leader and successor is Taajusharia Mufti Akhtar Raza Khan Barelvi. With million of followers around the world, the current successor also is listed 25th among the most influential Muslim leaders around the world.