فهرست نیروگاههای ایران
سوخت سنگوارهای (فسیلی)[ویرایش]
This is a list of power stations in Iran. By 2012, Iran had 400 power plant units. Iran had a total installed electricity generation capacity of 70,000 MW by the end of 2013 (increasing from 90 MW in 1948 & 7024 MW in 1978) and plans to add annually more than 5,000 MW of generation capacity to the grid, doubling Iran's total power generation capacity to 122,000 MW by 2022 The government of Iran has plans to privatize 20 power plants by September 2010. Iran's peak demand for electricity in 2013 was 45,693 MW in summer time.
Iran will account for 17.08% of MENA power generation by 2014. Gas was the dominant fuel in Iran in 2009, accounting for an estimated 56.8% of primary energy demand (PED), followed by oil at 40.8% and hydro with a 1.4% share of PED. As at 2010, the average efficiency of power plants was 38 percent. The figure should reach 45 percent within five years and 50 percent under Vision 2025.
Electricity generation in 2008, amounted to 203.8 billion kWh or roughly one percent of world's total production which was up by 5.9 percent compared with the previous year. In 2008, of total generated electricity, 190.2 billion kWh (93.3 percent) was generated by power plants affiliated with the Ministry of Energy and 13.6 billion kWh (6.7 percent) by other institutions, mostly in the private sector. The largest share of electricity (91.1 billion kWh) was generated by steam power plants while diesel power plants accounted for the lowest share of generation (0.2 billion kWh). Also in 2008, the highest growth in generation of electricity belonged to gas and combined cycle power plants with 9.3 percent growth rate; however, the amount of electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants showed 1.7 percent decline. The consumer price of electricity in Iran as of 2010 was 1.6 US cents per kilowatt hour while the real production cost was eight US cents. (See also: Cost of electricity by different sources)
In 2010, 900,000 people were working directly or indirectly for the power industry in Iran. The country spare capacity stands at 3 per cent, where it should ideally be 25 per cent. It has been reported that 23.5 per cent of the electricity generated goes to waste in the transmission network. Iran exports annually 5.5 TWh of electricity to seven countries surrounding Iran. Iran's electricity grid is currently connected to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan.
Electric power industry has achieved self-sufficiency in producing its required equipment. While most of the electricity generators are run by the government, the equipment producers and contractors are generally from the private sector. Iran is among the top ten manufacturers of gas turbines with a capacity of 160 megawatts. Iranian experts of JEMCO (a subsidiary of IDRO) have succeeded in developing the capacity to produce one-megawatt and four-megawatt generators. Iran has acquired self-sufficiency of over 80 percent in constructing hydraulic turbines and over 90 percent in producing gas turbines. Within the next few years, Iran can join the list of countries that produce power plant technology (2009). Iran plans to manufacture its first indigenous gas turbines by 2015. Iran has achieved the technical expertise to set up hydroelectric, gas and combined cycle power plants. Iran is among the four world countries that are capable of manufacturing advanced V94.2 gas turbines. The Industrial Development and Renovation Organization of Iran (IDRO) is currently building the country's first 4-megawatt (MW) CHP (Combined Heat and Power) turbo generator in cooperation with the private sector.
Nuclear power plants
Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant is Iran's first indigenously designed and built power plant besides the research reactor of IR-40. Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant is Iran's first nuclear power plant and it has been manufactured with the technical assistance of Russia.
Iran is not only self-sufficient in power plant construction but has also concluded a number of contracts on implementing projects in neighboring states. As of 2010, Iranian energy and resource development firms are involved in 50 projects worth over USD 2.2 billion in more than 20 countries across the world. As at 2011, MAPNA was building power plants in Syria, Oman and Iraq and negotiations were underway to build two power plants in Lebanon.
One of Iran’s most important international projects will see the construction of a $200-million hydroelectric dam in Nicaragua starting 2011. Iran is currently engaged in dam construction in Tajikistan, Armenia and Azerbaijan, and consultations are underway with a number of other countries. Kenya, Sri Lanka, Bolivia and Mali are the potential target markets being considered for exporting the country’s technical and engineering services. In 2010, Iran won a contract to build a dam in Afghanistan and the third contract to build a power plant station in Syria. In December 2005 a wind farm was put in operation at Pushkin Pass in Armenia. Total installed capacity of the farm is 2.64 MW, comprise from the four 660 kW wind turbines. Wind farm was built by support of 3.1 mln US$ grant from the government of Islamic Republic of Iran. The Armenian and Iranian energy sectors are currently jointly constructing the Iran-Armenia Wind Farm which is set to become the country's largest wind farm, having an installed electric capacity of 90 MW. As at 2012, Iran is building seven large power plants in Syria, Oman, Iraq, and Tajikistan.
Foreign direct investment
According to the Ministry of Energy, Germany has invested $445 million in construction of the Pareh-Sar combined cycle power plant in northern Iran, while the UAE has invested $720 million in construction of a gas power plant as well as a combined cycle power plant in Isfahan and Shiraz.
Mapna Company. Sahand, Bistoun, Shazand, Shahid Montazeri, Tous, Shahid Rajaei and Neishabour power stations are among the profit-making plants, work on privatizing them will be finalized by late March 2007. Jahrom, Khalij-e Fars (Persian Gulf) and Sahand power plants will be ceded to the private sector in 2009. All domestic power plants will be privatized gradually, except those the government feels it should run to ensure security of the national electricity grid. Power plants of Damavand, Mashhad, Shirvan, Kerman, Khalij-e Fars, Abadan, Bisotoon, Sanandaj, Manjil and Binalood, which have been turned into public limited firms, are ready for privatization. As of 2010, 20 power plants were ready for privatization in Iran. Upon ceding the 20 power plants to IPO, some 40 percent of the capacity of power plants nationwide will be assigned to the private and cooperative sectors. As of 2011, about 45 power plants across the country were to be handed over to the private sector. In 2012, it was announced that Iran's government which has already turned over 17 of its 45 power plants to the private sector since 2008, will transfer 28 more plants with an estimated value of $11.4 billion (USD), by March 2013.
The new energy/electricity bourse will be inaugurated in 2012. This will bring about more competition and transparency in Iran’s electricity market. Experts believe that following the launch of the subsidies reform plan, the electricity industry will undergo significant changes and will become more appealing to private investors. Iran is the 16th electricity producer in the world.
As at 2012, Iran had over 400 power plant units and 38 electricity distribution companies which buy the electricity from producers. Iran has over 100 companies which consume more than 20 MW of electricity per year. The average price of each kilowatt of electricity is 450 rials (around 5 cents) during the first phase of the Subsidy Reform Law. The average final price of each kilowatt of electricity will be 1000 rials (around 10 cents) in 2015.
Iran's electricity export and related technical and engineering services exports was valued at $4 billion in 2011. In 2010, the total of Iran’s electricity exports to Afghanistan, Iraq (650 MW), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Pakistan and Turkey reached 878 megawatts and the total of imports from Armenia (237 MW) and Turkmenistan was recorded at 463 megawatts. Jordan, India, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Syria, and the UAE are the new countries that have expressed interest in buying electricity from Iran.
Waste to energy
Proposed or Under construction
Pumped storage hydroelectric
Tidal & wave power
Decentralized power generation
In addition to the above power plants, there was 1800 MW cumulative installed capacity in 2011, which belonged to small scale decentralized power plants some of which were not connected to national grid and many being privately built and run. This capacity is planned for increase to more than 10,000 MW with emphasis on renewable energy and trigeneration. Similarly there was 418 MW of capacity belonging to diesel generator based plants supplying hard to reach areas.