Muslim philosophers both profess Islam and engage in a style of philosophy situated within the structure of Islamic culture, though not necessarily concerned with religious issues. The sayings of the companions of Muhammad contained little philosophical discussion.[a] In the eighth century, extensive contact with philosophical cultures of the West led to a drive to translate philosophical works of these cultures (especially the texts of Aristotle) into Arabic.
The ninth-century Neo-PlatonistAl-Kindi is considered the founder of Arab philosophy. The tenth century philosopher al-Farabi contributed significantly to the introduction of Greek and Roman philosophical works into Muslim philosophical discourse and established many of the themes that would occupy Islamic philosophy for the next centuries; in his broad-ranging work, his work on logic stands out particularly. In the eleventh century, Avicenna, one of the greatest creative philosophers ever, developed his school of philosophy with strong Aristotelian and Neoplatonist roots. In the twelfth century, the philosophy of illumination was systematized by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi. Towards the end of the century philosophy underwent a decline in much of the Muslim world, in part due to al-Ghazali's argument that philosophy was incompatible with religion. In Andalusia, Averroes, defended philosophy against this charge; his extensive works include noteworthy commentaries on Aristotle. Although philosophy in its traditional Aristotelian form fell out of favor in much of the Arab world, forms of mystical philosophy following on from writers such as Ibn Arabi and Ibn Sabin, persisted.
Ali was first among the Arabs to deal with philosophy and metaphysics. He is important to Shias and Sufis, both politically and spiritually. His sermons compiled in Nahj al-Balagha are considered a masterpiece in Muslim philosophy.
There are contradictory views about his faith. Some, such as ibn Abi Osayba, knew him as believer, but some, like Abu Hatam and Biruni, knew him as unbeliever. A philosopher whose theory of the soul, explained in The Metaphysics, was derived from Islam in which he explained how the soul finds its way to salvation and freedom. In his Philosophical Biography, al-Razi defended his philosophical lifestyle, emphasizing that, rather than being self-indulgent, man should utilize his intellect, and apply justice in his life. His defense against his critics is also a book entitled Al Syrat al Falsafiah (The Philosophical Approach). He was also an early chemist.
Al-Farabi along with Ibn Sina and Averroes have been recognized as Peripatetics or rationalists among Muslims. He tried to gather the ideas of Plato and Aristotle in his book "The gathering of the ideas of the two philosophers". He was known as "the second master" of philosophy (Aristotle being the first), and his work was dedicated to both reviving and reinventing the Alexandrian philosophical thought, to which his teacher, Yuhanna bin Haylan belonged.
Inspired by neoplatonism, "his cosmology and metaphysics develop a concept of God as the one beyond both being and non-being." Intellect which is the first being created by God, he believes, does not disintegrate, and the purpose of the religion is to "reorient the soul toward its true higher self and ultimately to return to its original state."
While opposing the kind of philosophy which is regarded as independent of revelation, he sought to find areas of agreement between different Islamic sects. Chapter 1 and 7 of his book al-I'lam bi manaqib al-Islam (An Exposition on the Merits of Islam) has been translated into English under the titles The Quiddity of Knowledge and the Appurtenances of its Species and The Excellences of Islam in Relation to Royal Authority. His other book Kitab al-amad 'ala'l-abad (On the Afterlife)  also has an English translation.
A Neoplatonist who wrote the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics, entitled Tahdhib al-akhlaq (Refinement of Morals), he distinguished between personal ethics and the public realm, and contrasted the redemptive nature of reason with the luring trait of nature.
His major work the Rahat al-aql (Peace of Mind) explains how to attain the eternal life of the mind and reason, in a changing world. Al-Aqwal al-dhahabiya, (refuting al-Razi's argument against the necessity of revelation) and Kitab al-riyad (about the early Isma'ili cosmology) are among his other works.
His Knowledge and Liberation consist of a series of 30 questions and answers about main issues of his time, from the creation of the world to the human free will and culpability after death.Rawshana-i-nama (Book of Enlightenment), and the Sa'datnama (Book of Felicity) are also among his works.
His main philosophical idea is that the human soul could become one with the Divine through a hierarchy starting with sensing of the forms (containing less and less matter) to the impression of Active Intellect. His most important philosophical work is Tadbīr al-mutawaḥḥid (The Regime of the Solitary).
His work Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, is known as The Improvement of Human Reason in English and is a philosophical and allegorical novel which tells the story of a feral child named Hayy who is raised by a gazelle and is living alone without contact with other human beings. This work is continuing Avicenna's version of the story and is considered as a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which had criticized Avicenna's philosophy.
His major work Tafsir-e Kabir included many philosophical thoughts, among which was the self-sufficiency of the intellect. He believed that proofs based on tradition hadith could never lead to certainty but only to presumption. Al-Razi's rationalism "holds an important place in the debate in the Islamic tradition on the harmonization of reason and revelation."
As the founder of Illuminationism, an important school in Islamicmysticism, The "light" in his "Philosophy of Illumination" is a divine source of knowledge which has significantly affected Islamic philosophy and esoteric knowledge.
He was an ArabAndalusianSufimystic whose work Fusus al-Hikam (The Ringstones of Wisdom) can be described as a summary of his mystical beliefs concerning the role of different prophets in divine revelation.
As a supporter of Avicennian logic he was described by Ibn Khaldun as the greatest of the later Persian scholars. Corresponding with Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, the son-in-law of Ibn al-'Arabi, he thought mysticism, as disseminated by Sufi principles of his time, was not appealing to his mind so he wrote his own book of philosophical Sufism entitled Awsaf al-Ashraf (The Attributes of the Illustrious).
Described as the "most popular poet in America", he was an evolutionary thinker, in that he believed that all matter after devolution from the divine Ego experience an evolutionary cycle by which it return to the same divine Ego, which is due to an innate motive which he calls love. Rumi's major work is the Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī (Spiritual Couplets) regarded by some Sufis as the Persian-language Qur'an. His other work, Fihi Ma Fihi (In It What's in It), includes seventy-one talks given on various occasions to his disciples.
His Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah orTheologus Autodidactus is said to be the first theological novel in which he attempted to prove that the human mind is able to deduce the truths of the world through reasoning. He described this book as a defense of "the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world".
He was a Sufi from Shiraz who was famous for his commentary on Hikmat al-ishraq of Suhrawardi. His major work is the Durrat al-taj li-ghurratt al-Dubaj (Pearly Crown) which is an Encyclopedic work on philosophy including philosophical views on natural sciences, theology, logic, public affairs, ethnics, mystiicsm, astronomy, mathematics, arithmetic and music.
As the main commentator of the Ibn Arabi's mystic philosophy and the representative of Persian Imamah theosophy, he believes that the Imams who were gifted with mystical knowledge were not just guides to the Shia Sufis. He was both a critic of Shia whose religion was confined to legalistic system and Sufis who denied certain regulations issued from the Imams.
Al-Taftazani's treatises, even the commentaries, are "standard books" for students of Islamic theology. His papers have been called a "compendium of the various views regarding the great doctrines of Islam".
Jili was the primary systematizer and commentator of Ibn Arabi's works. His Universal Man explains Ibn Arabi’s teachings on reality and human perfection, which is among the masterpieces of Sufiliterature. Jili thought of the Absolute Being as a Self, which later on influenced Allama Iqbal.
His Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) includes seven stories, among which Salaman and Absal tells the story of a sensual attraction of a prince for his wet-nurse, through which Jami uses figurative symbols to depict the key stages of the Sufi path such as repentance. The mystical and philosophical explanations of the nature of divine mercy, is also among his works.
Regarded as a leading scholar and mujaddid of the seventeenth century, he worked on tafsir, hadith, grammar and fiqh (jurisprudence). In his work Resāla fi’l-waḥda al-wojūdīya (Exposition of the concept of "Unity of Existences"), he states that the Sufis are the true believers, "calls for an unbiased assessment of their utterances, and refers to his own mystical experiences."
Professing in the Neoplatonizing Islamic Peripatetic traditions of Avicenna and Suhrawardi, he was the main figure (together with his student Mulla Sadra), of the cultural revival of Iran. He was also the central founder of the School of Isfahan, and is regarded as the Third Teacher (mu'alim al-thalith) after Aristotle and al-Farabi.Taqwim al-Iman (Calendars of Faith), Kitab Qabasat al-Ilahiyah (Book of the Divine Embers of Fiery Kindling), Kitab al-Jadhawat (Book of Spiritual Attractions) and Sirat al-Mustaqim (The Straight Path) are among his 134 works.
He was trained in the works of Avicenna, and Mulla Sadra studied under him. His main workal-Resāla al-ṣenāʿiya, is an examination of the arts and professions in perfect society, and combines a number of genres and subject areas such as political and ethical thought and metaphysics.
According to Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra is the most important influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years. He is regarded as the master of Ishraqi school of Philosophy who combined the many areas of the Islamic Golden Age philosophies into what he called the Transcendent Theosophy. He brought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialism to existentialism" in Islamic philosophy. He also created for the first time a "distinctly Muslim school of Hikmah based especially upon the inspired doctrines which form the very basis of Shiism," especially what contained in the Nahj al-Balagha.
He attempted to reexamine Islamic theology in the view of modern changes. His main work The Conclusive Argument of God is about Muslim theology and is still frequently referred to by new Islamic circles. Al-Budur al-bazighah (The Full Moons Rising in Splendor) is another work of him in which he explains the basis of faith in view of rational and traditional arguments.
He is famous for Tafsir al-Mizan, the Quranicexegesis. His philosophy is centered on the sociological treatment of human problems. In his later years he would often hold study mettings with Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, in which the classical texts of divine knowledge and gnosis along with what Nasr calls comparative gnosis were discussed. Shi'a Islam, The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism (Persian: Usul-i-falsafeh va ravesh-i-ri'alism) and Dialogues with Professor Corbin (Persian: Mushabat ba Ustad Kurban) are among his works.
His major work is The Meaning of the Qur'an in which he explains that The Quran is not a book of abstract ideas, but a Book which contains a message which causes a movement. Islam, he believes, is not a 'religion' in the sense this word is usually comprehended, but a system encompassing all areas of living. In his book Islamic Way of Lifehe largely expanded on this view.
He was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris where he encountered Louis Massignon, and it was he who introduced Corbin to the writings of Suhrawardi whose work affected the course of Corbin's life. In his History of Islamic Philosophy, he refuted the view that philosophy among the Muslims came to an end after Averroes, showed rather that a vivid philosophical activity persisted in the eastern Muslim world – especially Iran.
He adopted existentialism since he wrote his Existentialist Time in 1943. His version of existentialism, according to his own description, differs from Heidegger's and other existentialists in that it gives preference to action rather than thought. in his later work,Humanism And Existentialism In Arab Thought, however, he tried to root his ideas in his own culture.
Considered among the important influences on the ideologies of the Islamic Republic, he started from the Hawza of Qom. Then he taught philosophy in the University of Tehran for 22 years. Between 1965 and 1973, however, he gave regular lectures at the Hosseiniye Ershad in Northern Tehran, most of which have been turned into books on Islam, Iran, and historical topics.
He wrote many books on variety of fields, the most prominent of which are his 15-volume Interpretation and Criticism of Rumi's Masnavi, and his unfinished, 27-volume Translation and Interpretation of the Nahj al-Balagha. These works shows his ideas in fields like anthropology, sociology, moral ethics, philosophy and mysticism.
He discusses 20th century faith arguing that one must use science and the creation as experienced through the five senses, in order to be able to establish belief and certainty in God. Man and the Secrets of Nearness is among his works.
He wrote on Islam and modernity trying to rethink the role of Islam in the contemporary world. In his book Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers he offers his responses to several questions for those who are concerned about the identity crisis which left many Muslims estranged from both modernity and tradition. The Unthought In Contemporary Islamic Thought is also among his works.
He is the author of Islamic Renaissance: The Real Task Ahead in which he explains the theoretical idea of the Caliphate system, arguing that it would only be possible by reviving Iman and faith among the Muslims in general and intelligentsia in particular. This would, he argues, fill the existing gap between new sciences, and Islamic divine knowledge.
Ali Shariati Mazinani (Persian: علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion. He is held as one of the most influential Iranian intellectuals of the 20th century and has been called the "ideologue of the Iranian Revolution", although his ideas ended up not forming the basis of the Islamic Republic
His works are dedicated to Islamic philosophy and especially Mulla Sadra's transcendent philosophy.Tafsir Tasnim is his exegesis of the Quran in which he follows Tabatabaei's Tafsir al-Mizan, in that he tries to interpret a verse based on other verses. His other work As-Saareh-e-Khelqat is a discussion about the philosophy of faith and evidence of the existence of God.
He Is a prominent scholar of comparative religion, a lifelong student of Frithjof Schuon, whose works devoted to Islamic esoterism and Sufism. Author of over fifty books and five hundred articles (a number of which can be found in the journal Studies in Comparative Religion), He is highly respected both in the West and the Islamic world. The Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to the Present is among his works in which he states that the sayings of Shia Imams played a major role in the development of later Islamic philosophy specially the works of Mulla Sadra.
He was working on Immanuel Kant, though, later in his life, he put greater emphasis on the Islamic world and its relationship to the West. He was also a supporter of human rights, intellectual freedom and free speech.
He was an IraqiShia philosopher and founder of the Islamic Dawa Party. His Falsafatuna (Our Philosophy) is a collection of basic ideas concerning the world, and his way of considering it. These concepts are divided into two researches: The theory of knowledge, and the philosophical notion of the world.
His work Democracy, Human Rights and Law in Islamic Thought while shows the distinctive nationality of the Arabs, reject the philosophical discussion which have tried to ignore its democratic deficits. Working in the tradition of Avincenna and Averroes, he emphasizes that concepts such as democracy and law cannot rely on old traditions, nor could be import, but should be created by today's Arabs themselves.The Formation of Arab Reason: Text, Tradition and the Construction of Modernity in the Arab World is also among his works.
Being interested in the philosophy of religion and the philosophical system of Rumi, his book the evolution and devolution of religious knowledge argues that "a religion (such as Islam) may be divine and unchanging, but our understanding of religion remains in a continuous flux and a totally human endeavor."
He was a Russian Islamic revolutionist and philosopher whose political analysis can be characterized as IslamicMarxism. In Dzhemal's work, Marxism and Islam are both described by eschatology in that Islamic ummah acts the messianic role of Marx's proletariat in leading to the last stage of history.
Islam and Religious Pluralism is among his works in which he advocates "non-reductive religious pluralism". In his paper "The Relationship between Philosophy and Theology in the Postmodern Age" he is trying to examine whether philosophy can agree with theology.
After the London bombings in 2005, he issued a fatwa saying Muslims who hear of plans for a terrorist attack must report them to the police immediately." He is also known for having preached and lectured against female genital mutilation.
Quran scholar exegete, educationist, theologian, intellectual, historian and public scholar, who extended the work of his mentor, Amin Ahsan Islahi Ghamidi is the founder of Al-Mawrid Institute of Islamic Sciences and its sister organization Danish Sara. He became a member of Council of Islamic Ideology on 28 January 2006 for a couple of years, a constitutional body responsible for giving legal advice on Islamic issues to the Government of Pakistan and the Parliament. He has also taught at the Civil Services Academy from 1980 until 1991. He is running an intellectual movement similar to Wastiyya in Egypt on the popular electronic media of Pakistan.
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^Allama Iqbal in his letter dated 24 January 1921 to R.A. Nicholson (Letters of Iqbal Iqbal Academy, Lahore (1978), pp. 141–42)
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^Al Jabri, Mohammed Abed (December 9, 2008). Democracy, Human Rights and Law in Islamic Thought. I. B. Tauris.
^Vahid, Hamid (2005). Islamic Humanism: From Silence to Extinction a Brief Analysis of Abdulkarim Soroush's Thesis of Evolution and Devolution of Religious Knowledge. Tehran, Iran: Center of Islam and Science. p. 43.
^Jahanbakhsh, Forough (2001). Islam, Democracy and Religious Modernism in Iran, 1953–2000: From Bazargan to Soroush. p. 145.
^Raphael Israeli, The Islamic Challenge in Europe (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick NJ, 2009), p. 140.
^Sabine Strasser, "Political Activism and Anthropology in Austria", in Taking Sides: Ethics, Politics, and Fieldwork in Anthropology, edited by Heidi Armbruster and Anna Lærke (Berghahn Books, 2008), p. 190.
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