فیلیپین با نام رسمی جمهوری فیلیپین (به فیلیپینی: Republika ng Pinipinas) کشوری آسیایی است که در جنوب شرقی آسیا و در غرب اقیانوس آرام و بین دریای جنوبی چین قرارگرفته و متشکل از ۷۶۴۱ جزیره میباشد که به صورت کلی به سه بخش جغرافیایی تقسیم شده که از شمال به جنوب عبارتاند از لوزون، ویسایا و میندانائو. کشور فیلیپین حدود ۱۱۰ میلیون نفر جمعیت دارد.
نام فیلیپین به دنبال نام پادشاه اسپانیا، شاه فیلیپ دوم نام گذاری شد. کاوشگر اسپانیایی روی لوپز د والالوبوس در زمان اکتشافاتش در سال ۱۵۴۲ نام جزایر لیته(Leyte) و سامار(Samar) را فلیپیناس(Felipinas) نام نهاد که شاهزاده آستوریاس (وارث تخت و تاج پادشاهی اسپانیا) در آن زمان بود.
به این ترتیب نام Las Islas Filipinas برای بهکارگیری کل جزایر فیلیپین به کار رفت. قبل از این نام، اسمهای دیگر هم به کار میرفته که میتوان به چند مورد اشاره کرد. مثلاً Islas del Poniete یا جزایر غرب و سان لازارو (San Lázaro) که اسپانیاییها برای اشاره به جزایر استفاده میکردند.
اسم رسمی فیلیپین چندین بار در تاریخ عوض شد. در زمان انقلاب فیلیپین، کنگرهٔ مالولوس اسم جمهوری فیلیپین(Philippine Republic) را اعلام کرد. از زمان جنگهای آمریکا و اسپانیا در سال ۱۸۹۸ و جنگهای فیلیپین و آمریکا در سال ۱۸۹۹ تا ۱۹۰۲ تا زمان مشترکالمنافع(commonwealth) یعنی تا سال ۱۹۳۵ تا ۱۹۴۶ مقامات استعمارگر آمریکایی نام جزایر فیلیپین (Philippine Islands) را به کار میگرفتند.
از زمان پیروزی جنگ جهانی دوم و استقلال فیلیپین نام رسمی این کشور به جمهوری فیلیپین(Republic of the Philippines) تغییر یافت.
فیلیپین در سالهای پیش از میلاد یکی از مراکز بازرگانی در منطقهٔ جنوب شرقی آسیا بود. نخستین اروپاییانی که به این جزایر آمدند، همراهان فردیناند ماژلان کاشف معروف بودند که در سال ۹۰۰ش ـ ۱۵۲۱م به همراه او این جزیره را کشف کرده و پای به این سرزمین نهادند.
در جنگ بین آمریکا و اسپانیا مستعمره آمریکا گشت و سپس در جنگ جهانی دوم به تصرف ژاپن درآمد و در سال ۱۹۴۶ در حالی که مانیل ویرانهای بیش نبود، حکومت جمهوری در این کشور بهوجود آمد. حضور پرقدرت آمریکا تأثیری عمیق بر جامعه فیلیپین نهادهاست بهطوریکه این جامعه هماکنون تلفیقی از فرهنگ آسیایی و کاتولیک اسپانیایی و سرمایهداری آمریکایی است.
استعمار اروپایی در فیلیپین[ویرایش]
روزنامهنگار آلن رابلس اظهار داشت: ایجاد فیلیپین توسط استعمارگران صورت گرفت، فرهنگ سیاسی آن را شکل داد و همچنان بر روی اندیشه آنها تأثیر گذاشت. این کشور قریب به ۳۳۳ سال تحت سطله اسپانیا و نزدیک به پنج دهه قاطعانه در زیر حاکمیت ایالات متحده آمریکا، فیلیپین شکل گرفت. از نظر انسانشناسی همگرایی پراسپرو، «تفکر، فرهنگ و روانشناسی ما درحالیکه در واقع آسیایی بودیم عملاً غربی شد».
در سده ۱۵ میلادی کمبود فلفل در اروپا به یک مشکل بدل شد و فقط پادشاهی ونیز میتوانست آن را از طریق مدیترانه وارد کند. پس اسپانیا و پرتغال برای دستیابی به منبع فلفل در هند به راه افتادند. برای جلوگیری از جنگ بین دو کشور کاتولیک کلیسا زمین را به دو قسمت تقسیم کرد که هرچه اسپانیا پیدا کرد در سمت غرب متعلق به پادشاهی اسپانیا و از سمت شرق هر سرزمینی که پیدا شد متعلق به پرتغال است. تصور نادرست پرتغالیها از زمین باعث شد زمانی زیادی وقت صرف شود تا بتوانند دریابند پایین قاره آفریقا ادامه دارد ولی اسپانیا به گرد بودن زمین معتقد بود و میگفت ما طی ۶ماه به هند دست پیدا میکنیم.
فیلیپین دارای حکومت دموکراتیک در شکل یک جمهوری مطابق قانون اساسی با نظام ریاست جمهوری است که به شکل یکپارچه اداره میشود به استثنای ناحیهٔ خودگردان مسلمان میندانائو که به صورت بسیار گستردهای از حکومت جدا میباشد. فیلیپین چندین بار از زمان ریاست جمهوری راموس در تلاش بوده تا حکومت را به صورت فدرال، پارلمانی یا تک مجلسی تغییر دهد.
ریاست جمهوری در فیلیپین هم رئیس دولت و هم فرماندهٔ کل نیروهای مسلح میباشد. طبق قانون اساسی تازه تصویب شده فیلیپین نظام سیاسی این کشور جمهوری ریاستی است. رئیسجمهور و مجلس سنای ۲۴ نفره بر اساس رأی مردم برای یک دوره شش ساله انتخاب میشوند. رئیسجمهور ریاست قوه مجریه را بر عهده دارد که از ۱۹ وزارتخانه متشکل شدهاست. همچنین تعیین اعضای کابینه نیز بر عهده رئیسجمهور و بدون تصویب مجلس است.
سناتورها از طرف تمام مردم انتخاب میشوند ولی نمایندگان از طریق حوزههای قانون گزاری هر منطقه و ۲۰٪ از نمایندگان از طریق انتخابات درون حزبی انتخاب میشوند.
قانون اساسی فیلیپین دوره ریاست جمهوری در این کشور را به یک دوره شش ساله محدود کردهاست تا مانع تبدیل شدن یک فرد به دیکتاتور شود.
در فیلیپین رئیسجمهور و معاون وی بهطور جداگانه در انتخابات به وسیله مردم برگزیده میشوند.
قوهٔ قضاییه وظیفهٔ دادگاه عالی کشور که توسط ریاست قوهٔ قضاییه اداره میشود و ۱۴ قاضی دستیار که از طرف ریاست جمهوری انتخاب و توسط شورای قضات و وکلا منصوب میشوند.
نوشته اصلی: فهرست شهرهای فیلیپین
نوشته اصلی: فهرست استانهای فیلیپین
در تقسیمبندی، کشور به ۱۷ ناحیه و ۸۱ استان، ۱۴۵ شهر، ۱٬۴۸۹ بخش و ۴۲٬۰۳۶ بارانگای تقسیم شدهاست.
تقسیمات منطقه ای[ویرایش]
منطقهها در فیلیپین برای تقسیمبندی اداری هستند تا ادارهٔ استانها در هر بخش را سهولت بخشند. فیلیپین به ۱۷ ناحیه تقسیم شده (۱۶ ناحیه اداری و ۱ناحیه خودگردان). بیشتر ادارات دولتی بر اساس منطقه بندیها ساخته شدهاند و نه تکتک در هر استان. بیشتر موارد مرکز مناطق در شهرها است. بر اساس سال ۲۰۱۵ناحیهٔ CALABARZON بیشترین جمعیت را داراست و ناحیه پایتخت ملی بیشتر تراکم جمعیت را دارا میباشد.
فیلیپین یک مجتمع الجزایر است که از ۷۶۴۱ جزیره تشکیل شده عموماً در سه مجتمع الجزایر بزرگ طبقهبندی میشوند که عبارتند از: لوزون، میندانائو، و ویسایا. مساحت این کشور به اضافه آبهای درون سرزمینی ۳۰۰٬۰۰۰ کیلومتر مربع (۱۱۵٬۸۳۱ مایل مربع) است. کشور در رتبه پنجمین کشور بزرگ جزیره ای به حساب میآید و با داشتن خط ساحلی ۳۶٬۲۸۹ کیلومتر مربع (۱۴٬۰۱۱ مایل مربع)، رتبهٔ پنجم در طولانی بودن خط ساحلی را در اختیار دارد. منطقه انحصاری اقتصادی این کشور ۲٬۲۶۳٬۸۱۶ کیلومتر مربع (۸۷۴٬۰۶۴ مایل مربع) است.
پستترین نقطه در ترانشه فیلیپین قرار دارد به نام اعماق گالاتا (Galathea Depth) که سومین نقطهٔ عمین دنیا به حساب میآید و این ترانشه در دریای فیلیپین قرار دارد.
بلندترین رود در شمال لوزون به نام رود کاگایان است. خلیج مانیل که در کرانه پایتخت فیلیپین یعنی مانیل واقع شده به واسطهٔ رود پسیگ(Pasig river) به لاگونا د بی(Laguna de Bay) متصل است که بزرگترین دریاچهٔ فیلیپین محسوب میشود.
این کشور از ناحیهٔ شمال غربی با تایوان و چین، از ناحیه شمال شرقی با ژاپن، از جنوب با اندونزی از جنوب غربی با مالزی، تایلند و سنگاپور همسایه است و شرق آن را دریای فیلیپین و غرب آن را دریای چین جنوبی فرا گرفتهاست.
دو جزیره لوزون و میندانائو مجموعاً ۶۶٪ کل مساحت فیلیپین را شامل میشوند. از ۷۱۰۷ جزیره فیلیپین فقط ۱۰۰ جزیره مسکونی است و در این بین فقط یازده جزیره به صورت عمده جمعیت ساکنی دارد و فقط ۲۷۷۰ جزیره دارای نامی خاص هستند.
کشور فیلیپین بهطور کلی در محاصره آبهای اقیانوس آرام و دریای چین جنوبی قرار دارد، وسیعترین دریاچههای آن عبارتند از،: لاگونا در غرب جزیره لوزون و تاآل در مرکز آن دو دریاچه لانائو و دریاچه سوریاگو نیز در جزیره میندانائو است.
آب و هوای فیلیپین گرمسیری دریایی با رطوبت زیاد است و در طول سال همواره با طوفان و بارانهای موسمی روبرو هستند و به خاطره همین بارانهای سیل آسا تقریباً ۷۰٪ این جزایر را جنگلهای سرسبز استوایی فرا گرفتهاست. دمای هوا بین ۲۰ تا ۴۰ درجه متغیر است و رطوبت نیز از ۳۶٪ تا ۹۰٪ هم میرسد. وقوع زمینلرزه در این جزایر پدیدهای معمولی بهشمار میآید.
مهمترین قلل آتشفشان فیلیپین قله مایون و پیناتابو در جزیره لوزون و قله آپو در جزیره میندانائو و قله کان لائون در جزیره نگروس است که گاهی فعال شدن این قلل باعث خسارات مالی و جانی زیادی برای ساکنان اطراف آنها گردیدهاست. همچنین فعال شدن آتشفشان پیناتابو در جنوب جزیره لوزون در سال ۱۹۹۰ علاوه بر خساراتی که برای مردم داشت، پایگاههای نظامی آمریکا در فیلیپین را نیز تخریب نمود و در نهایت منجر به جمعآوری این پایگاهها شد.
چین و فیلیپین بر سر مالکیت جزایر رنای که پکن از آن به عنوان جزایر نن شا یاد میکند و تپههای دریایی جانسون اختلاف دارند. آبهای دریای چین جنوبی که از منابع سرشار نفت و گاز و شیلات برخوردار است محل چالش بین چین و فیلیپین است.
چین مدعی مالکیت مطلق بر آبهای دریای چین جنوبی است و همواره از مدعیان دیگر از جمله فیلیپین، ویتنام و ژاپن خواسته تا از طریق گفتگوی دو جانبه به این تنشها پایان دهند. فیلیپین این اختلاف را به دادگاه بینالمللی سازمان ملل متحد بردهاست.
مانیل پایتخت کشور فیلیپین در طی سالهای گذشته پیشرفت زیادی داشتهاست. این شهر حدود ۱۰ میلیون نفر جمعیت دارد و هنوز یکی از ارزانترین شهرهای دنیاست. از لحاظ موقعیت جغرافیایی این شهر در دهانه رود بزرگ پاسیگ قرار دارد که در شرق آن خلیج مانیل و در غرب آن ناحیه لوزون قرار گرفتهاست. این شهر در ۹۵۰ کیلومتری جنوب شرقی هنگ کنگ و در ۲۴۰۰ کیلومتری شمال شرقی سنگاپور است. رودخانه پاسیگ از میان مانیل عبور میکند و تقریباً تمام شهر به آن دسترسی دارند.
جمعیت فیلیپین طبق آمارهای اعلام شده در سال ۱۹۸۷ ۵۷٫۴ میلیون نفر بود. با نرخ رشد جمعیت حدود ۲٫۴ در سال جمعیت این کشور در سال ۱۹۹۵ به ۶۸ میلیون نفر رسید و در سال ۲۰۰۰ با نرخ رشد ۲٫۳ جمعیت این کشور به ۷۸ میلیون نفر بالغ شد.
حاکمیت اسپانیا بر فیلیپین باعث شد که ۹۰٪ مردم این کشور مسیحی و کاتولیک شوند و با مهاجرت گروههای مختلف مردم اسپانیائی زبان از اروپا و آمریکای جنوبی فرهنگ این کشور شباهت زیادی با کشورهای لاتین پیدا کرد و زبانهای محلی آنان نیز تحت تأثیر کلمات اسپانیایی قرار گرفت.
اکثریت نژاد آن را گروه «ماله» و باقی آن را «چینی»، «آمریکایی» و «اسپانیایی» ها تشکیل میدهند.
۲۹٪ درصد از نژاد مردم فیلیپین را فیلیپینی و ۲۳٪ را سبوئانو و ۱۰٪ را ایلکانو تشکیل میدهند و بقیه از سایر اقوام هستند. مردم در فیلیپین به زبان تاگالوگ صحبت میکنند و این در حالی است که زبان انگلیسی بسیار رایج است. از نظر جمعیت انگلیسی گویش ور به شدت بیشتری از اسپانیایی دارد و بیشتر مردم این کشور به زبان انگلیسی تسلط دارند، با این حال بیش از ۱۰۰۰ لهجه در فیلیپین موجود است. طبق آمار سال ۲۰۱۳ میزان با سوادی در میان مردم این کشور ۹۰/۷٪ بودهاست.
اقتصاد فیلیپین ۳۴امین اقتصاد بزرگ دنیا با تولید ناخالص داخلی ۳۷۱٬۸ میلیارد دلار در سال ۲۰۱۸ میباشد.بیشتر صادرات فیلیپین شامل نیمه رساناها و لوازم الکترونیکی، ابزار حمل و نقل، پوشاک، تولیداتِ مس، تولیدات بنزین، روغن نارگیل و میوهجات است. بزرگترین شریکهای تجاری این کشور ایالات متحده، ژاپن، چین، سنگاپور، کره جنوبی، هلند، هنگ کنگ، آلمان، تایوان و تایلند است.
فیلیپین یک کشور تازه صنعتی شده به حساب میآید که در حالت گذر از صنعت کشاورزی به صنعت خدمات و تولیدات کارخانه ای است. با وجود ۴۰٫۸۱۳ میلیون نیروی کار، ۳۰٪ این نیرو در صنعت کشاورزی مشغول به کار میباشند که ۱۴٪ تولید ناخالص داخلی و بخش صنعتی ۱۴٪ نیروی کار را شامل میشود که ۳۰٪ از تولید تولید ناخالص داخلی است. به این ترتیب ۴۷٪ نیروی کار در بخش اداری و خدماتی فعال میباشد که شامل ۵۶٪ از تولید ناخالص داخلی میشود.
نرخ بیکاری مصادف با ۱۴ دسامبر ۲۰۱۴ برابر با ۶٪ اعلام شد. با پایین بودن هزینه نیازهای اولیه، نرخ تورم در ماه دسامبر به ۳٫۷٪ نزول کرد.
ذخایر ناخالص بینالمللی در اکتبر ۲۰۱۳ برابر با ۸۳٫۲۰۱ میلیارد برآورد میشود.
گلدمن ساکس نام فیلیپین را در لیست "یازده اقتصاد بعدی" عنوان کرده. این لیست شامل نام ۱۱کشور است که به همراه کشورهای BRICS بزرگترین اقتصادهای دنیا در قرن 21 باشند. گلدمن ساکس ارزیابی کرده که تا سال ۲۰۵۰ این کشور بیستمین اقتصاد بزرگ جهان شود. همچنین HSBC پیشبینی کرده که اقتصاد این کشور بیستمین در دنیا و پنجمین در آسیا و بزرگترین اقتصاد جنوب شرق آسیا در سال ۲۰۵۰ شود.
مقدار ذخایر معدنی فیلیپین با وجود وسعت کم این کشور بسیار قابل ملاحظهاست. در فیلیپین منابع کانیهای فلزی سرشاری در این کشور وجود دارد، بهطوریکه با توجه به تولیدات قبلی و ذخایر اثبات شده در طلا رتبه دوم در جهان و در مس رتبه سوم را به خود اختصاص دادهاست. معادن مس در بخشهای گستردهای از این کشور پراکنده هستند و بیشتر آنها دارای مقادیری از طلا و نقره نیز میباشند. نیکل و کروم از سایر فلزات با ارزش در معادن این کشور هستند، ضمن اینکه فیلیپین به لحاظ معادن غیر فلزی همچون مرمر و سنگ آهک در وضعیت خوبی قرار دارد.
در فیلیپین ۱۵ روز تعطیل رسمی میباشند که عبارتند از:
The Philippines (// (listen) FIL-ə-peenz; Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas [ˌfɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[a] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines is the world's 5th largest island country with an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi). As of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million. As of January 2018[update], it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian, Arab and Chinese nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs, sultans and lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons.
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution quickly followed, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.
The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations.
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article.
Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. The Philippines served as a connection to mainland Asia and Wallacea during the Early to Middle Pleistocene, facilitating the spread of hominins and megafauna to what is now eastern Indonesia.
The oldest remains of modern humans in the islands, however, is the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago. The Tabon man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul. Previously, it was believed that the earliest putative record of modern humans in Southeast Asia is from the Callao Cave of northern Luzon, dated to around 67,000 BP. However, in 2019, the remains were identified as belonging to a new species of archaic humans, Homo luzonensis.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos, starting with the "Waves of Migration" hypothesis of H. Otley Beyer in 1948, which claimed that Filipinos were "Indonesians" and "Malays" who migrated to the islands. This is completely rejected by modern anthropologists and is not supported by any evidence, but the hypothesis is still widely taught in Filipino elementary and public schools resulting in the widespread misconception by Filipinos that they are "Malays".
In 1967, Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano proposed the "Core Population" theory which posits that ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally, rejecting Beyer's assertion that Filipinos are the same ethnic groups as the Malay people. His proposal roughly aligns with the more recent "Out of Sundaland" model proposed by a minority of academics, which includes Wilhelm Solheim's "Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network". It postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area (modern Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula) which was then inundated by rising sea levels at the end of the Last Glacial Period (around 11,700 years ago). They propose that there was then a range of material and genetic exchanges between populations in an arc from the coasts and islands of Papua New Guinea to Japan by around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration.
The most widely accepted theory, however, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model which follows the Austronesian expansion during the Neolithic in a series of maritime migrations originating from Taiwan that spread to the islands of the Indo-Pacific; ultimately reaching as far as New Zealand, Easter Island, and Madagascar. Austronesians themselves originated from the Neolithic rice-cultivating pre-Austronesian civilizations of the Yangtze River delta in coastal southeastern China pre-dating the conquest of those regions by the Han Chinese. This includes civilizations like the Liangzhu culture, Hemudu culture, and the Majiabang culture. It connects speakers of the Austronesian languages in a common linguistic and genetic lineage, including the Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Islander Southeast Asians, Chams, Islander Melanesians, Micronesians, Polynesians, and the Malagasy people. Aside from language and genetics, they also share common cultural markers like multihull and outrigger boats, tattooing, rice cultivation, wetland agriculture, teeth blackening, jade carving, betel nut chewing, ancestor worship, and the same domesticated plants and animals (including dogs, pigs, chickens, yams, bananas, sugarcane, and coconuts).
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia, as well as voyaging further east to reach the Northern Mariana Islands by around 1500 BC. They assimilated earlier Australo-Melanesian groups (the Negritos) which arrived during the Paleolithic, resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which all display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.
During the Neolithic period, a "jade culture" was prominent in the islands, as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines dated to 2000 BC. The jade used has been traced to deposits in Taiwan, although the jade artifacts themselves (known as lingling-o) were manufactured locally in Luzon. These artifacts have been found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia, indicating long range maritime trade and communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.
The current demarcation between the Prehistory and the Early history of the Philippines is 21 April 900, which is the equivalent on the Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI) — the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines. This date came in the middle of what anthropologists refer to as the Philippines' "Emergent Phase" (1st–14th centuries CE), which was characterized by newly emerging socio-cultural patterns, the initial development of large coastal settlements, greater social stratification and specialization, and the beginnings of local and international trade. By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had become progressive trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes, ushering complex life-ways which characterized what F. Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period. "Barangay" a community defined by personal attachment, not territorial location. The term, barangay, originally describes both a house on land and a boat on water; containing families, friends and dependents and is currently the basic political unit of the Philippines. The Barangic Phase of history can be noted for its highly mobile nature, with barangays transforming from being settlements and turning into fleets and vice versa, with the wood constantly re-purposed according to the situation. Politics during this era was personality-driven and organization was based on shifting alliances and contested loyalties set in a backdrop of constant inter-polity interactions, both through war and peace.
The discovery of iron at around the 1st century AD created significant social and economic changes which allowed settlements to grow larger and develop new social patterns, characterized by social stratification and specialization.
Some of these polities, particularly the coastal settlements at or near the mouths of large rivers, eventually developed substantial trade contacts with the early trading powers of Southeast Asia, most importantly the Indianized kingdoms of Malaysia and Java, the various dynasties of China, Thailand, and later, the Muslim Sultanate of Brunei. They also traded with Vietnam, Japan, and other Austronesian islands.
Based on archaeological findings, trade with China is believed to have begun in the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty. By the 2nd millennium CE, some (but not all) Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court. These "tributary states" nominally acknowledged the Sinocentric system which saw China and the imperial court as the cultural center of the world. Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control.
Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archaeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship. Considerable evidence exists, on the other hand, for extensive trade with the Majapahit empire.
The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers, but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India and the Philippines, and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu Majapahit empire. The Philippine archipelago is thus one of the countries, (others include Afghanistan and Southern Vietnam) just at the outer edge of what is considered the "Greater Indian cultural zone".
The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure. Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun." Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "Datu," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", variedly called a Lakan, Sultan, Rajah, or simply a more senior Datu (These types of datus had power over other monarchs due to being great characters).
Early historic coastal city-states and polities
The earliest historical record of local polities and kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo (c. before 900–1589) and two to three other settlements believed to be located somewhere near Tondo, as well as a settlement near Mt. Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java. Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE. By the arrival of the earliest European ethnographers during the 1500s, Tondo was led by the paramount ruler called a "Lakan". It had grown into a major trading hub, sharing a monopoly with the Rajahnate of Maynila over the trade of Ming dynasty products throughout the archipelago. This trade was significant enough that the Yongle Emperor appointed a Chinese governor named Ko Ch'a-lao to oversee it.
The next historical record referring to a location in the Philippines, is Volume 186 of the official history of the Song dynasty which describes the purportedly Buddhist "country" of Ma-i (c. before 971 – after 1339). Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers. Chinese merchants noted that Ma-i's citizens were honest and trustworthy. Because the descriptions of Mai's location in these accounts are unclear, there is dispute about Mai's location, with some scholars believing it was located in Bay, Laguna, and others believing it was on the island of Mindoro.
The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan (c. before 1001–1756) in northeastern Mindanao which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire—on March 17, 1001 CE. Butuan attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja, who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. Butuan was so wealthy, the quantity of gold recently unearthed in Butuan surpassed that of the even more famous Srivijaya state.
Historian Efren Isorena has asserted that Visayan raiding parties conducted raids on the port cities of southern China between A.D. 1174 and 1190 which are attributed by other historians to raiders from Formosa (today's Taiwan). The Visayan raiding parties were composed of people from the Kedatuan of Dapitan which was founded when Datu Sumangga of Leyte married princess Bugbung Hamusanum by impressing her through his military prowess by raiding deep into the Chinese Empire. They made their territory into a powerful and wealthy maritime state, which was eventually deemed the "Venice of the Visayas".
According to legend, the Kedatuan of Madja-as (c. 1200–1569) was founded following a civil war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists of the Malay datus of Srivijaya defied the invading Chola dynasty and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, and set up a remnant state in the islands of the Visayas. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo. Madja-as was founded on Panay island (named after the destroyed state of Pannai as well as populated by Pannai's descendants, a constituent state of Srivijaya which was located in Sumatra and was home to a Hindu-Buddhist Monastic-Army that successfully defended the Strait of Malacca, the world's busiest maritime choke-point, which was a significant challenge to defend due to it being surrounded by the three most populous nations of the world back then, China, India and Indonesia. The people of Pannai policed the Strait against all odds for 727 years.) Upon their rebellion against an invading Chola Empire, the people of Madja-as, being loyalist warriors, conducted resistance movements against the Hindu and Islamic invaders that arrived from the west from their new home base in the Visayas islands.
The Rajahnate of Cebu (c. 1200–1565) was a neighbor of Madja-as in the Visayas led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay, a monarch with partial Tamil descent and a member of the Chola dynasty. Sri Lumay who was sent by the Chola Maharajah to invade Madja-as, rebelled and formed his own independent Tamil-Malay rajahnate and even when descended from Maharajahs, humbled himself to be a mere founding Rajah of Cebu and had associated himself with the Visayans. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago. Both the Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu were allied to each other and they also maintained contact and had trade routes with Kutai, a Hindu country in south Borneo established by Indian traders.
The epic poem Nagarakretagama stated that the Java-based Hindu empire of Majapahit had colonized Saludong (Manila) at Luzon and Solot (Sulu) at the Sulu Archipelago. However, they failed to establish a foothold in the Visayas islands which was populated by Srivijayan loyalists who waged incessant guerrilla warfare against them. Eventually, Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila (1365) and then Sulu also reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni (Brunei) before a fleet from the capital drove them out. The Rajahnate of Maynila (c. 1258–1571) was established on the island of Luzon across the Pasig River from Tondo due to the naval victory of the Bruneian Rajah Ahmad over the Majapahit Rajah Avirjirkaya, who ruled a prior pre-Muslim settlement in the same location. The subsequent spread of Islam in Southeast Asia eventually caused the downfall of the Majapahit empire as its provinces seceded and formed independent Sultanates upon becoming Muslim. Eventually, in the face of these Islamic conversions, the remnants of Hindu Majapahit fled to the island of Bali.[clarification needed] The Chinese also mention a polity called "Luzon." This is believed to be a reference to Maynila since Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the 1520s explicitly state that "Luçon" and "Maynila" were "one and the same", although some historians argue that since none of these observers actually visited Maynila, "Luçon" may simply have referred to all the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities that rose up on the shores of Manila Bay. Either way, from the early 1500s to as late as the 1560s, this seafaring people was referred to in Portuguese Malacca as Luções, and they set up many overseas communities across Southeast Asia where they participated in trading ventures and military campaigns in Burma, Malacca and Eastern Timor[b] as traders and mercenaries. One prominent Luções was Regimo de Raja, who was a spice magnate and a Temenggung (Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ) (Governor and Chief General) in Portuguese Malacca. He was also the head of an international armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea, and the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines.
According to historian Paul Kekai Manansala, the famed Ming admiral, Zheng He, attacked Luzon and destroyed Manila but an alliance of local kingdoms then repulsed his army and the conquest was forced back and limited to Pangasinan. In northern Luzon, Caboloan (Pangasinan) (c. 1406–1576) sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411 as a tributary-state, and it also traded with Japan. People from Pangasinan were humble despite their immense power since when the Mongol Empire arose, according to Moroccan explorer, Ibn Battuta a Warrior-Princess from Pangasinan (Cabaloan) named Urduja lead a nation and coalition that became a rival to the entire Mongol Empire. However Caboloan showed their solidarity with the Anti-Mongol Ming Dynasty when they became Ming tributaries.
The 1300s saw the arrival and eventual spread of Islam in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu's rajah, Rajah Baguinda Ali and marrying his daughter. At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao.
Islam then started to spread out of Mindanao in the south and went into Luzon in the north. This was accomplished because the Sultanate of Brunei, which was previously known as Poni, had seceded from Majapahit and had converted to Islam and then had invited an Arab Emir from Mecca, Sharif Ali, to become Sultan and his descendant, Sultan Bolkiah set up Manila in Luzon as an Islamic colony during his reign from 1485 to 1521. Thereby again subjugating rebellious Tondo by defeating Rajah Gambang in battle and thereafter installing the Muslim rajah, Rajah Salalila to the throne. Thus reestablishing the Bruneian vassal-state of the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynila as its enforcer in Luzon. Sultan Bolkiah also married Laila Mecana, who is the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra of newly Islamized Sulu, to expand Brunei's influence in both Luzon island and the Sulu archipelago. Brunei was so powerful, it already subjugated their Hindu Bornean neighbor, Kutai to the south, though it survived through a desperate alliance with Hindu Butuan and Cebu which were already struggling against encroaching Islamic powers like Maguindanao. Brunei had also conquered the northern third and the southern third of the Philippines but failed to conquer the Visayas islands even though Sultan Bolkiah himself was half-Visayan from his Visayan mother. Sultan Bolkiah is associated with the legend of Nakhoda Ragam the singing captain, a myth about a handsome, virile, strong, musically gifted and angelic voiced prince who is known for his martial exploits. There is contextual evidence that Sultan Bolkiah may indeed be Nakhoda Ragam, since he is of half Visayan-Filipino descent since later Spanish accounts record that Filipinos, especially Visayans, were obsessed with singing and the warrior castes were particularly known for their great singing abilities.
The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans. Participating in the Muslim raids, the Sultanate of Ternate, a Muslim state centered in the vicinity of Papuan-Indonesia which grew powerful due to their monopoly of spice, consequently destroyed the Animist Malayo-Polynesian Kedatuan of Dapitan in Bohol. This forced the people of Dapitan to reestablish their country in northern Mindanao and displace the citizens of the Sultanate of Lanao as they conquered their territory. The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of Maguindanao while their southern Hindu ally, the Rajahnate of Kutai, struggled with the Sultanate of Brunei for hegemony over Borneo island. Simultaneous with these Muslim slave-raids against the Visayans, was the rebellion of Datu Lapu-Lapu of Mactan against Rajah Humabon of Cebu. There was also a simmering territorial conflict between the Polity of Tondo and the Bruneian vassal-state, the Islamic Rajahnate of Maynila, to which the ruler of Maynila, Rajah Matanda, sought military assistance against Tondo from his relatives at the Sultanate of Brunei.
The rivalries between the Datus, Rajahs, Sultans, and Lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated due to consistent natural disasters and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, the thinly manned territory was overpowered, and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were Hispanicized and Christianized.
Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The 333 years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation". Anthropologist Prospero Covar has observed, "Our thinking, culture, and psychology became virtually westernized, when we were, in fact, Asians."
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. After relocating to Panay island and consolidating an alliance of native Filipino (Visayan) allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, led by conquistadors such as Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo, had invaded Muslim Manila. Juan de Salcedo had inspired military feats due to his love for the beautiful princess of Bruneian-besieged Tondo, Kandarapa, they had a tragic forbidden romance. Yet princess Kandarapa proved the intensity of her love when she died of a broken-heart when she heard lies that her Mexican knight had married the daughter of the Rajah of Macabebe. While the romance was still active, the Spanish-Mexican-Filipino coalition then invaded Islamic Manila, liberated and incorporated Tondo. Luzon was then placed under Spanish rule.
They established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571). The former Bruneian Muslim elite that ruled Manila was forced into Christianity and in vengeance, conspired with the Japanese Shogunate and the Brunei Sultanate to re-invade and re-islamize Manila. Several war fleets were raised in Brunei in order to retake Manila but all were frustrated. However, nearby Mindoro, being a former developed Buddhist state transformed into a Muslim colony with its own stone fort and cannons, was utterly ruined and depopulated due to it turning into a war-zone between contesting Christian and Muslim powers, with the Moros from Mindanao attempting to Re-islamize the place by enslaving recent Christian converts there or forcing them to revert to Islam which was opposed by, and the situation made worse because, Christians from Manila had repeatedly demolished and extinguished any Muslim attempt to refortify the island and had also force converted any Muslim they encountered into becoming Christians. Thus destroying the once wealthy and populous cities of Mindoro and transforming the province into an impoverished and embattled military frontier zone.
The Spanish forces also defeated the Chinese warlord Limahong. To counteract the Islamization of the Philippines, the Spanish then conducted the Castilian War which was aimed against the Sultanate of Brunei and war was also waged against the Sultanates of Ternate and Tidore (in response to Ternatean slaving and piracy against Spain's vassal states: Dapitan and Butuan). The Castilian War was justified by a civil war in the Bruneian Empire when the legitimate ruler, Pengiran Seri Lela was removed from power by his jealous brother, Sultan Saiful Rijal. Pengiran Seri Lela offered vassalage under the Spanish to reclaim his crown. The Spanish forces sacked the capital and prepared to reinstall Pengiran Seri Lela to the throne, unfortunately he died, allegedly by poisoning, and the Spanish forces were suddenly afflicted by cholera which forced them to leave, however the Imperial princess of Brunei left with the Spanish and married the Christian Tagalog warrior, Agustín de Legazpi of Tondo, she bravely defied the Quranic punishment of stoning Muslim women who marry Non-Muslim men to death, and the couple had a family in the Philippines. In modern times, Bruneian-Philippine relations were symbolically restored when the Filipino architect Leandro V. Locsin helped designed the Istana Nurul Iman which is now the largest residential Palace in the world. Brunei is also in Borneo which is simultaneously the home of the second oldest rain forest in the world and is part of the Coral Triangle, the center of worldwide marine biodiversity. The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict that included a just war against the Ottoman Caliphate which had just recently invaded former Christian lands in the Eastern Mediterranean and had a center of operations at its nearby protectorate, the Sultanate of Aceh which was the first missionary center of expanding Islam in Southeast Asia and had grew at the expense of older Animist, Hindu or Buddhist states that had remained loyal to their religions in the face of an encroaching Islam. These states were sought as allies by Christian newcomers. However, the Muslim Sultanates in the Philippines thought differently, to them, preserving and propagating Islam was a merely an act of self-defense against a Christian invader. Both sides had noble justifications in their wars against each other. The racial make-up of the Christian side was diverse since they were usually made up of Mestizos, Mulattoes and Native Americans (Aztecs, Mayans and Incans) who were gathered and sent from the Americas and were led by Spanish officers who had worked together with native Filipinos in military campaigns across the Southeast Asia. The Muslim side was also equally racially diverse. In addition to the native Malay warriors, the Ottomans had repeatedly sent military expeditions to nearby Aceh. The expeditions were composed mainly of Turks, Egyptians, Swahilis, Somalis, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Malabars. These expeditionary forces had also spread to other Sultanates such as nearby Brunei and had taught local mujahideen new fighting tactics and techniques on how to forge modern cannons. Ottoman manufacturing techniques and martial organization were so ingrained, the Christian soldiers who warred with these Malay Sultanates observed Ottoman influence in their militaries. After, the Spanish expedition to Brunei, the Spaniards put down the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas which was mainly composed of pro-Bruneian and pro-Japanese conspirators and then the Spanish exiled these conspirators to Guam and Guerrero. In time, Spanish fortifications were also set up in Taiwan and the Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized natives of the Moluccas, withdrew back to the Philippines in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga, ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning. However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau and the Marianas. In Sharia law, only non-Muslims were allowed to be slaves, so as the conversion of Southeast Asia to Islam went about, the importance of the non-Muslim character of Spanish Philippines made it a factor as a source of slave-labor for Muslim states to the west as the flow of slave labor was generally East to West. In the Mediterranean, the Spanish were also dealing with Islamic slave raiding in the Christian parts of the sea. Thus, there was a world-wide coordinated Spanish attempt to counter-act the growing Islamic slave raids that was targeted against them. However, with the few exceptions of Manila, Mindoro, Palawan and Zamboanga; Spanish interests in Christianizing Muslim areas faded because they were less profitable than trade with China or Japan.
Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons, the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in Bicol and Cavite. The Manila galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila and Acapulco. The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Manila Galleons brought with them goods, settlers and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from Latin America. The reverse voyage also brought Asian commercial products and immigrants to the western side of the Americas.
Trade introduced foodstuffs such as maize, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, chocolate and pineapples from Mexico and Peru. Within the Philippines, the Marquisate of Buglas was established and the rule of it was awarded to Sebastian Elcano and his crew, the survivors of the first circumnavigation of the world, as well as his descendants. New towns were also created and Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque architectural style. To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses (called "Presidios") across the archipelago. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863. Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts. There were also several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese and the Muslims of Southeast Asia. Those challengers were fought off despite the hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan to Indonesia. The Philippines was maintained at a considerable cost during Spanish rule. The long war against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with the intermittent conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese-Chinese Wokou piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. Furthermore, the state of near constant wars caused a high desertion rate among the Latino soldiers sent from Mexico and Peru that were stationed in the Philippines. This left only the fittest and strongest to survive and serve out their military service. The high desertion rates also applied to the native Filipino warriors and laborers levied by Spain, to fight in battles all across the archipelago and elsewhere or build galleons and public works. The repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent from Latin America and the warriors and laborers recruited locally either died or disbanded to the lawless countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives, escaped enslaved Indians (From India) and Negrito nomads, where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution, which further blurred the racial caste system Spain tried so hard to maintain in the towns and cities. These circumstances contributed to the increasing difficulty of governing the Philippines. Due to these, the Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain, in which he advises to abandon the colony, but this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further conversions in the Far East. The non-profitable war-torn Philippine colony survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown and often procured from taxes and profits accumulated by the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) mainly paid by annually sending 75 tons of precious Silver Bullion gathered from and mined from Potosi, Bolivia where hundreds of thousands of Incan lives were regularly lost while being enslaved to the Mit'a system. Unfortunately, the silver mined through the cost of irreplaceable lives and being a precious metal, meaning a finite resource, barely made it to the starving or dying Spanish, Mexican, Peruvian and Filipino soldiers who were stationed in Presidios across the archipelago struggling against constant invasions while it was sought after by Chinese, Indian, Arab and Malay merchants in Manila who traded with the Latinos for their precious metal in exchange for Silks, Spices, Pearls and Aromatics and etc. which were products which can merely be grown and manufactured whereas American silver was finite. Thus, the 200-year-old fortifications at Manila had not been improved much since first built by the early Spanish colonizers. This was one of the circumstances that made possible the brief British occupation of Manila.
British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War yet the British were frustrated since they were unable to extend their conquest outside of Manila as the Filipinos stayed loyal to the remaining Spanish community outside Manila. Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and the Moro Muslims in the Sulu Sultanate formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of Hispanic American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). However, ideas of rebellion and independence began to spread through the islands. Many Latin-Americans and Criollos were mostly officers in the army of Spanish Philippines. However, the onset of the Latin American wars of independence led to serious doubts of their loyalty, this was compounded by the fact that in the Mexican War of Independence, a Mexican of Filipino descent, Isidoro Montes de Oca, became a formidable captain-general to the revolutionary leader Vicente Guerrero. So, to prevent the union of forces by both Latinos and Filipinos in rebellion against the empire, the Latino and Criollo officers stationed in the Philippines were soon replaced by Peninsular officers born in Spain. These Peninsular officers were often less committed to the people they were assigned to protect and were often predatory, wanting to enrich themselves before returning to Spain, putting the interests of the metropolis over the interest of the natives. The Criollo and Latino dissatisfaction against them spurred by their love of the land and their suffering people had a justified hatred against the exploitative Peninsulares who were only appointed due to their race and unflinching loyalty to the homeland. This resulted in the uprising of Andres Novales a Philippine born soldier who earned great fame in richer Spain but chose to return to serve in poorer Philippines. He was supported by local soldiers as well as former officers in the Spanish army of the Philippines who were from the now independent nations of Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica. The uprising was brutally suppressed but it foreshadowed the 1872 Cavite Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. However, Hispanic-Philippines reached its zenith when the Philippine-born Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero became a hero as he restored the Bourbon Dynasty of Spain to the throne during his stint as Lieutenant-General (Three Star General) after the Bourbons have been deposed by revolutionaries. He eventually became Prime Minister of the Spanish Empire and was awarded membership in the Order of the Golden Fleece, which is considered the most exclusive and prestigious order of chivalry in the world.
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion despite his opposition for violent revolution and only advocating peaceful reform, he even volunteered to work as a doctor for the Spanish side in the Cuban revolution. The Spanish ironically transformed ardent loyalists into radical rebels due to the Spanish killing of a hero opposed to a violent revolution. As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.
Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was established in the Barasoain Church in the following year.
The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States, the Philippine's only avowed ally which then subsequently betrayed the nation by dealing with Spain, would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. Brigadier General James F. Smith arrived at Bacolod on March 4, 1899, as the Military Governor of the Sub-district of Negros, after receiving an invitation from Aniceto Lacson, president of the breakaway Cantonal Republic of Negros. The war resulted in the deaths of a minimum of 200,000 and a maximum of 1 Million Filipino civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.
After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, the archipelago was administered under an American Insular Government. The Americans then suppressed other rebellious sub-states: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic and the Republic of Zamboanga in Mindanao. During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature. Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city. In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.
Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic of José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated with the Battle of Manila. In 1944, Quezon died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña succeeded him. The Allied Forces then employed a strategy of island hopping towards the Philippine archipelago, in the process, retaking territory conquered by Imperial Japan.
From mid-1942 through mid-1944, the Filipino guerrilla resistance had been supplied and encouraged by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops, so that the guerrillas could harass the Japanese Army and take control of the rural areas, jungles and mountains— the guerrillas were so effective, the Japanese Empire only controlled 12 out of 48 provinces. While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence.
Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Empire. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.
On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations. The following year, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas. Disgruntled remnants of the communist Hukbalahap continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President Elpidio Quirino's successor Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy, which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration, while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations but the US were steadfast in their support.
On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called snap presidential elections in 1986. Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. Cardinal Jaime Sin then roused the people to rebel, leading to the People Power Revolution, "the revolution that surprised the world". Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and Aquino's widow, the woman that inspired the armed men of the uprising, Corazon Aquino, was recognized as president.
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro separatists. During Corazon Aquino's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due to the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty, and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base in November 1991 and Subic Bay to the government in December 1992. The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election.
Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period the country's economic performance remained modest, with a 3.6% percent GDP growth rate. However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996, were overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. On his Presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the Rape-slay case of Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in 1999.
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada assumed office in June 1998 and managed to revive the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The government announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents. In the middle of ongoing conflict with the Abu Sayyaf, accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, Estrada's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.
In Arroyo's 9-year administration, the economy experienced a phenomenal growth rate of 4-7%, averaging 5.33% from 2002 to 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like Line 2 in 2004 and managed to avoid the Great Recession. By comparison, the Philippines economy grew on average by 3.6% from 1965 to 2001 or 3.5% (1986-2001) if we include only those years when democracy had already been achieved. The improvement of the Philippine annual growth rate from her predecessors (since Marcos Regime to Estrada Administration) was around 1.7–1.87%. And this jump-start from a sluggish economy for almost 5 decades that left it behind by its neighbors in the 1960s would prove to be the Philippines rise from being the sick man of Asia to becoming one of the "Tiger Cub Economy" for the next decade after her administration. Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections. On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were massacred in Maguindanao.
Benigno Aquino III won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines. The first major issue he dealt with was the 2010 Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila and Hong Kong for a time. The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro. However, a clash that took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force and put the efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse. Tensions regarding the Philippines' territorial disputes in eastern Sabah and the South China Sea escalated.
On May 15, 2013, the Philippines implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education. The country was then hit by Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) on November 8, 2013, which heavily devastated the Visayas. When the United States President Barack Obama visited the Philippines on April 28, 2014, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed, paving the way for the return of United States Armed Forces bases into the country.
Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte of PDP–Laban won the 2016 presidential election becoming the first president from Mindanao. On July 12, 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled in favor of the Philippines in its case against China's claims in the South China Sea. After winning the Presidency, Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months. As of February 2019, the death toll for the Philippine Drug War is 5,176.
Duterte initiated the "Build, Build, Build" program in 2017 that aimed to usher the Philippines into a new "golden age" of infrastructure and was expected to create more jobs and business opportunities, which, in turn, would sustain the country's economic growth and accelerate poverty reduction. The construction industry needs two million more workers to sustain the program.
The Build, Build, Build program is made up of 75 projects, which includes six air transport projects, 12 rail transport projects, and four water transport projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects. The country is expected to spend $160 billion to $180 billion up to 2022 for the public investments in infrastructure.
In 2017, Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act, which provides for free tuition and exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions. He also signed 20 new laws, including the Universal Health Care Act, the creation of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development, establishing a national cancer control program, and allowing subscribers to keep their mobile numbers for life.
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.
The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.
Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.
The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.
In addition to membership in the United Nations, the Philippines is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region. It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.
The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country. It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and was a major non-NATO ally, before the major fallback of relationship between the Philippines and United States in favor of China and Russia. In addition, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[failed verification] Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II has faded.
Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain. Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.
With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and China have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.
The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy (includes the Marine Corps). The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force. Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).
In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the Abu Sayyaf have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of Mindanao. Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines spent less on its military forces than the regional average. As of 2014[update] Malaysia and Thailand were estimated to spend 1.5%, China 2.1%, Vietnam 2.2% and South Korea 2.6%.
The Philippines was an ally of the United States from the World War II with a mutual defense treaty between the two countries signed in 1951. The Philippines once supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. However, the fallback of relationship between the two countries in favor of China and Russia resulted in the Philippines establishing deep defence ties and cooperation with the latter two, abandoning its military ties with the United States while affirming that the country will no longer participates in any US-led war.
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are further divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 145 cities, 1,489 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays. In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of Sabah.
Regions in the Philippines are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and 1 autonomous). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. As of 2015[update], CALABARZON was the most populated region while the National Capitol Region (NCR) the most densely populated.
The Philippines is an archipelago composed of about 7,641 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). This makes it the 5th largest island country in the world. The 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the fifth longest coastline in the world. The Exclusive economic zone of the Philippines covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi). It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.
Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.
The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.
There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.
Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa giving credence to the talk that the Philippines was the Biblical Ophir and the country also has one of the largest copper deposits in the world. Palladium, originally discover