فهرست دانشمندان خداناباور
|بخشی از یک مجموعه درباره|
فهرست دانشمندان خداناباور به معرفی دانشمندان و پژوهشگران برجسته در حوزه علم و تکنولوژی میپردازد که به وجود خدا اعتقاد ندارند و این موضوع را بهصورت علنی اعلام کردهاند. خداناباوری بهمعنای عدم باور به وجود خدا است. تخمین زده میشود که بین سالهای ۱۹۰۰ تا ۲۰۰۰ و از میان ۶۵۴ برنده جایزه نوبل، در مجموع، حدود ۱۰٫۵٪ از برندگان خداناباور، ندانمگرا یا آزاداندیش بودهاند. مطابق یک بررسی در سال ۱۹۱۴، از میان ۱۰۰۰ دانشمند عضو آکادمی ملی علوم آمریکا که بهطور تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند، ۵۸٪ خداناباور بوده یا در وجود خدا شک داشتهاند و زمانی که این بررسی محدود به ۴۰۰ دانشمند برجسته شد، این آمار به حدود ۷۰٪ افزایش یافت. تکرار همین بررسی در ۲۰ سال بعد، نشان داد که دو عدد بهدست آمده رشد داشته و بهترتیب به ۶۷٪ و ۸۵٪ رسیدهاند. انجامدهندگان این تحقیق علت درصد بالاتر در میان دانشمندان برجستهتر را نتیجه دانش بالاتر، درک و تجربهگرایی دانستند. همین شیوه انتخاب و پرسش در سال ۱۹۹۶ توسط گروه دیگری به انجام رسید و اعداد تقریباً مشابهی بهدست آمد بهطوری که از میان ۱۰۰۰ دانشمند عضو آکادمی ملی علوم آمریکا که بهطور تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند، ۶۰٫۷٪ از این دانشمندان خداناباور بوده یا در وجود خدا شک داشتهاند. این بررسی نشان داد که دانشمندان زیستشناسی عضو آکادمی ملی علوم ۶۵٫۲٪ خداناباور و ۶۹٪ نامعتقد به جاودانگی[a] (پس از مرگ) هستند. مطابق همین این آمار، میزان خداناباوری برای فیزیکدانهای عضو آکادمی ملی علوم برابر ۷۹٪ و میزان ناباوری به جاودانگی برابر با ۷۶٫۳٪ بودهاست. درصد بالایی از زیستشناسان و فیزیکدانان باقی مانده در آمار اعلام شده نیز ندانمگرا بودهاند و تنها درصد کمی به وجود خدا باور داشتهاند.
مطابق نظرسنجی مؤسسه پیو که در سال ۲۰۰۹ روی ۲۵۰۰ نفر از دانشمندان عضو انجمن پیشبرد علوم آمریکا انجام شد، ۵۱٪ به نوعی الوهیت یا قدرت بالاتر[b]، ۳۳٪ به خدا[c] و ۱۸٪ به یک روح جهانی یا قدرت بالاتر،[d] اعتقاد داشتند، در حالیکه ۴۱٪ به وجود خدا یا قدرت بالاتر[e] اعتقاد نداشتند.
از میان برندگان جایزه نوبل، تنها چهار نفر موفق به کسب دو جایزه نوبل شدهاند که عبارتاند از ماری کوری (فیزیک ۱۹۰۳ و شیمی ۱۹۱۱)، لینوس پاولینگ (شیمی ۱۹۵۴ و صلح ۱۹۶۲)، جان باردین (فیزیک ۱۹۵۶ و ۱۹۷۲) و فردریک سنگر (شیمی ۱۹۵۸ و ۱۹۸۰) که هیچکدام یک از آنها خداباور نبودند. لینوس پاولینگ خداناباور و جان باردین، ماری کوری و فردریک سنگر ندانمگرا بودند.
بر اساس زمینه علمی[ویرایش]
ریاضی و علوم کامپیوتر[ویرایش]
فیزیک و اخترفیزیک[ویرایش]
|۱||دونالد پروترو||ایالات متحده آمریکا||دیرینهشناسی پستانداران
|۲||جلال شنگور||ترکیه||زمینساخت ترکیه و آسیا||استاد دانشگاه فنی استانبول|||
|۳||ولادیمیر ورنادسکی|| روسیه
|بنیانگذار زمینشیمی، بیوژئوشیمی[ar] و رادیوژئولوژی[as]|||
- Some form of deity or higher power
- A universal spirit or higher power
- God or a higher power
- Decision theory
- Bishop–Phelps theorem
- Vendergood language
- Descriptive geometry
- The Web Conference
- Geometric algebra
- De Morgan algebra
- Dynkin diagram
- Dynkin system
- The Music of the Primes
- Life table
- Nuclear spectroscopy
- Einstein–de Haas effect
- de Haas–van Alphen effect
- Shubnikov–de Haas effect
- Thermal ionisation
- BKS theory
- Bohr–Sommerfeld theory
- laser spectroscopy
- Weak gravity conjecture
- Randall–Sundrum model
- Warped Passages
- Group selection
- Multilevel selection theory
- Daisaku Ikeda
- Isolobal principle
- Bateson's cube
- Purinergic signalling
- Crile mosquito clamp
- Opponent process
- Machiavellian intelligence
- Brain: A Journal of Neurology
- Restriction modification system
- Epidemic Intelligence Service
- Homologous recombination
- Neutral theory of molecular evolution
- Steam pumps
- 16 Personality Factors
- Cumulative recorder
- Air crib
- Teaching machine
- Verbal summator
- Therapeutic techniques for children
- Student-centered learning
- The Person-centered approach
- General Problem Solver
- Pirahã people
- Room 40
- خداناباوری نو
- فهرست بیخدایان
- فهرست نویسندگان خداناباور
- فهرست بیدینهای برنده جایزه نوبل
- فهرست دادارباوران
- "Atheism: Review. Ambiguity among religious terms. Origin of "Atheist." Resolving the ambiguity". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Dagobert D. Runes (1942). "Dictionary of Philosophy". Kessinger Publishing.
(a) the belief that there is no God; (b) Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic". The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term though widely current in the history of thought
- Emil O. W. Kirkegaard. "Nobel prize winners are very unlikely to be religious". emilkirkegaard. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Edward J. Larson; Larry Witham (23 July 1998). "Leading scientists still reject God". Nature. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Pew research center (2009). "Scientists and Belief". Pew research center. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- Vicki Daitch; Lillian Hoddeson (2002). "Last Journey". True Genius:: The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Joseph Henry Press. p. 313. ISBN 9780309169547.
Every time we attend a funeral service," Jane had once told her sister Betty, "we decide again that we want no such ceremony when we die." She and John agreed that the family could, if they wanted to, have a memorial service conducted by friends and family, "but not a sermon by a stranger, who, if a minister, is bound to dwell on life after death and other religious ideas in which we have no faith.
- Robert William Reid (1974). Marie Curie. New American Library. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-00-211539-1. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Unusually at such an early age, she became what T.H. Huxley had just invented a word for: agnostic.
- Dan Barker (2011). "The Good Atheist: Living a Purpose-Filled Life Without God". Ulysses Press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Pierre belonged to no religion and I did not practice any
- István Hargittai (April 1999). "Interview: Frederick Sanger". The Chemical Intelligencer. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 6–11. Missing or empty
|url=(help) This interview, which took place on 16 September 1997, was republished in Hargittai, István (2002). "Chapter 5: Frederick Sanger". Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists. London: Imperial College Press. pp. 73–83. ISBN 978-1-86094-288-4.
- Anjana Ahuja (12 January 2000). "The double Nobel laureate who began the book of life". The Times. London. p. 40. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2010 – via warwick.ac.uk.
- Bertrand Russell (1947). "Am I An Atheist or an Agnostic?". Encyclopedia of Things. Archived from the original on 22 June 2005. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
I never know whether I should say "Agnostic" or whether I should say "Atheist"... As a philosopher, if I were speaking to a purely philosophic audience I should say that I ought to describe myself as an Agnostic, because I do not think that there is a conclusive argument by which one prove (sic) that there is not a God. On the other hand, if I am to convey the right impression to the ordinary man in the street I think I ought to say that I am an Atheist...
- Bertrand Russell (2009). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. Routledge Classics. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-203-87539-1. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
- Lucas Garron (December 2010). "Background & Currents". National socialism and the death of German mathematics (PDF). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
Hilbert was famously atheist, but mathematics at the time often bordered on philosophy
- Constance Reid (1996). "Hilbert". New York: Springer-Verlag. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Mathematics is a presuppositionless science. To found it I do not need God, as does Kronecker, or the assumption of a special faculty of our understanding attuned to the principle of mathematical induction, as does Poincaré, or the primal intuition of Brouwer, or, finally, as do Russell and Whitehead, axioms of infinity, reducibility, or completeness, which in fact are actual, contentual assumptions that cannot be compensated for by consistency proofs.
- Michael R. Matthews (2009). Science, Worldviews and Education. Springer. p. 129. ISBN 9789048127795.
As is well known, Hilbert rejected Leopold Kronecker's God for the solution of the problem of the foundations of mathematics.
- Gaspard Gourgaud (1904). "Talks of Napoleon at St. Helena with General Baron Gourgaud". University of California Libraries. p. 274. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Napoleon replies: "How comes it, then, that Laplace was an atheist? At the Institute neither he nor Monge, nor Berthollet, nor Lagrange believed in God. But they did not like to say so.
- Birgitta Lemmel (1872). "A Budget of Paradoxes". Longmans. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Napoleon said to Pierre Simon Laplace: "You have written this huge book on the system of the world without once mentioning the author of the universe [God]." Laplace replied: "Sire, I had no need of that hypothesis." Quoted in Augustus De Morgan
- Roger Hahn (2005). "Pierre Simon Laplace, 1749-1827: A Determined Scientist". Harvard University Press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
The Catholic newspaper La Quotidienne [The Daily] announced that Laplace had died in the arms of two curés (priests), implying that he had a proper Catholic end, but this is not credible. To the end, he remained a skeptic, wedded to his deterministic creed and to an uncompromised ethos derived from his vast scientific experience.
- Eric v.d. Luft (16 September 2020). "Laplace Theorizes That The Solar System Originated From A Cloud Of Gas". Retrieved 20 August 2020.
The two greatest astronomers of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France were Laplace and his rival, Joseph Jérôme Le Français de Lalande (1732-1807), director of the Paris Observatory. Both were atheists.
- Sylvia Nasar (2011). "Chapter 17: Bad Boys". A Beautiful Mind. Simon and Schuster. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-4391-2649-3.
In this circle, Nash learned to make a virtue of necessity, styling himself self-consciously as a "free thinker." He announced that he was an atheist.
- Sylvia Nasar (1999). A Beautiful Mind: A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. , Winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1994. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-85370-3.
Nash, by then an atheist, balked at a Catholic ceremony. He would have been happy to get married in city hall.
- Joseph McCabe (2013). "A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Freethinkers". Literary Licensing. ISBN 978-1258826086. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
In his last words (published as Last Thoughts, 1913) he entirely rejects Christianity and believes in God only in the sense that he is the moral ideal. In effect he was an atheist.
- Henri Poincaré (2014). "Henri Poincaré: Dernières Pensées". Nabu Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-1294571520.
Les dogmes des religions révélées ne sont pas les seuls à craindre. L'empreinte que le catholicisme a imprimée sur l'âme occidentale a été si profonde que bien des esprits à peine affranchis ont eu la nostalgie de la servitude et se sont efforcés de reconstituer des Eglises ; c'est ainsi que certaines écoles positivistes ne sont qu'un catholicisme sans Dieu. Auguste Comte lui- même rêvait de discipliner les âmes et certains de ses disciples, exagérant la pensée du maître, deviendraient bien vite des ennemis de la science s'ils étaient les plus forts.
- Galina Weinstein (2012). A Biography of Henri Poincaré - 2012 Centenary of the Death of Poincaré. Arxiv. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- Dana Mackenzie (2006). "Breakthrough of the year. The Poincaré Conjecture—Proved". Science. pp. 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. PMID 17185565. Missing or empty
- Paul Gray (29 March 1999). "Computer Scientist: Alan Turing". Time. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
This loss shattered Turing's religious faith and led him into atheism...
- "Alan Turing: Father of the computer". BBC News. 28 April 1999. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
He was an atheist...
- Steve Batterson (2007). Steven Smale: The Mathematician Who Broke the Dimension Barrier. American Mathematical Soc. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8218-2696-6.
Jack and Norm were religious individuals, whereas Steve was an atheist who had never been inside a church.
- Colm Mulcahy (2013-03-26). "Centenary of Mathematician Paul Erdős -- Source of Bacon Number Concept". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
In his own words, "I'm not qualified to say whether or not God exists. I kind of doubt He does. Nevertheless, I'm always saying that the SF has this transfinite Book that contains the best proofs of all mathematical theorems, proofs that are elegant and perfect...You don't have to believe in God, but you should believe in the Book."
- Charles Seife (1994). "Mathemagician". The Sciences. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
Conway propped up the pillow behind his head and grinned. "I like showing off. When I make a new discovery, and I really like telling people about it. I guess I'm not so much a mathematician as a teacher. In America, kids aren't supposed to like mathematics. It's so sad.' Conway sat up suddenly. 'Most people think that mathematics is cold. But it's not at all! For me, the whole damn thing is sensual and exciting. I like what it looks like, and I get a hell of a lot more pleasure out of math than most people do out of art!' He relaxed slightly, and he lowered his voice. 'I feel like an artist. I like beautiful things – they're there already; man doesn't have to create it. I don't believe in God, but I believe that nature is unbelievably subtle and clever. In physics, for instance, the real answer to a problem is usually so subtle and surprising that it wasn't even considered in the first place. That the speed of light is a constant – impossible! Nobody even thought about it. And quantum mechanics is even worse, but it's so beautiful, and it works!
- Jonathan Israel (2011). Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights 1750–1790. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-19-954820-0.
D'Alembert, though privately an atheist and materialist, presented the respectable public face of 'la philosophie' in the French capital while remaining henceforth uninterruptedly aligned with Voltaire.
- James E. Force; Richard Henry Popkin (1990). James E. Force; Richard Henry Popkin, eds. Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton's Theology. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-7923-0583-5.
Unlike the French and English deists, and unlike the scientific atheists such as Diderot, d'Alembert, and d'Holbach,...
- T. O. Shaposhnikova (1999). Jacques Hadamard: A Universal Mathematician. American Mathematical Soc. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-8218-1923-4.
In 1924, Hadamard recounted his meetings with Hermite: "...When Hermite loved to direct to me remarks such as: "He who strays from the paths traced by Providence crashes." These were the words of a profoundly religious man, but an atheist like me understood them very well, especially when he added at other times: "In mathematics, our role is more that of servant than master.
- Lisa Drostova (30 April 2003). "Hit Play on Ramanujan". East Bay Express. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.
Hardy... was a stringent atheist...
- Andrew Hodges (2002). "Alan Turing — a Cambridge Scientific Mind". Cambridge Scientific Minds. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
The first Bombe to be delivered was named Agnus by Turing: a joke that atheist Hardy might have made...
- "Herbert Hauptman". The Telegraph. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race.
- "Sam Karlin, mathematician who improved DNA analysis, dies". Stanford Report. January 16, 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Karlin was born in Yonova, Poland, in 1924. His family immigrated to Chicago when he was a small child and struggled financially through the Great Depression. He was raised in a strict Orthodox Jewish household but broke with religion in his early teens and remained an atheist for the rest of his life.
- Venjamin Fedorovič Kagan (1957). N. Lobachevsky and His Contribution to Science. Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 29. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Bardi, Jason (2008). The Fifth Postulate: How Unraveling a Two Thousand Year Old Mystery Unraveled the Universe. John Wiley & Sons. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-470-46736-7.
- Gely P. Basharin; Amy N. Langville; Valeriy A. Naumov. "The Life and Work of A. A. Markov" (PDF). University of Florida. p. 6. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Of course, Markov, an atheist and eventual excommunicate of the Church quarreled endlessly with his equally outspoken counterpart Nekrasov. The disputes between Markov and Nekrasov were not limited to mathematics and religion, they quarreled over political and philosophical issues as well.
- Loren R. Graham; Jean-Michel Kantor (2009). Naming Infinity: A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical Creativity. Harvard University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-674-03293-4.
Markov (1856–1922), on the other hand, was an atheist and a strong critic of the Orthodox Church and the tsarist government (Nekrasov exaggeratedly called him a Marxist).
- William Poundstone (2005). Fortune's Formula: The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System That Beat the Casinos and Wall Street. Hill and Wang: New York. p. 18. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Shannon described himself as an atheist and was outwardly apolitical.
- Craig P. Bauer (2013). "10: Claude Shannon". Secret History: The Story of Cryptology. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- D. H. Mellor (2004). "Ramsey, Frank Plumpton (1903–1930)". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
His tolerance and good humour enabled him to disagree strongly without giving or taking offence, for example with his brother Michael Ramsey whose ordination (he went on to become archbishop of Canterbury) Ramsey, as a militant atheist, naturally regretted.
- John Allen Paulos (2008). Irreligion: A Mathematician Explains Why the Arguments for God Just Don't Add Up. Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0809059195. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Sharon Bertsch Mcgrayne (2012). The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes' Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant from Two Centuries of Controversy: Yale UP. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300188226. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Karl Pearson...was a zealous atheist...
- Theodore M. Porter (2004). Karl Pearson: The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691126357. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Norman H. Horowitz (17 February 2013). "In Memoriam: Robert R. Phelps (1926-2013)". Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Bob Phelps was a convinced atheist and, rare for an American, almost militant in his views.
- Doug Renselle. "A Review of Amy Wallace's The Prodigy". Quantonics, Inc. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Rabid atheist by age six. (His father, Boris, was too, but intensely studied great religious works.)
- Vincent Cronin (1981). The view from planet Earth: Man looks at the cosmos. p. 164. ISBN 978-0688006426. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Yet, sailing to Egypt, he had lain on deck, asking his scientists whether the planets were inhabited, how old the Earth was, and whether it would perish by fire or by flood. Many, like his friend Gaspard Monge, the first man to liquefy a gas, were atheists.
- Laure Junot Abrantès (1881). Memoirs of Napoleon, His Court and Family, Volume 2. D. Appleton. p. 276.
- "Jacob Appelbaum (Part 1/2) Digital Anti-Repression Workshop - April 26, 2012". Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Like, for me, as an atheist, bisexual, Jew, I'm gonna go on, uh - oh and Emma Goldman is one of my great heroes and I really think that anarchism is a fantastic principle by which to fashion a utopian society even if we can't get there.
- Replied to an user in his Twitter "I don't believe in god, but I don't see any correlation between religiosity and human virtues. Merry Xmas everyone!" https://twitter.com/ID_AA_Carmack/status/18382634732224512
- David Craddock (4 December 2017). "Rocket Jump: Quake and the Golden Age of First-Person Shooters". Shacknews. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
"Having a reasonable grounding in statistics and probability and no belief in luck, fate, karma, or god(s), the only casino game that interests me is blackjack," he wrote in a .plan file.
- Linux Journal (1 November 1999). "Interview: Linus Torvalds". Retrieved 20 August 2020.
[I am] completely a-religious—atheist. I find that people seem to think religion brings morals and appreciation of nature.
- Matthew Philips (2 September 2020). "Danny Pearl's Parents Seek Unity". The Newsweek. Retrieved 5 September 2006.
I turned secular at the age of 11, by divine revelation. [Laughs.] I was standing on the roof of the house my father built, looking down on the street and suddenly it became very clear to me that there is no God."
- "About John McCarthy". Stanford.edu. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
I mention that I am indeed an atheist. To count oneself as an atheist one need not claim to have a proof that no gods exist. One need merely think that the evidence on the god question is in about the same state as the evidence on the werewolf question.
- Kevin Kelly (2011). What Technology Wants. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143120179. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and greater levels of subtle attributes such as love. In every monotheistic tradition God is likewise described as all of these qualities, only without any limitation.... So evolution moves inexorably toward this conception of God, although never quite reaching this ideal.
- Leon M. Lederman; Judith A. Scheppler (2001). "Marvin Minsky: Mind Maker". Portraits of Great American Scientists. Prometheus Books. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-57392-932-5.
Another area where he "goes against the flow" is in his spiritual beliefs. As far as religion is concerned, he's a confirmed atheist. "I think it [religion] is a contagious mental disease. . . . The brain has a need to believe it knows a reason for things.
- Marvin Minsky (1988). The Society of Mind. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0671657130. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
When we reflect on anything for long enough, we're likely to end up with what we sometimes call "basic" questions – ones we can see no way at all to answer. For we have no perfect way to answer even this question: How can one tell when a question has been properly answered? What caused the universe, and why? What is the purpose of life? How can you tell which beliefs are true? How can you tell what is good? These questions seem different on the surface, but all of them share one quality that makes them impossible to answer: all of them are circular! You can never find a final cause, since you must always ask one question more: "What caused that cause?" You can never find any ultimate goal, since you're always obliged to ask, "Then what purpose does that serve?" Whenever you find out why something is good-or is true-you still have to ask what makes that reason good and true. No matter what you discover, at every step, these kinds of questions will always remain, because you have to challenge every answer with, "Why should I accept that answer?" Such circularities can only waste our time by forcing us to repeat, over and over and over again, "What good is Good?" and, "What god made God?
- René Bösch (2007). Labyrinth of Digressions: Tristram Shandy as Perceived and Influenced by Sterne's Early Imitators. Rodopi. p. 265. ISBN 9789042022911.
Maupertuis was an atheist friend of La Mettrie.
- Scott Aaronson (16 January 2007). "Long-awaited God post". Shtetl-Optimized – The Blog of Scott Aaronson. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
If you'd asked, I would've told you that I, like yourself, am what most people would call a disbelieving atheist infidel heretic.
- John D. Cook (24 September 2013). "Interview with Sir Michael Atiyah". www.johndcook.com. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
I’m an optimist. I believe in new ideas, in progress. It’s faith. I’ve recently been thinking about faith. If you’re a religious person, which I’m not, you believe God created the universe.
- Robert Cailliau. "Atheism". www.cailliau.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
As Richard Dawkins points out, I have no obligation to explain why I am an atheist, it’s for those who believe in a god to supply evidence. Atheism, religion, science and ethics are linked: Religion provides a simple world view based on the existence of one or more gods. Gods are super-beings who are unscrutable, far superior to humans and endowed with supernatural powers. Such a world view starts from the axiom that humans will not be able to understand the world around them. There is no further argument possible: one lives "by the book".
- John Snygg (2011). A New Approach to Differential Geometry Using Clifford's Geometric Algebra. Springer. p. 111. ISBN 9780817682828. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
However, the dogmatic position of the Anglican Church against Darwin's theory of evolution induced him to reexamine his beliefs. He soon evolved into an agnostic and then an atheist.
- John Beloff (1997). Parapsychology: A Concise History (PDF). London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 47. ISBN 9780312173760. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
He seems an unlikely convert considering that his atheistic views had debarred him from a position at Oxford or Cambridge but his involvement with spiritualism was partly due to his wife, Sophia.
- Augustus De Morgan (1838). An Essay on Probabilities, and Their Application to Life Contingencies and Insurance Offices. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans. p. 22.
There is a word in our language with which I shall not confuse this subject, both on account of the dishonourable use which is frequently made of it, as an imputation thrown by one sect upon another, and of the variety of significations attached to it. I shall use the world Anti-Deism to signify the opinion that there does not exist a Creator who made and sustains the Universe.
- Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan; Augustus De Morgan (1882). Memoir of Augustus De Morgan. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 393. ISBN 9780511709692.
So you called me an atheist vagabond, fancying that Voltaire was an atheist : he was, in fact, theistic to bigotry, and anti-revolutionist to the same extent.
- "Conversation of Eugene Dynkin with Sergei Kuznetsov" (PDF). 25 July 1999. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
I realized that the existence of God is not supported by scientific evidence and became an atheist.
- D. Padgaonkar (8 February 2013). "Kosambi's uplifting idea Of India". Times of India. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Both were pious — his mother a Hindu, his father a Buddhist — while he himself remained an atheist.
- Marcus Ranum. "Ranum's supports Dawkins's "out campaign" for atheists". Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Generally, I do not get a lot of satisfaction out of being identified with causes or logos. But – a couple of years ago, when Richard Dawkins started his "out campaign" for atheists, I thought that showing my support was not a bad idea.
- Marcus du Sautoy (28 October 2008). "Science Extra: Marcus du Sautoy steps into Dawkins' boots". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Laurent Schwartz (2001). A Mathematician Grappling With His Century. Springer. p. 193. ISBN 9783764360528.
My parents were atheists, I was an atheist, I never really felt Jewish.
- Alan Sokal (2010). Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199561834. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Biblical scholar Jacques Berlinerblau points out, in the book, that most contemporary atheists and agnostics — myself included, I must confess — are astoundingly ignorant of the details of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and the Qur'an (not to mention the Bhagavad Gita and the Tripitaka, one could add). ... When all is said and done, I see no reason to amend my judgment that the existence of the Jewish, Christian, Islamic or Hindu gods is about as plausible, given the currently available evidence, as the existence of Zeus or Thor.
- Steven G. Krantz (2002). Mathematical Apocrypha: Stories and Anecdotes of Mathematicians and the Mathematical. Mathematical Association of America. p. 202. ISBN 9780883855393. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
Steinhaus was an outspoken atheist.
- Anita Burdman Feferman; Solomon Feferman (2004). Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0521714013.
Most of the Socialist Party members were also in favor of assimilation, and Tarski's political allegiance was socialist at the time. So, along with its being a practical move, becoming more Polish than Jewish was an ideological statement and was approved by many, though not all, of his colleagues. As to why Tarski, a professed atheist, converted, that just came with the territory and was part of the package: if you were going to be Polish then you had to say you were Catholic.
- Howard B. Rock; Paul A. Gilje; Robert Asher, eds. (1995). American Artisans: Crafting Social Identity, 1750–1850. JHU Press. p. 115. ISBN 9780801850295.
Wright was the son of a Connecticut farmer and teacher who moved his family to the Ohio frontier in 1810 to start a farm and open an academy. He was a quirky man who rejected evangelicalism for atheism, and Garrisonianism for the Liberty party, and then the Free Soilers.
- Lawrence B. Goodheart (1990). Abolitionist, Actuary, Atheist: Elizur Wright and the Reform Impulse. Kent State Univ Pr. ISBN 978-0873383974. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
Biographer describes him as "an evangelical atheist, an impassioned actuary, a liberal who advocated state regulation, an individualist who championed social cooperation, and a very private public crusader"
- Carol Parikh (2008). The Unreal Life of Oscar Zariski. Springer. p. 5. ISBN 9780387094298. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
and yet it did, even though since moving into the boarding house he had become an atheist and most of his friends, including his best friend, were Russians.
- Joseph McCabe (1945). A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Freethinkers. Haldeman-Julius Publications. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
He was not only a distinguished German physicist and one of the most famous inventors on the staff at the Zeiss optical works at Jena but a notable social reformer, By a generous scheme of profit-sharing he virtually handed over the great Zeiss enterprise to the workers. Abbe was an intimate friend of Haeckel and shared his atheism (or Monism). Leonard Abbot says in his life of Ferrer that Abbe had "just the same ideas and aims as Ferrer.
- Fay Ajzenberg-Selove (1994). A Matter of Choices: Memoirs of a Female Physicist. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP. ISBN 978-0813520353.
I explained carefully to Louis that I was a Jew and an atheist...
- Alice Shalvi (7 February 2009). "Fay Ajzenberg-Selove". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
- "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov". RT.com. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.
- "Zhores I. Alferov". NNDB.com. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
- Jim Al-Khalili. "intro BBC - Radio 4 - Science Explorer: Jim Al-Khalili featured in The Life Scientific". BBC.co.uk.com.
I find it more comfortable to say I'm an atheist, and for that I probably have someone like Dawkins to thank.
- "Jim Al-Khalili: 'I'm a cuddly atheist. I don't need to tell my mum her faith is stupid'". The independent. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
There is no God.' It's not going to happen. If people turn away from religion it is because they see there is no need in their worldview for a supernatural being guiding how they live their lives.
- Philip W. Anderson (2011). "Imaginary Friend, Who Art in Heaven". More and Different: Notes from a Thoughtful Curmudgeon. World Scientific. p. 177. ISBN 9789814350129.
We atheists can, as he does, argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.
- Theresa Levitt (2009). The Shadow of Enlightenment: Optical and Political Transparency in France 1789-1848. London: Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0199544707.
The same Arago who spent his time criticizing unfounded myths now peddled them. Arago the atheist now spoke of souls.
- "'He brings a humanness to (science) that's very refreshing'". Rediff On The News. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
Although he is an atheist, Dr Ashtekar says, his attitude toward work is from the Hindu religious text, the Bhagavad Gita.
- John Ellis, D. Amati (2000). "Biographical notes on John Bell". Quantum Reflections. Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-521-63008-5. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
By now, he was also a 'Protestant Atheist', which he remained all his life.
- Andrew Whitaker; Mary Bell; Shan Gao (Sep 19, 2016). "1 - John Bell - The Irish Connection". Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-107-10434-1.
John Bell was certainly not interested in Protestantism as such – his wife Mary  has reported that he was an atheist most of his life.
- "The Tipp Sage". Irishtimes.com. 11 October 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
The Bernals were originally Sephardic Jews who came to Ireland in 1840 from Spain via Amsterdam and London. They converted to Catholicism and John was Jesuit-educated. John enthusiastically supported the Easter Rising and, as a boy, he organised a Society for Perpetual Adoration. He moved away from religion as an adult, becoming an atheist..
- "Percy Williams Bridgman". NNDB.com. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member.
- Maila L. Walter (1990). Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961). Stanford University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-8047-1796-0.
Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion.
- Ray Monk (2013). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. Random House LLC. ISBN 978-0-385-50413-3.
In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist.
- Sean M. Carroll (9 May 2013). "Science and Religion Can't Be Reconciled". Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Andrew Brown (1997). The neutron and the bomb: a biography of Sir James Chadwick. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-19-853992-6.
He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end of his life.
- S. Vishveshwara (1991). "Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections" (PDF). Current Science. pp. 1025–1033. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word.
- "Oral Histories, S. Chandrasekhar - Session II". American Institute of Physics. 18 May 1977. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
No. In fact, I can characterize myself definitely as an atheist.
- Warren Allen Smith (2000). Who's who in hell: a handbook and international directory for humanists, freethinkers, naturalists, rationalists, and non-theists. Barricade Books. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-56980-158-1. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
Curie, Pierre (1859—1906) A codiscoverer of radium, Pierre Curie was an atheist.
- Ronald Clark (2011). Einstein: The Life and Times. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4482-0270-6.
That Einstein's attitude was the result more of muddle than agnostic scruple seems clear from a letter which he wrote less than two years later when Paul Ehrenfest ruled himself out from becoming Einstein's successor by roundly declaring himself an atheist.
- Thomas Levenson (2004). Einstein in Berlin. Random House of Canada. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-553-37844-3.
The man he had hoped would succeed him in Prague, Paul Ehrenfest, refiased to compromise his true atheist's principles. Einstein scolded him. Your refusal to acknowledge a religious affiliation" was just this side of willful stupidity, he assured him, with the benefit of recent experience. Once he became a professor Ehrenfest could revert to unbelief.
- Werner Heisenberg; Arnold J. Pomerans. "Physics and Beyond: Encounters and Conversations". New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0061316227.
Werner Heisenberg recollects a friendly conversation among young participants at the 1927 Solvay conference about Einstein's and Planck's views on religion. Wolfgang Pauli, Heisenberg and Dirac took part in it. Among other things, Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination.[...] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another.[...]" Pauli jokingly said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is: God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet.
- Linus Pauling & Daisaku Ikeda (1992). A Lifeling Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Jones & Bartlett. p. 22. ISBN 0-86720-277-7.
... I [Pauling] am not, however, militant in my atheism. The great English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac is a militant atheist. I suppose he is interested in arguing about the existence of God. I am not. It was once quipped that there is no God and Dirac is his prophet.
- Helge Kragh (1990). Dirac: A Scientific Biography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–257. ISBN 978-0-521-38089-8.
- Sara Lippincott (30 August 2009). "Short on words, long on concepts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
Dirac was contemptuous of philosophy and, as many scientists do, professed atheism. But it was a narrow sort, mainly dismissive of religious orthodoxy. In notes he wrote in 1933, he embraces another creed: "[T]his article of faith is that the human race will continue to live for ever and will develop and progress without limit . . . Living is worthwhile if one can contribute in some small way to this endless chain of progress.
- Helen Brown (23 Jan 2009). "The Strangest Man: the Hidden Life of Paul Dirac by Graham Farmelo". The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
Dirac’s story ends with a whimper. As a young man he had joked that physicists were all washed up by 30 and as he aged his powers waned. The Cambridge physics department took away his parking space and an outraged Manci insisted he take up a fellowship at Florida State University. He died in 1984, aged 82. An atheist, he was buried under a gravestone chosen by Manci. It read “because God said it should be so.
- H. B. G. Casimir (2010). Haphazard Reality: Half a Century of Science. Amsterdam University Press. p. 151. ISBN 9789089642004.
Kramers was certainly not a dogmatic atheist like, for instance, Dirac in his younger years, whose attitude was summed up by Pauli in one famous sentence: "Our friend Dirac has a religion; and the main tenet of that religion is: 'There is no God and Dirac was his prophet.
- Helge Kragh (1990). "Dirac: A Scientific Biography". Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0521380898. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- "Nobel Laureate Cried Only Once: when he learned that Einstein had died". Newspapers.com. 16 July 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
- Walter J. Moore (1994). A Life of Erwin Schrödinger. Cambridge University Press. pp. 289–290. ISBN 978-0-521-46934-0.
In one respect, however, he is not a romantic: he does not idealize the person of the beloved, his highest praise is to consider her his equal. "When you feel your own equal in the body of a beautiful woman, just as ready to forget the world for you as you for her - oh my good Lord - who can describe what happiness then. You can live it, now and again - you cannot speak of it." Of course, he does speak of it, and almost always with religious imagery. Yet at this time he also wrote, "By the way, I never realized that to be nonbelieving, to be an atheist, was a thing to be proud of. It went without saying as it were." And in another place at about this same time: "Our creed is indeed a queer creed. You others, Christians (and similar people), consider our ethics much inferior, indeed abominable. There is that little difference. We adhere to ours in practice, you don't." Whatever problems they may have had in their love affair, the pangs of conscience were not among them. Sheila was as much an unbeliever as Erwin, but in a less complex, more realistic way. She was never entirely convinced by his vedantic theology.
- Andrea Diem-Lane. Spooky Physics. MSAC Philosophy Group. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-56543-080-8.
In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god. But interestingly Schrodinger had a deep connection to Hinduism, Buddhism, and Eastern philosophy in general. Erwin studied numerous books on Eastern thought as well as the Hindu scriptures. He was enthralled with Vedanta thought and connected ideas of oneness and unity of mind with his research on quantum physics, specifically wave mechanics.
- Moore, Walter (1994). A Life of Erwin Schrödinger. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46934-0.
Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God, and Schopenhauer thought that pantheism is only a euphemism for atheism.
- Moore, Walter (1989). Schrödinger: Life and Thought. ISBN 0-521-43767-9.
He rejected traditional religious beliefs (Jewish, Christian, and Islamic) not on the basis of any reasoned argument, nor even with an expression of emotional antipathy, for he loved to use religious expressions and metaphors, but simply by saying that they are naive.
- Walter J. Moore (1992). Schrödinger: Life and Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-43767-7.
He claimed to be an atheist, but he always used religious symbolism and believed his scientific work was an approach to the godhead.
- "Erwin Schrodinger" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
He claimed to be an atheist, but he used religious symbolism and believed that his scientific work was 'an approach to God.
- Gennady Gorelik; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1.
Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart.
- Gennadiĭ Efimovich Gorelik; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1.
Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist.
- Todd K. Shackelford; Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, eds. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War. Oxford University Press. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-19-973840-3.
The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist.
- Jason Boyett (3 September 2010). "Stephen Hawking says there's no creator God; the twitterverse reacts". The Washington Post.
- Stanley-Becker Isaac (15 October 2018). "Stephen Hawking feared race of 'superhumans' able to manipulate their own DNA". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
- Alan S. Thorndike (2007). Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads: New Perspectives From History, Philosophy And Physics. Springer. p. 71. ISBN 978-3-540-32663-2.
Asked to join Le Conseil de l'Union Catholique des Scientifiques Français, Louis declined because, he said, he had ceased the religious practices of his youth.
- John Kimball (2015). Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties. CRC Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-4665-7636-0.
- R. S. Cohen; Raymond J. Seeger (1975). Ernst Mach, Physicist and Philosopher. Springer. p. 158. ISBN 978-90-277-0016-2.
And Mach, in personal conviction, was a socialist and an atheist.
- Gregory Scott Charak (2007). Between Soul and Precision: Ernst Mach's Biological Empiricism and the Social Democratic Philosophy of Science. ProQuest. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-549-12973-8.
Both make explicit claims against the pseudo-problems generated by materialism, and although Mach the atheist would have no gripe with irreligion per se, as a pacifist and a socialist he was indeed an ardent proponent of peace.
- Helge Kragh (2004). Matter And Spirit In The Universe: Scientific And Religious Preludes To Modern Cosmology. OECD Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-86094-469-7.
The Austrian positivist physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach was nominally a Catholic, but in reality he was an atheist and strongly opposed to Christian doctrines.
- Eugene Paul Wigner; Andrew Szanton (1992). Andrew Szanton, ed. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner As Told to Andrew Szanton. Basic Books. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-306-44326-8.
Neither did I want to be a clergyman. I liked a good sermon. But religion tells people how to behave and that I could never do. Clergymen also had to assume and advocate the presence of God, and proofs of God's existence seemed to me quite unsatisfactory. People claimed that He had made our earth. Well, how had He made it? With an earth-making machine? Someone once asked Saint Augustine, "What did the Lord do before he created the world?" And Saint Augustine is said to have answered, "He created Hell for people who ask such questions." A retort perhaps made in jest, but I knew of none better. I saw that I could not know anything of God directly, that His presence was a matter of belief, I did not have that belief, and preaching without belief is repulsive. So I could not be a clergyman, however many people might gain salvation. And my parents never pressed the point.
- Ana Elena Azpurua (24 March 2008). "Will Physicists Find God?". Newsweek. p. 3. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
Azpurua: Would it be accurate to say that you are an atheist?; Weinberg: Yes. I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that.
- C. Johnson (6 December 2005). "Duff on Susskind". Discovermagazine. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
Nevertheless, no less a person than Nobel laureate and arch-atheist Steven Weinberg believes that one particular constant of nature - Einstein's cosmological constant Λ - may be anthropically determined.
- Richard Dawkins (2008). "The God Delusion". Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0618918249.
In the book Richard Dawkins identifies Steven Weinberg as an atheist
- Steven Weinberg. "A Designer Universe?". Physlink.com. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
With or without religion, you would have good people doing good things and evil people doing evil things. But for good people to do evil things, that takes religion.
- Frank Close (9 August 2001). "Dark side of the moon". The Guardian. p. 8.
When describing a total solar eclipse, Close wrote: "It was simultaneously ghastly, beautiful, supernatural. Even for a 21st century atheist, the vision was such that I thought, "If there is a heaven, this is what its entrance is like." The heavenly vision demanded music by Mozart; instead we had the crickets."Missing or empty
- Gal Beckerman (26 January 2011). "Creator of Neutron Bomb Leaves an Explosive Legacy". Forward Association, Inc. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
As for his own Jewish identity, Cohen was an avowed atheist who was cremated after he died, against Jewish tradition. But still he was proud of being Jewish, his daughter said, and even had a kind of “arrogant attitude” about Jewish intelligence.