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جدول[ویرایش]

عنصر سرچشمهٔ زبانی عبارت ریشه معنی سرچشمهٔ نام گذاری توضیح
 
1 هیدروژن H در اصل یونانی به واسطهٔ لاتین و فرانسوی ὕδωρ (ریشه: ὑδρ-) + -γενής (-ژن) آب + پدر توصیفی از عبارت فرانسوی hydrogène[۱] و لاتین hydro- و -genes, برگرفته از عبارت یونانی ὕδωρ γείνομαι (hydor geinomai), به معنی "من آب می زایم".
2 هلیم He یونانی ἥλιος (هلیوس) خورشید ستاره شناسی;
افسانه ها
نامگذاری از عبارت یونانی ἥλιος (هلیوس), که به معنی خورشید در آسمان یا خورشید خدای یونانی است.[۲] این عنصر از طیف سنجی پرتوهای خورشید شناسایی شد.
3 لیتیم Li یونانی λίθος (لیتوس) سنگ از عبارت یونانی λίθος (لیتوس) به معنی "سنگ", چون از روی سنگ معدنی شناسایی شد در حالی که دیگر عناصر قلیایی مانند سدیم و پتاسیم از بافت های گیاهی شناسایی شدند.
4 بریلیم Be زبان سانسکریت، پالی و پراکریت به واسطۀ یونانی، لاتین و فرانسوی باستان و انگلیسی میانه شهر بلور و عبارت یونانی βήρυλλος (بریلوس) ماده ای به رنگ آبی-سبز (بریلیم آلومینیم سیکلوسیلیکات) Be3Al2(SiO3)6). احتمالاً برگرفته از نام شهر بلور . توصیفی (از روی رنگ): بریل βήρυλλος beryllos, denoting beryl, which contains beryllium.[۳] The word is derived (via Latin: beryllus and French: béryl) from the Greek βήρυλλος, bērullos, a blue-green spar, from Prakrit veruliya (वॆरुलिय), from Pāli veḷuriya (वेलुरिय); veḷiru (भेलिरु) or, viḷar (भिलर्), "to become pale," in reference to the pale semiprecious gemstone beryl.[۴] The word is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit word वैडूर्य vaidurya, which might be related to the name of the Indian city of Belur.[۵]
5 بور B زبان عربی, لاتین قرون وسطی، زبان آنگلو-نورمن، فرانسوی میانه، و انگلیسی میانه بورق (buraq) از عبارت لاتین بوراکس که خود از بوره از فارسی (عربی) آمده از عبارت عربی بورق (buraq), که ریشه در ماده بوراکس دارد. که احتمالاً ریشه در زبان فارسی و عبارت بوره (burah) دارد. بوره وارد عربی و سپس وارد زبان لاتین قرون وسطی شد و به شکل baurach, درآمد پس از آن وارد آنگلو-نورمن شد و به شکل boreis در آمد این عبارت در انگلیسی میانه به شکل boras, پذیرفته شد که ریشهٔ نام امروزی آن در انگلیسی به صورت "boron" (بور) است.
6 کربن C لاتین به واسطهٔ فرانسوی carbone زغال لاتین کاربو از عبارت فرانسوی کاربن, which in turn came from Latin carbō, which means "charcoal" and is related to carbōn, which means "a coal". (The German and زبان هلندی names, "Kohlenstoff" and "koolstof", respectively, both literally mean "coal matter".) These words were derived from the زبان نیا-هندواروپایی base *ker- meaning heat, fire, or to burn.[۶]
7 نیتروژن N Greek via Latin and French νίτρον (Latin: nitrum) -γενής (-genes) native-soda begetter descriptive From French "nitrogène",[۷] derived from Greek νίτρον γείνομαι (nitron geinomai), meaning "I form/beget native-soda (niter)".[۸]
Also used was azoth, from Andalusian Arabic al-zuq, from the Classical Arabic name of the element.
8 اکسیژن O Greek via French ὀξύ γείνομαι (oxy geinomai)/oxygène to bring forth acid From Greek ὀξύ γείνομαι (oxy geinomai), which means "Ι bring forth acid", as it was believed to be an essential component of acids. This phrase was corrupted into the French oxygène, which became the source of the English "oxygen".[۹]
9 فلوئور F Latin fluor a flowing From فلئوریت, one of its ترکیب شیمیاییs (calcium fluoride, CaF2).
10 نئون Ne Greek νέος (neos) new From Greek "νέος" (neos), which means "new".
11 سدیم Na English soda From the English "بی‌کربنات سدیم", used in names for رده:ترکیب‌های سدیم such as سدیم هیدروکسید, سدیم کربنات, and بی‌کربنات سدیم. Probably from Italian sida (or directly from Medieval Latin soda) "a kind of saltwort," from which soda was obtained, of uncertain origin.[۱۰]


The symbol Na is from the لاتین نوین noun natrium, derived from Greek νίτρον (nítron), "natural soda, a kind of نمک (شیمی)" + Latin -ium.[۱۱] The original source is either the Arabic word نطرون natrun or the زبان‌های مصری word
R8X1
netjeri.[۱۲]
12 منیزیم Mg Greek Μαγνησία (Magnesia) toponym From the Ancient Greek Μαγνησία (Magnesia) (district in تسالی), where discovered.
13 آلومینیوم Al Latin alumen زاج (literally: bitter salt)[۱۳] Latin زاج Latin زاج, which means "زاج" (literally "bitter salt").
14 سیلیسیم Si Latin silex, -icis flint descriptive From Latin "silex" or "silicis", which means "سنگ آتشزنه", a kind of stone (chiefly silicon dioxide).
15 فسفر P Greek via Latin[۱۴] φῶς + -φόρος (phos + -phoros) light-bearer descriptive From Greek φῶς + -φόρος (phos + phoros), which means "light bearer", because white phosphorus emits a faint glow upon exposure to اکسیژن.
Phosphorus was the ancient name for زهره, or هسپروس, the (Morning Star).[۲]
16 گوگرد S Latin

زبان نیا-هندواروپایی
Old Latin sulpur
(later sulphur, sulfur)

PIE *swépl̥
(genitive *sulplós),
nominal derivative of *swelp.[۱۵]
> PIE *swelp 'to burn' Latin sulfur The word came into Middle English from Anglo-Norman sulfre, itself derived through Old French soulfre from Late Latin sulfur.[۱۶]
17 کلر Cl Greek χλωρός (chlorós) pale green[۱۷] descriptive (colour): Greek chloros From Greek χλωρός (chlorós), which means "yellowish green" or "greenish yellow", because of the colour of the gas.
18 آرگون Ar Greek ἀργόν (argon) inactive descriptive: argon Greek argon means "inactive" (literally "slow").
19 پتاسیم K لاتین نوین via زبان هلندی and English[۱۸] potassa; potasch via پتاش[۱۹] pot-ash From the English "پتاش", which means "pot-ash" (potassium compound prepared from an قلیا extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves).
Potash is a literal translation of the زبان هلندی potaschen, which means "pot ashes".[۱۸] The symbol K is from the Latin name kalium, from زبان عربی القلي (al qalīy), which means "calcined ashes".
20 کلسیم Ca Greek/Latin χάλιξ/calx χάλιξ means "pebble", and calx means limestone[۲۰] Latin آهک From Latin calx, which means "lime". Calcium was known as early as the first century when the روم باستان prepared آهک as اکسید کلسیم.
21 اسکاندیم Sc Latin Scandia Scandinavia toponym Named from Latin Scandia, which means اسکاندیناوی; formerly eka-boron.[۲۱]
22 تیتانیم Ti Greek Τιτάν
Titan
(gen.: Τιτάνος)
Titans, sons of Gaia mythological For the "تیتان (اساطیر یونان)", the first sons of گایا (افسانه) in Greek mythology.[۲]
23 وانادیم V زبان نورس باستان Vanadís "Dís of the ونیر" mythological From Vanadís, one of the names of the ونیر goddess فریا in اساطیر اسکاندیناوی, because of multicoloured ترکیب شیمیاییs deemed beautiful.[۲][۲۲]
24 کروم Cr Greek via French χρῶμα (chróma) colour descriptive (colour): Greek رنگ From Greek χρῶμα (chróma), "colour", because of its multicoloured compounds. This word was adapted as the French chrome, and adding the suffix -ium created the English "chromium".[۲۳]
25 منگنز Mn Greek via Latin, زبان ایتالیایی, and French Μαγνησία
(Magnesia;
Medieval Latin: magnesia)
Magnesia descriptive From Latin Magnesia, ultimately from Greek; Magnesia evolved into "manganese" in زبان ایتالیایی and into "manganèse" in French.
26 آهن Fe Anglo-Saxon via انگلیسی میانه īsern
(earlier: īren/īsen)
/yren/yron
holy metal or strong metal[۲۴] descriptive: Anglo-Saxon From the انگلیسی باستان īsern which is derived from Proto-Germanic isarnan meaning "holy metal" or "strong metal".
The symbol Fe is from Latin ferrum, meaning "iron".
27 کبالت Co German Kobold evil spirit German kobold From German Kobold, which means "evil spirit". The metal was named by miners, because it was poisonous and troublesome (آلودگی and degraded other mined elements, such as nickel). Other sources cite the origin in the silver miners' belief that cobalt had been placed by "Kobolds", who had stolen the silver. Some also think that the name may have been derived from Greek κόβαλος, kobalos, which means "mine" and which may have common roots with kobold, goblin, and cobalt.
28 نیکل Ni زبان سوئدی via German[۲۵] Kopparnickel/
Kupfernickel
copper-coloured ore descriptive From the زبان سوئدی kopparnickel, meaning "copper-coloured ore"; this referred to the ore نیکلین from which it was obtained.[۲۶]
29 مس Cu Greek? via Latin, زبان‌های ژرمنی غربی, انگلیسی باستان, and انگلیسی میانه[۲۷] Κύπριος (Kyprios)? who/which is from قبرس toponym: Latin قبرس Possibly derived from Greek Κύπριος (Kyprios) (which comes from Κύπρος (Kypros), the Greek name of Cyprus) via Latin cuprum, West Germanic *kupar, Old English coper/copor, and Middle English coper. The Latin term, during the Roman Empire, was aes cyprium; "aes" was the generic term for copper alloys such as برنز). Cyprium means "قبرس" or "which is from Cyprus", where so much of it was mined; it was simplified to cuprum and then eventually Anglicized as copper (Old English coper/copor).
30 روی Zn German Zink Cornet From German Zink which is related to Zinken "prong, point", probably alluding to its spiky crystals. May be derived from Old زبان فارسی.
31 گالیم Ga Latin Gallia Gaul (Ancient France) toponym From Latin Gallia, which means گل (سرزمین) (Ancient France), and also gallus, which means "rooster". The element was obtained as free metal by پل-امیل لکو د بویسباودران, who named gallium after France, his native land, and also, punningly, after himself, as Lecoq, which means "the خروس", or in Latin, gallus.

Gallium was called eka-aluminium by دمیتری مندلیف who predicted its existence.[۲۱]

32 ژرمانیم Ge Latin Germania Germany toponym From Latin Germania, which means "Germany". Germanium has also been called eka-silicon by Mendeleev.[۲۱]
33 آرسنیک As زبان سریانی/زبان فارسی via Greek, Latin, فرانسوی باستان, and انگلیسی میانه ἀρσενικόν (arsenikon) orpiment Greek نر From Greek ἀρσενικόν (arsenikon), which is adapted from the زبان سریانی ܠܐ ܙܐܦܢܝܐ (al) zarniqa[۲۸] and زبان فارسی, زرنیخ (zarnik), "yellow زرنیخ". Ἀρσενικόν (arsenikon) is paretymologically related to the Greek word ἀρσενικός (arsenikos), which means "masculine" or "potent". These words were adapted as the Latin arsenicum and Old French arsenic, which is the source for the English arsenic.[۲۸]
34 سلنیم Se Greek σελήνη (selene) moon astrological;
mythological
From Greek σελήνη (selene), which means "Moon", and also moon-goddess سلنه.[۲]
35 برم Br Greek via French βρόμος (brómos)[۲۹] dirt or stench (of he-goats)[۳۰] Greek بو βρόμος (brómos) means "stench (lit. clangor)", due to its characteristic smell.
36 کریپتون Kr Greek κρυπτός (kryptos) hidden descriptive From Greek κρυπτός (kryptos), which means "hidden one", because of its colourless, odorless, tasteless, gaseous properties, as well as its rarity in nature (like other گاز نجیبes).
37 روبیدیم Rb Latin rubidus deepest red descriptive (colour) From Latin rubidus, which means "deepest red", because of the colour of a خط طیف نوری.
38 استرانسیم Sr گیلیک اسکاتلندی via English Sròn an t-Sìthein; Strontian proper name (literally: "nose [i.e., 'point'] of the fairy hill)" toponym Named after استرونتیانیت, the mineral. (Strontianite was named after the town of Strontian, the source of the mineral in اسکاتلند.)
39 ایتریم Y زبان سوئدی Ytterby proper name, literally: "outer village" toponym Named after اکسید ایتریم (III), the (اکسید) compound of yttrium. (The compound yttria was named after Ytterby, the village where the mineral gadolinite was also found.)
40 زیرکونیم Zr زبان سریانی/زبان فارسی via Arabic and German ܙܐܪܓܥܢܥ zargono,[۳۱] زرگون (zargûn) gold-like From زبان عربی زرکون (zarkûn). Derived from the زبان فارسی, زرگون (zargûn), which means "gold-like". Zirkon is the German variant of these and is the origin of the English "zircon".[۳۲]
41 نیوبیم Nb Greek Νιόβη (Niobe) snowy mythological Named after نیوبه, daughter of تانتالوس in Classical mythology.[۲۲][۲]
The alternate name columbium comes from کلمبیا (نام), personification of America.
42 مولیبدن Mo Greek μόλυβδος (molybdos) lead-like descriptive From Greek μόλυβδος (molybdos), "lead".
43 تکنسیم Tc Greek τεχνητός (technetos) artificial descriptive From Greek τεχνητός (technetos), which means "artificial", because it was the first artificially produced element. Technetium has also been called eka-manganese.[۲۱]
44 روتنیم Ru Latin Ruthenia Ruthenia, Kievan Rus' [۳۳] toponym From Latin Ruthenia, geographical نام خارجی و داخلی for روس کیف.
45 رودیم Rh Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) rose descriptive (colour) From Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), which means "rose". From rose-red ترکیب شیمیایی.
46 پالادیم Pd Greek via Latin Παλλάς (genitive: Παλλάδος) (Pallas) little maiden[۳۴] astrological;
mythological
Named after پالاس, the asteroid discovered two years earlier. (The asteroid was named after آتنا, goddess of wisdom and victory.)[۲] The word Palladium is derived from Greek Παλλάδιον and is the neuter version of Παλλάδιος, meaning "of Pallas".[۳۵]
47 نقره Ag زبان اکدی via انگلیسی باستان and انگلیسی میانه 𒊭𒁺𒁍/𒊭𒅈𒇥; siolfor/seolfor to refine, smelt Latin نقره From the انگلیسی باستان, seolfor which was derived from Proto-Germanic *silubra-; compare Old High German silabar; and has cognates in Balto-Slavic languages: اسلاوی کلیسایی: sĭrebro، لیتوانیایی: sidabras، زبان پروسی باستان sirablan. Possibly borrowed from زبان اکدی 𒊭𒅈𒇥 sarpu "refined silver" and related to 𒊭𒁺𒁍 sarapu "to refine, smelt".[۳۶] Alternatively, possibly from one of the Pre-Indo-European languages, compare باسکی: zilar.
The symbol Ag is from the Latin name argentum, which is derived from PIE *arg-ent-.
48 کادمیم Cd Greek/Latin καδμεία (kadmeia) کالامین دی or Cadmean earth Greek kadmia From Latin cadmia, which is derived from Greek καδμεία (kadmeia) and means "کالامین دی", a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals. Cadmium is named after کادموس (in Greek: Κάδμος Kadmos), a character in Greek mythology and calamine is derived from Le Calamine, the French name of the بلژیک town of کلمی.
49 ایندیم In Greek via Latin and English indigo descriptive (colour) Named after نیلی سیر, because of an indigo-coloured طیف گسیلی line. The English word indigo is from Spanish indico and Dutch indigo (from Portuguese endego), from Latin indicum "indigo," from Greek ἰνδικόν, indikon, "blue dye from India".
50 قلع Sn Anglo-Saxon via انگلیسی میانه tin Borrowed from a زبان نیا-هندواروپایی, and has cognates in several زبان‌های ژرمنی and زبان‌های سلتی languages.[۳۷]
The symbol Sn is from its Latin name stannum.
51 آنتیموان Sb Greek? via Medieval Latin and انگلیسی میانه[۳۸] ἀντί + μόνος
(anti monos);
antimonium/
antimonie[۳۹]
various Possibly from Greek ἀντί + μόνος (anti monos), approximately meaning "opposed to solitude", as believed never to exist in pure form, or ἀντί + μοναχός (anti monachos) for "monk-killer" (in French folk etymology, anti-moine "monk's bane"), because many early alchemists were monks, and antimony is poisonous. This may also be derived from the فرعون (مصر باستانian), Antos عمون (expression), which could be translated as "bloom of the god Ammo".
The symbol Sb is from Latin name stibium, which is derived from Greek Στίβι stíbi, a variant of στίμμι stimmi (genitive: στίμμεος or στίμμιδος), probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian
O34
D46
G17F21
D4
sdm meaning "eyepaint".[۴۰] Littré suggests that the first form is derived from *stimmida, a hypothetical alternative حالت مفعولی of stimmi (the canonical accusative of the noun is the same as the nominative: stimmi). The Arabic word for the substance, as "mark" or "the cosmetic", can appear as تحمیض، ثمود، وثمود، وثمود ithmid, athmoud, othmod or uthmod.[۴۱]
52 تلوریم Te Latin Tellus Earth From Latin tellus ("Earth").
53 ید I Greek via French ἰώδης (iodes) violet descriptive (colour) Named after the Greek ἰώδης (iodes), which means "violet", because of the colour of the gaseous phase. This word was adapted as the French iode, which is the source of the English "iodine".[۴۲]
54 زنون Xe Greek ξένος (xenos) foreign From the Greek adjective ξένος (xenos), which means "foreign, a stranger".
55 سزیم Cs Latin caesius blue-gray[۴۳] or sky blue descriptive (colour): Latin caesius From Latin caesius, which means "sky blue". Its identification was based upon the bright-blue lines in its spectrum, and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis.
56 باریم Ba Greek via لاتین نوین βαρύς (barys) heavy Greek چگالی βαρύς (barys) means "heavy". The oxide was initially called "barote", then "baryta", which was modified to "barium" to describe the metal. همفری دیوی gave the element this name because it was originally found in باریتین, which shares the same source.[۴۴]
57 لانتان La Greek λανθάνειν (lanthanein) to lie hidden From Greek lanthanein, "to lie (hidden)".
58 سریم Ce Latin Ceres grain, bread astrological;
mythological سرس
Named after the asteroid سرس, discovered two years earlier. (The asteroid, now classified as a dwarf planet, was named after سرس (اسطوره‌شناسی), the goddess of fertility in Roman mythology.)[۲] Ceres is derived from زبان نیا-هندواروپایی *ker-es- from base *ker- meaning to grow.[۴۵][۴۶]
59 پرازئودیمیم Pr Greek πράσιος δίδυμος (prasios didymos) green twin descriptive From Greek πράσιος δίδυμος (prasios didymos), meaning "green twin", because didymium separated into praseodymium and نئودیمیم, with نمک (شیمی)s of different colours; praseodymium oxide is green.
60 نئودیمیم Nd Greek νέος δίδυμος (neos didymos) new twin descriptive Derived from Greek νέος διδύμος (neos didymos), which means "new twin", because didymium separated into پرازئودیمیم and neodymium. The metals have different-coloured نمک (شیمی)s, which helps distinguish them.[۴۷]
61 پرومتیم Pm Greek Προμηθεύς (Prometheus) forethought[۴۸] mythological Named after پرومته, who stole the fire of heaven and gave it to mankind (in Classical mythology).[۲]
62 ساماریم Sm Samarsky-Bykhovets, Vasili eponym Named after samarskite, the mineral. (Samarskite was named after Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets, a روسیهn mine official.)
63 یوروپیم Eu Ancient Greek Εὐρώπη (Europe) broad-faced or well-watered toponym;
mythological
Named for Europe, where it was discovered. Europe was named after the fictional Phoenician princess ائوروپه.
64 گادولینیم Gd Gadolin, Johan eponym Named in honour of یوهان گادولین, who was one of the founders of کشورهای نوردیک chemistry research, discovered ایتریم, and pioneered laboratory exercise teaching. (Gadolinite, the mineral, is also named for him.)
65 تربیم Tb زبان سوئدی Ytterby Proper name (literally: outer village) toponym Named after Ytterby, the village in سوئد where the element was first discovered.
66 دیسپروزیم Dy Greek δυσπρόσιτος (dysprositos) hard to get at descriptive Derived from Greek δυσπρόσιτος (dysprositos), which means "hard to get at".
67 هولمیم Ho Latin Holmia Stockholm toponym Derived from Latin Holmia, which means استکهلم.
68 اربیم Er زبان سوئدی Ytterby proper name, literally: "outer village" toponym Named after the village of Ytterby in سوئد, where large concentrations of yttria and erbia are located. Erbia and terbia were confused at this time. After 1860, what had been known as terbia was renamed erbia, and after 1877, what had been known as erbia was renamed terbia.
69 تولیم Tm Greek Θούλη, Θύλη[۴۹] a mythical country mythological Named after Thule, an ancient Roman and Greek name (Θούλη, Θύλη) for a mythical country in the far north, perhaps اسکاندیناوی. By the same token, thulia, its اکسید.
70 ایتربیم Yb زبان سوئدی Ytterby proper name, literally: "outer village" toponym Named after ytterbia, the (اکسید) compound of ytterbium. (The compound ytterbia was named after Ytterby, the سوئد village (near وکسهلم) where the mineral gadolinite was also found.)[۲۲]
71 لوتتیم Lu Latin Lutetia Paris toponym Named after the Latin Lutetia (زبان گلی for "place of mud"), the city of Paris.[۲۲]
72 هافنیم Hf Latin Hafnia Copenhagen toponym From Latin Hafnia, which means "کپنهاگ" of دانمارک.
73 تانتال Ta Greek Τάνταλος (Tantalus) Tantalus; possibly "the bearer" or "the sufferer"[۵۰] mythological Named after the Greek Τάνταλος ("تانتالوس"), who was punished after death by being condemned to stand knee-deep in water. If he bent to drink the water, it drained below the level he could reach (in اساطیر یونانی). This was considered similar to tantalum's general non-reactivity (that is, "unreachability") because of its inertness (it sits among reagents and is unaffected by them).[۲]
74 تنگستن W زبان سوئدی and زبان دانمارکی tung sten heavy stone descriptive From the زبان سوئدی and زبان دانمارکی "tung sten", which means "heavy stone". The symbol W is from the زبان آلمانی name Wolfram, the historical spelling Wolfrahm translates literally to "wulf cream". The names wolfram or volfram are still used in زبان سوئدی and several other languages.
[۲۲]
75 رنیوم Re Latin Rhenus Rhine toponym From Latin Rhenus, the river راین (رود).
76 اسمیم Os Greek via لاتین نوین ὀσμή (osme) a smell descriptive From Greek ὀσμή (osme), meaning "a smell"; the tetroxide is foul-smelling.
77 ایریدیم Ir Greek via Latin ἴρις (genitive: ἴριδος) of rainbows descriptive (colour) Named after the Latin noun iris, which means "رنگین‌کمان, iris plant, iris of the eye", because many of its salts are strongly coloured; ایریس was originally the name of the goddess of rainbows and a messenger in Greek mythology.[۲]
78 پلاتین Pt Spanish via لاتین نوین platina (del Pinto) little silver (of the Pinto River)[۵۱] descriptive From the Spanish, platina, which means "little silver", because it was first encountered in a silver mine. Platina can also mean "stage (of a microscope)", and the modern Spanish is platino. Platina is a diminutive of plata (silver); it is a loan word from French plate or زبان اکسیتان plata (sheet of metal) and is the origin of the English "plate".[۵۲]
79 طلا Au انگلیسی باستان via انگلیسی میانه gold descriptive (colour): Latin طلا From the انگلیسی باستان, "gold", from زبان نیا-هندواروپایی *ghel- meaning "yellow/ bright".
Au is from Latin aurum, which means "shining dawn".[۵۳]
80 جیوه Hg Latin Mercurius Mercury mythological Named after مرکوری (اسطوره‌شناسی), the god of speed and messenger of the Gods, as was the عطارد named after the god.
The symbol Hg is from the Greek words ὕδωρ and ἀργυρός (hydor and argyros), which became the Latin hydrargyrum; both mean "water-silver", because it is a liquid like water (at room temperature), and has a silvery metallic sheen.[۲][۵۴]
81 تالیم Tl Greek θαλλός (thallos) green twig descriptive From Greek θαλλός (thallos), which means "a green shoot (twig)", because of its bright-green spectral خط طیف نوریs.
82 سرب Pb Anglo-Saxon lead The symbol Pb is from the Latin name plumbum, hence the English "plumbing".[۲][۵۵]
83 بیسموت Bi لاتین نوین from German bisemutum white mass descriptive (colour): bisemutum bisemutum is derived from German Wismuth, perhaps from weiße Masse, and means "white mass", due to its appearance.
84 پولونیم Po Latin Polonia Poland toponym Named after لهستان, homeland of discoverer ماری کوری. Was also called radium F.
85 آستاتین At Greek ἄστατος (astatos) unstable Greek ناپایداری ἄστατος (astatos) means "unstable".[۵۶]
86 رادون Rn Latin via German and English[۵۷] رادیم Contraction of رادیم رادون, since the element appears in the radioactive decay of radium.
An alternative, rejected name was niton (Nt), from Latin nitens "shining", because of the radioluminescence of radon.
87 فرانسیم Fr French France proper name (Land of the Franks) toponym Named for France, where it was discovered (at the Curie Institute (Paris)).
88 رادیم Ra Latin via French radius ray descriptive From Latin radius meaning "ray", because of its واپاشی هسته‌ای.
89 اکتینیم Ac Greek ἀκτίς (aktis) beam Greek پرتو (نورشناسی) ἀκτίς, ἀκτῖνος (aktis; aktinos), which means "beam (پرتو (نورشناسی))".
90 توریم Th زبان نورس باستان Þōrr (modern English Thor) thunder mythological Named after ثور (اساطیر), a god associated with thunder in اساطیر اسکاندیناوی.[۲]
The former name ionium (Io) was given early in the study of radioactive elements to the 230Th ایزوتوپ.
91 پروتاکتینیم Pa Greek πρῶτος + ἀκτίς first beam element descriptive? Derived from former name protoactinium, from the Greek prefix proto "first" + Neo-Latin actinium from Greek ἀκτίς (gen.: ἀκτῖνος) "ray" + Latin -ium.[۵۸]
92 اورانیم U Greek via Latin Οὐρανός (Ouranos); Uranus sky astrological;
mythological
Named after the planet اورانوس, which had been discovered eight years earlier in 1781. The planet was named after the god اورانوس (اسطوره), the god of sky and بهشت in اساطیر یونانی.[۲]
93 نپتونیوم Np Latin Neptunus Neptune astrological;
mythological
Named for نپتون, the planet. (The planet was named after the god نپتون (اسطوره‌شناسی), the god of oceans in Roman mythology.)[۲]
94 پلوتونیم Pu Greek via Latin Πλούτων (Ploutōn) via Pluto god of wealth[۵۹] astrological;
mythological
Named after پلوتون, the سیاره کوتوله, because it was discovered directly after نپتونیوم and is higher than اورانیم in the جدول تناوبی, so by analogy with the ordering of the سیارهs. (The planet Pluto was named after پلوتون (اسطوره‌شناسی), a Greek god of the dead)[۲] Πλούτων (Ploutōn) is related to the Greek word πλοῦτος (ploutos) meaning "wealth".
95 امریسیم Am America toponym: the قاره آمریکا Named for the Americas, because it was discovered in the United States (by analogy with یوروپیم) (the name of the continent قاره آمریکا is derived from the name of the Italian navigator آمریگو وسپوچی).
96 کوریم Cm Curie, Marie and Pierre eponym: پیر کوری and ماری کوری and the -um ending Named in honour of ماری کوری and پیر کوری, who discovered رادیم and researched واپاشی هسته‌ای.
97 برکلیم Bk آنگلوساکسون via English دانشگاه کالیفرنیا، برکلی toponym: برکلی، کالیفرنیا Named for the دانشگاه کالیفرنیا، برکلی, where it was discovered. برکلی، کالیفرنیا, was named in honour of جرج بارکلی. "Berkeley" is derived from انگلیسی باستان beorce léah, which means birch lea.
98 کالیفرنیم Cf English California toponym: کالیفرنیا Named for California, the ایالت آمریکا of California and for the دانشگاه کالیفرنیا، برکلی. (The origin of the state's name is disputed.)
99 اینشتینیم Es زبان آلمانی Einstein, Albert German-Jewish surname, which means "one stone" eponym Named in honour of آلبرت اینشتین, for his work on فیزیک نظری, which included the اثر فوتوالکتریک.
100 فرمیم Fm زبان ایتالیایی Fermi, Enrico Italian surname, from ferm- "fastener" and -i[۶۰] eponym Named in honour of انریکو فرمی, who developed the first رآکتور هسته‌ای, مکانیک کوانتومی, nuclear and particle physics, and مکانیک آماری.
101 مندلیفیم Md Mendeleyev, Dmitri eponym Named in honour of دمیتری مندلیف, who invented جدول تناوبی.[۶۱] It has also been called eka-thulium[۲۱].
102 نوبلیم No Nobel, Alfred eponym Named in honour of آلفرد نوبل, who invented دینامیت and instituted the جایزه نوبل foundation.
103 لارنسیم Lr Lawrence, Ernest O. eponym Named in honour of ارنست لارنس, who was involved in the development of the شتاب‌دهنده حلقوی.

The symbol has been Lr since 1963; formerly Lw was used.[۲۲]

104 رادرفوردیم Rf Rutherford, Ernest eponym Named in honour of Baron ارنست رادرفورد, who pioneered the نظریه اوربیتال مولکولی of the اتم. Rutherfordium has also been called kurchatovium (Ku), named in honour of ایگور کورچاتوف, who helped develop understanding of the اورانیم واکنش زنجیره‌ای and the رآکتور هسته‌ای.

Unnilquadium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر.[۲۲]

105 دوبنیم Db زبان روسی Дубна (Dubna) toponym Named for دوبنا (مؤسسه مشترک تحقیقات هسته‌ای, اتحاد جماهیر شوروی سوسیالیستی) where it was discovered. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley proposed hahnium (Ha), in honour of اتو هان, for his pioneering work in واپاشی هسته‌ای and پرتوشیمی, but the proposal was rejected.

Unnilpentium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر.[۲۲]

106 سیبورگیم Sg زبان سوئدی via English Seaborg, Glenn Teodor Swedish surname, literally: "Lake Mountain" eponym Named in honour of گلن سیبورگ, who discovered the chemistry of the عنصرهای فرااورانیم, shared in the discovery and isolation of ten elements, and developed and proposed the آکتینیدها. Other names: eka-tungsten[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC unnilhexium (Unh).[۲۲]
107 بوهریم Bh Bohr, Niels eponym: نیلز بور Named in honour of نیلز بور, who made fundamental contributions to the understanding of اتم and مکانیک کوانتومی.[۲۲]

Unnilseptium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر.

108 هاسیم Hs Latin Hassia Hesse toponym Derived from Latin Hassia, which means هسن, the German state where it was discovered (at the مرکز تحقیقات یون سنگین GSI هلمهولتز, دارمشتات).[۲۲] It has also been called eka-osmium[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC unniloctium (Uno).
109 مایتنریم Mt Meitner, Lise eponym Named in honour of لیزه مایتنر, who shared discovery of شکافت هسته‌ای.[۲۲] It has also been called eka-iridium[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC unnilennium (Une).
110 دارمشتادیم Ds German Darmstadt proper name, literally: "intestine city" toponym Named for دارمشتات, where it was discovered (مرکز تحقیقات یون سنگین GSI هلمهولتز, located in Wixhausen, a small suburb north of Darmstadt).
It has also been called eka-platinum and temporarily by IUPAC ununnilium (Uun).[۶۲][۲۱]
111 رونتگنیم Rg Röntgen,
Wilhelm Conrad
eponym Named in honour of ویلهلم رونتگن, who produced and detected پرتو ایکسs. It has also been called eka-gold[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC unununium (Uuu).
112 کوپرنیسیم Cn زبان لهستانی via Latin Copernicus, Nicolaus Polish surname, literally: "copper nickel" eponym: نیکلاس کوپرنیک Named in honour of نیکلاس کوپرنیک. Ununbium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر, and it was referred to as eka-mercury.
113 نیهونیم Nh زبان ژاپنی 日本 (Nihon) Japan toponym Named after ژاپن, where the element was discovered. It has also been called eka-thallium[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC ununtrium (Uut).
114 فلروویم Fl Russian Flerov, Georgy Russian surname eponym Named in honour of گئورگی فلروف, who was at the forefront of Soviet فیزیک هسته‌ای and founder of the مؤسسه مشترک تحقیقات هسته‌ای in دوبنا, روسیه, where the element was discovered.

Ununquadium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر.

115 مسکوویم Mc Latin Moscovia مسکو toponym Named after استان مسکو, where the element was discovered. It has also been called eka-bismuth[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC ununpentium (Uup).
116 لیورموریوم Lv English American surname toponym Named in honour of آزمایشگاه ملی لارنس لیورمور, which collaborated in the discovery and is in لیورمور، کالیفرنیا, in turn named after the rancher Robert Livermore.

Ununhexium was used as a temporary نام سیستماتیک عنصر.

117 تنسین Ts زبان چروکی via زبان انگلیسی Tennessee تنسی toponym Named after تنسی (itself named after the Cherokee village of ᏔᎾᏏ /tanasi/), where important work for one of the steps to synthesise the element was done. It has also been called eka-astatine[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC ununseptium (Uus).
118 اوگانسون Og زبان روسی Оганесян (Oganessian) یوری اوگانسیان eponym Named after یوری اوگانسیان, a great contributor to the field of synthesizing superheavy elements. It has also been called eka-radon[۲۱] and temporarily by IUPAC ununoctium (Uuo).

منابع[ویرایش]

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  2. ۲٫۰۰ ۲٫۰۱ ۲٫۰۲ ۲٫۰۳ ۲٫۰۴ ۲٫۰۵ ۲٫۰۶ ۲٫۰۷ ۲٫۰۸ ۲٫۰۹ ۲٫۱۰ ۲٫۱۱ ۲٫۱۲ ۲٫۱۳ ۲٫۱۴ ۲٫۱۵ ۲٫۱۶ Some elements (particularly ancient elements) were associated with Greek (or Roman or other) gods or people, in اساطیر یونانی (or other mythology), and with سیارهs (or other objects in the منظومه شمسی), such as مرکوری (اسطوره‌شناسی)عطاردجیوه, etc.
    Also, astrological symbols for the planets were often used as symbols for the ancient elements.
  3. At one time, beryllium was called glucinium, which is from Greek γλυκύς (glykys), which means "sweet", due to the sweet taste of its salts.
  4. "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: beryl". Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
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  21. ۲۱٫۰۰ ۲۱٫۰۱ ۲۱٫۰۲ ۲۱٫۰۳ ۲۱٫۰۴ ۲۱٫۰۵ ۲۱٫۰۶ ۲۱٫۰۷ ۲۱٫۰۸ ۲۱٫۰۹ ۲۱٫۱۰ ۲۱٫۱۱ ۲۱٫۱۲ ۲۱٫۱۳ Previous to the discovery of some unknown elements, Prof. دمیتری مندلیف predicted and described most of their properties; with these, he was able to accurately place them in the gaps in his جدول تناوبی. The properties of four predicted elements, eka-boron (Eb), eka-aluminium (El), eka-manganese (Em), and eka-silicon (Es), proved to be good predictors of اسکاندیم, گالیم, تکنسیم and ژرمانیم, respectively. The prefix eka-, from the زبان سانسکریت, means "one" (one place down from a known element in the table), and is sometimes used in discussions about undiscovered elements. For example, untriennium was referred to as eka-actinium. see also: عناصر پیش‌بینی‌شده توسط مندلیف
  22. ۲۲٫۰۰ ۲۲٫۰۱ ۲۲٫۰۲ ۲۲٫۰۳ ۲۲٫۰۴ ۲۲٫۰۵ ۲۲٫۰۶ ۲۲٫۰۷ ۲۲٫۰۸ ۲۲٫۰۹ ۲۲٫۱۰ ۲۲٫۱۱ see naming controversy below
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  41. Antimony,
    • LSJ, s.v., vocalisation, spelling, and declension vary; Endlich; Celsus, 6.6.6 ff; Pliny Natural History 33.33; Lewis and Short: Latin Dictionary. OED, s. antimony.
    • stimmi is used by the Attic tragic poets of the 5th century BC. Later Greeks also used στίβι (stibi), which is written in Latin by آلوس کورنلیوس سلسوس and پلینیوس in the first century AD. Pliny also names stimi [کذا], larbaris, رخام گچی (Greek: ἀλάβαστρον), "very common platyophthalmos (πλατυόφθαλμος)", "wide-eye" in Greek (the description refers to the effects of the cosmetic). In Egyptian hieroglyphics, mśdmt; the vowels are uncertain, but in Coptic and according to an Arabic tradition, it is pronounced mesdemet (Albright; Sarton, quotes Meyerhof, the translator). In Arabic, the word for powdered stibnite is سرمه.[۱]
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  47. Neodymium is frequently misspelled as neodynium
  48. The ancient Greek derivation of Prometheus from the Greek πρό pro ("before") + μανθάνω manthano ("learn"), thus "forethought", which engendered a contrasting brother اپیمتئوس ("afterthought"), was a ریشه‌شناسی عامیانه; it is succinctly expressed in Servius' commentary on Virgil, Eclogue 6.42: "Prometheus vir prudentissimus fuit, unde etiam Prometheus dictus est ἀπὸ τής πρόμηθείας, id est a providentia." Modern scientific linguistics suggests that the name derived from the Proto-Indo-European root that also produces the سانسکریت ودایی pra math, "to steal," hence pramathyu-s, "thief", هم‌خانواده with "Prometheus", the thief of fire. The Vedic myth of fire's theft by Mātariśvan is an analog to the Greek account. Pramantha was the tool used to create fire. See: Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing, p. 27.; Williamson (2004), The Longing for Myth in Germany, 214–15; Dougherty, Carol (2006). Prometheus. p. 4.
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  53. Gold in زبان سانسکریت is ज्वल jval; in Greek, χρυσός (khrusos); in Chinese, 金 (jīn).
  54. Mercury – The Indian کیمیا called Rassayana, which means "the way of mercury".
  55. Lead, Lead was mentioned in the Book of Exodus. Alchemy believed that lead was the oldest metal and associated the element with Saturn.
  56. Astatine, An earlier proposed name for astatine was alabamine (Ab)
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  58. Protactinium; In 1913, کازیمیرز فاجانس and Otto H. Göhring identified and named element 91 brevium, from Latin brevis, which means "brief, short"; protactinium has a short half-life. The name was changed to "protoactinium" in 1918 and shortened to protactinium in 1949.
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  60. Derived from a Latin masculine genitive.
  61. Mendelevium, "Mendeleyev" commonly spelt as Mendeleev, Mendeléef, or Mendelejeff, and first name sometimes spelt as Dmitry or Dmitriy
  62. Darmstadtium, Some humorous scientists suggested the name policium, because 110 is the emergency telephone number for the German police.