فهرست دانشمندان ایرانی پیش از دوران معاصر

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

فهرست زیر فهرستی از دانشمندان، فلاسفه و علمای ایران قدیم است که پیش از دوران معاصر می‌زیسته‌اند.

نگاره گرفته شده از نسخه دست‌نویس قطب الدین شیرازی. این نگاره مدل چرخش سیارات را نشان می‌دهد.
نسخه خطی تشریح رگ‌ها و اعصاب بدن انسان از کتاب تشریح الابدان منصور بن الیاس در کتابخانه ملی پزشکی ایالات متحده آمریکا. این کتاب نخستین کتاب رنگی آناتومی تاریخ است.
کهکشان آندرومدا. این کهکشان توسط عبدالرحمن صوفی کشف شد و نخستین رویت اجسام خارج از کهکشان راه شیری توسط بشر بود.
زکریای رازی در حال آزمایش ادرار. وی نخستین پزشکی بود که تجربیات آزمایشگاهی را وارد علم پزشکی کرد
یک طراحی به زبان فارسی از ابوریحان بیرونی. در این نمایه، شماری از گام‌های ماه به تصویر کشیده شده‌است.
مقدمهٔ کتاب قانون طب نوشته ابن سینا. این کتاب حدود هفت صد سال در اروپا تدریس می‌شده‌است.
توضیح انکسار نور توسط کاشف آن ابن سهل.
خوارزمی، بزرگ‌ترین ریاضی‌دان قرون وسطی و پدر علم جبر

[[پرونده:Banu musa mechanical.jpg|بندانگشتی|چراغ روغنی با فتیله خودتنظیم از اختراعات بنوموسی

دانشمندان و دانشوران[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

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  2. "Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli". iCloud eBook Library. World Heritage Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  3. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. A newly discovered manuscript (not yet available for research) contains a treatise by the tenth century Iranian astronomer Abū Ja˓far al-Khāzin describing an equatorium called Zīj al-Safāīh. (the Zīj of Plates).
  4. Arthur John Arberry, "Sufism: an account of the mystics of Islam", Courier Dover Publications, 2001. pg 69: "This manual was well regarded in later times; commentaries upon it were written among others by the celebrated Persian mystic Ansari"
  5. "Encyclopedia Islamica". CGIE. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  6. academies, prepared by a number of leading orientalists ; edited by an editorial committee consisting of H.A.R. Gibb … [et al.] ; under patronage of the international union of (1986). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol 1 (New ed. ; photomechanical reprint. ed.). Leiden: Brill. p. 764. ISBN 9004081143. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. Donzel, E. J. van (1 January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 24. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. Retrieved 4 December 2016. Albubather (A. Ibn al-Khasib*, Abu Bakr): astrologer of Persian origin; ixth c. His fame rests on an extract from a sort of astrological encyclopaedia.
  8. Farzin, Negahban,. "Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ahwāzī". Brill. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  9. Ali, Mowlavi, Muhammad; Rahim, Gholami,. "Abū al-Jūd". Encyclopaedia Islamica. Encyclopaedia Islamica. doi:10.1163/1875-9831_isla_com_0092. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  10. "Bahmanyar ibn Marzban". Encyclopedia Islamica. CGIE. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  11. Nicholas Rescher, "The development of Arabic logic", University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964. pg 157: "Abu 'l-Hasan Bahmanyar ibn al-Marzuban was a Persian, a younger contemporary and respected student of Avicenna"
  12. Saunders, J.J. (2006). A history of Medieval Islam (Reprint. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 0-415-05914-3. Retrieved 9 March 2017. Baladhuri was probably of Persian origin: he lived and wrote in Baghdad, and died in 892.
  13. Gholamali Haddad Adel; Mohammad Jafar Elmi; Hassan Taromi-Rad (31 January 2013). Historians of the Islamic World: Selected Entries from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam. EWI Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-1-908433-12-1.
  14. Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran, Volume 4 (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. p. 584. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. We can single out for brief consideration only two of the many Persians whose contributions were of great importance in the development of Islamic sciences in those days. Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (d. 272/886), who came from eastern Iran, was a rather famous astrologer and astronomer. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  15. Hockey, Thomas (2014). Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers. New York: Springer. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-4419-9918-4. The introduction of Aristotelian material was accompanied by the translation of major astrological texts, particularly Claudius Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos (1138), the pseudo-Ptolemaic Centiloquium (1136), and the Maius Introductorium (1140), the major introduction to astrology composed by the Persian astrologer Abu Ma’shar.
  16. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Since he was of Persian (Afghan) origin...
  17. ۱۷٫۰ ۱۷٫۱ Bennison, Amira K. (2009). The great caliphs: the golden age of the 'Abbasid Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-300-15227-2. Another important Persian lineage descended from an astronomer were the three Banu Musa brothers, Muhammad, Ahmad and Hasan, who hailed from the northeastern province of Khurasan.
  18. van Bladel, Kevin (2011). "The Bactrian Background of the Barmakids". In A. Akasoy, C. Burnett and R. Yoeli-Tlalim. Islam and Tibet: Interactions along the Musk Routes. London: Ashgate. pp. 43–88.
  19. An Oriental Samuel Pepys? Abuʾl-Faḍl Bayhaqī's Memoirs of Court Life in Eastern Iran and Afghanistan, 1030-1041, C. Edmund Bosworth, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr. , 2004), 13.
  20. "BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  21. "Allama Waheed Behbahani". Islamic Insights.
  22. Yazici, Tahsin. "EBN BĪBĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  23. D.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed. , vol.1:1236-1238. Excerpt 1: "He was born of an Iranian family in 362/973 (according to al-Ghadanfar, on 3 Dhu'l-Hididja/ 4 September — see E. Sachau, Chronology, xivxvi), in the suburb (birun) of Kath, capital of Khwarizm". Excerpt 2:"was one of the greatest scholars of mediaeval Islam, and certainly the most original and profound. He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. He is known as al-Ustdadh, "the Master".
  24. L. Massignon, "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume, (Calcutta, 1951). pp 217-219. “In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says: And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Chorasmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba. ”
  25. Al-Biruni (Persian scholar and scientist), Encyclopaedia Britannica:"A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive of Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di." "al-Bīrūnī." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 16 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/66790/al-Biruni>.
  26. Gotthard Strohmaier, "Biruni" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index: Vol. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2006. excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language, he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi), preferring Arabic instead as the only adequate medium of science.";
  27. Berggren, J. L.; Borwein, Jonathan; Borwein, Peter (2014). Pi: A Source Book. Springer. p. 680. ISBN 978-1-4757-4217-6. The Persian polymath, al-Birüni, a younger contemporary of Abu'l-Wafa', calculated the perimeters of inscribed and ...
  28. Salaahud-Deen ibn ʿAlee ibn ʿAbdul-Maujood (December 2005). The Biography of Imam Bukhaaree. Translated by Faisal Shafeeq (1st ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. ISBN 9960969053.
  29. Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele; Byers, Paula Kay, eds. (1998). "Bukhari". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale. p. 112.
  30. Lang, David Marshall, ed. (1971). "Bukhārī". A Guide to Eastern Literatures. Praeger. p. 33.
  31. Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. p. 415. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Among the Christians also there were some of Persian origin or at least of immediate Persian background, among whom the most important are the Bukhtyishu' and Masuya (Masawaih) families. The members of the Bukhtyishu* family were directors of the Jundishapur hospital and produced many outstanding physicians. One of them, Jirjls, was called to Baghdad by the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mansur, to cure his dyspepsia. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  32. Philip Jenkins. The Lost History of Christianity. Harper One. 2008. شابک ‎۰۰۶۱۴۷۲۸۰۸.
  33. Richard Nelson Frye. Heritage of Persia. Mazda Publishers. 2004.
  34. Rosenthal, Franz. "EBN QOTAYBA, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 9 June 2012. ...he seems to refer, if the text is correctly understood, to his own Persian (ʿajam) descent and declares himself to be by nature not prejudiced for or against either Arabs or Persians. His father or family seems, indeed, to have come from Marv (hence the nesba Marvazī). He himself was, however, an eloquent spokesman for Arab civilization and in intellectual makeup was totally committed and assimilated to it
  35. Adamec, Ludwig W. (May 11, 2009). Historical Dictionary of Islam (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series) (Second ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 259. ISBN 0-8108-6161-5.
  36. Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm, BRILL (1996), p. 58
  37. Arnold E. Franklin, This Noble House: Jewish Descendants of King David in the Medieval Islamic East, University of Pennsylvania Press (2012), p. 63
  38. Islam, Misbah (2008). Decline of Muslim States and Societies: The Real Root Causes and What Can Be Done Next. Xlibris Corporation. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-4363-1012-3.
  39. Sir Patrick Moore, The Data Book of Astronomy,CRC Press,2000,BG 48ref Henry Corbin, The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy, North Atlantic Books, 1998, pg 44
  40. Texts, Documents and Artefacts: Islamic Studies in Honour of D.S. Richards. Edited by Chase F. Robinson, Brill Academic Publishers, BG 25.
  41. Ebn Abi Osaybea, Oyun al-anba fi tabaqat at-atebba, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1299/1882. وکان ابوه قائد جیش وهو فارسی المنتسب
  42. Leaman, Oliver (2015). The biographical encyclopedia of Islamic philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4725-6945-5. ...of the Persian mathematician and astronomer, Kamal al-Din al-Farasi (d. 1320)... |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  43. Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb (1991). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: MAHK-MID, Volume 6. Brill. p. 377. ISBN 9789004081123. Towards the end of the 13th century, the Persian Kamal al-Dm al-FarisT... |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  44. * The Root of Europe: studies in the diffusion of Greek culture by Ralph Westwood Moore, Michael Huxley – 1952 – Page 48
  45. * Richard N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia, p. 163.
  46. * From Freedom to Freedom: African roots in American soils: selected readings – by Ervin Lewis, Mildred Bain
  47. Donzel, E. J. van (1 January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 147. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. Retrieved 4 December 2016. Ibn al-Faqih: Persian author of a geography written in Arabic; ixth c. In his only surviving work The Book of the Countries, he describes his native town Hamadan and the countries of Iran, Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Rum, Jazira, Central Asia, Nubia and Abyssinia. North Africa, al-Andalus and Sudan are given merely a brief résumé.
  48. others], edited by Thomas Hockey [and five (2014). Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers (2nd edition. ed.). p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4419-9918-4. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  49. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 2 December 2016. GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century.
  50. Guntern, Gottlieb (2010). The Spirit of Creativity: Basic Mechanisms of Creative Achievements. University Press of America. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-7618-5051-9. Persian polymath Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) published several treatises on the theory of atornism, on medicine, ...
  51. Hockey, Thomas (2014). Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers. New York: Springer. p. 1074. ISBN 978-1-4419-9918-4. Kushyar ibn Labban was an eminent Iranian astronomer known for his work on astronomical handbooks (zijes) in addition to his work in mathematics and astrology.
  52. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 241. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Another important early treatise that publicized decimal numbers was Iranian mathematician and astronomer Kūshyār ibn Labbān’s (fl. 1000) Kitāb fī usūl hisāb al-hind (Principles of Hindu Reckoning), a leading arithmetic textbook.
  53. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Abū˒l-Fadā˒il Ismā˓īl ibn al-H. usayn al-Jurjānī, Zayn al-Dīn, sometimes called Sayyid Ismā˓īl, was the most eminent Persian physician after Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), and the author of the first great medical compilation written in Persian.
  54. Dianat, Abu'l-Hasan. "Abu Said Jorjani". Encyclopedia Islamica. CGIE. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  55. Bosworth, C.E. (2000). History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV. Paris: UNESCO Publ. p. 306. ISBN 92-3-103654-8. Comparable to al-Rāzi before him and to his own younger contemporary Ibn Sinā, al-Masihi represents the physician-philosopher of classical and Islamic tradition. From the point of view of religious history, it is also of interest that he was descended from Iranian Christians and held, albeit discreetly, to his faith. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  56. Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
  57. "Abu Mansur Movafaq Heravi". Encyclopedia Islamica. CGIE. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  58. «نسخه آرشیو شده» (PDF). بایگانی‌شده از اصلی (PDF) در ۷ اکتبر ۲۰۱۳. دریافت‌شده در ۱۱ اوت ۲۰۱۷.
  59. "Ibn Hindu". Encyclopedia Islamica. CGIE. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  60. C. Olsen: Celibacy and Religious Traditions. Oxford University Press. 1st Ed. 2007. Pg. 143–144
  61. M. Kia: Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Pub Group Inc. 2011. Pg. 169: "The Bektashis traced the origins of their order to the Persian Sufi master Hadji Baktāsh Wālī [...]"
  62. http://www.geocities.ws/spiritofalbania/tirana.html
  63. R. Khanam, Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia, Global Vision Publishing Ho, 2005 (p. 142)
  64. The Harvard Theological Review, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2, No. 3, Jul. , 1909, (p. 343)
  65. Algar, Hamid. "BEKTĀŠ, ḤĀJĪ". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  66. Hamid Dabashi, "Theology of discontent", Published by Transaction Publishers, 2006. pg 104: "..Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani, a twelfth century Persian mystic"
  67. Nadia Eboo Jamal, "Surviving the Mongols", I B Tauris & Co Ltd (May 23, 2003). pg 91: "At the same time, there was an opposite, more diffused, movement of some Ismaili ideas entering into Persian Sufism, as is evident, for instance, in the work of the mystical philosopher 'Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani, who was executed in 525/1131 by the Saljuqs
  68. Hellmut Ritter, John O'Kane, Bernd Radtke, "The ocean of the soul", Brill Academic Publishers (June 2003). excerpt from page 719: "'Ayn al-Qudat al-Hamadhani (Abu'l Ma'aali 'Abda Allah b. Muhammad Mayanji, Persian mystic, executed in Hamadan
  69. Donzel, E. J. van (1 January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 127. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. Retrieved 4 December 2016. Hamza al-Isfahani: Persian philologist and historian; ca. 893-after 961. He is the author of a well-known chronology of pre-Islamic and Islamic dynasties. He is also described as a Persian nationalist with strong prejudices against the Arabs.
  70. Ahmed Ragab (14 October 2015). The Medieval Islamic Hospital: Medicine, Religion, and Charity. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-107-10960-5.
  71. Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Zargaran, Arman; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali (2016). "Mansur ibn Ilyas (1380-1422 AD): A Persian anatomist and his book of anatomy, Tashrih-i Mansuri". Journal of Medical Biography. pp. 67–71. doi:10.1177/0967772013479474.
  72. Keramati, Yunis. "Abu'l-Fath Isfahani". Encyclopedia Islamica. CGIE. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  73. * Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") Encyclopedia of Islam. 2nd edition. Edited by P. Berman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Henrichs. Brill 2009. Accessed through Brill online: www.encislam.brill.nl (2009) Quote: "He was born in 370/980 in Afshana, his mother's home, near Bukhara. His native language was Persian."
    • A.J. Arberry, "Avicenna on Theology", KAZI PUBN INC, 1995. excerpt: "Avicenna was the greatest of all Persian thinkers; as physician and metaphysician"&fp=dcce4d829681fc6c&biw=1824&bih=966
    • Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the messenger: Iran and Philosophy", North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 74:"Whereas the name of Avicenna (Ibn sinda, died 1037) is generally listed as chronologically first among noteworthy Iranian philosophers, recent evidence has revealed previous existence of Ismaili philosophical systems with a structure no less complete than of Avicenna".[۱]
  74. Henry Corbin, "The voyage and the messenger: Iran and philosophy", North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 72.
  75. * William R. Newman, Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution, Harvard University Press, 1994. p.94: "According to traditional bio-bibliography of Muslims, Jabir ibn Hayyan was a Persian alchemist who lived at some time in the eight century and wrote a wealth of books on virtually every aspect of natural philosophy"
    • William R. Newman, The Occult and Manifest Among the Alchemist, in F. J. Ragep, Sally P Ragep, Steven John Livesey, Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on pre-Modern science held at University of Oklahoma, Brill, 1996/1997, p.178: "This language of extracting the hidden nature formed an important lemma for the extensive corpus associated with the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan"
    • Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy", Translated by Joseph H. Rowe, North Atlantic Books, 1998. p.45: "The Nisba al-Azdin certainly does not necessarily indicate Arab origin. Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe established in Kufa"
    • Tamara M. Green, "The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World)", Brill, 1992. p.177: "His most famous student was the Persian *Jabir ibn Hayyan (b. circa 721 C.E.), under whose name the vast corpus of alchemical writing circulated in the medieval period in both the east and west, although many of the works attributed to Jabir have been demonstrated to be likely product of later Ismaili' tradition."
    • David Gordon White, "The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India", University of Chicago Press, 1996. p.447
    • William R. Newman, Promethean Ambitions: Alchemy and the Quest to Perfect Nature, University of Chicago Press, 2004. p.181: "The corpus ascribed to the eight-century Persian sage Jabir ibn Hayyan.."
    • Wilbur Applebaum, The Scientific revolution and the foundation of modern science, Greenwood Press, 1995. p.44: "The chief source of Arabic alchemy was associated with the name, in its Latinized form, of Geber, an eighth-century Persian."
    • Neil Kamil, Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots New World, 1517-1751 (Early America: History, Context, Culture), JHU Press, 2005. p.182: "The ninth-century Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, also known as Geber, is accurately called pseudo-Geber since most of the works published under this name in the West were forgeries"
    • Aleksandr Sergeevich Povarennykh, Crystal Chemical Classification of Minerals, Plenum Press, 1972, v.1, ISBN 0-306-30348-5, p.4: "The first to give separate consideration to minerals and other inorganic substances were the following: The Persian alchemist Jabir (721-815)..."
    • George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Pub. for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, by the Williams & Wilkins Company, 1931, vol.2 pt.1, page 1044: "Was Geber, as the name would imply, the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Haiyan?"
    • Dan Merkur, in The psychoanalytic study of society (eds. Bryce Boyer, et al.), vol. 18, Routledge, ISBN 0-88163-161-2, page 352: "I would note that the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan developed the theory that all metals consist of different 'balances' ..."
    • Anthony Gross, The Dissolution of the Lancastrian Kingship: Sir John Fortescue and the Crisis of Monarchy in Fifteenth-century England, Paul Watkins, 1996, ISBN 1-871615-90-9, p.19: "Ever since the Seventy Books attributed to the Persian alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan had been translated into Latin ...."
    • A Dictionary of the History of Science by by Anton Sebastian - p. 241
    • The Structure and Properties of Matter by Herman Thompson Briscoe - p. 10
    • The Tincal Trail: A History of Borax by Edward John Cocks, Norman J. Travis - p. 4
  76. Liu Yingsheng and Peter Jackson. "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS iii. Mongol Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 11 February 2017. A Persian astronomer named Jamāl-al-Dīn Boḵārī, who had already visited China in the time of Möngke...
  77. Selin, Hrsg. H. (2006). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2. , ed.). Berlin: Springer Netherland. p. 1143. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  78. Morris Rossabi (28 November 2014). From Yuan to Modern China and Mongolia: The Writings of Morris Rossabi. BRILL. pp. 229–. ISBN 978-90-04-28529-3.
  79. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Probably of Iranian origin, al-˓Abbās Ibn Sa˓īd al-Jawharī was one of the court astronomers/astrologers of Caliph al-Ma˒mūn (r. 813–833) in charge of the construction of astronomical instruments.
  80. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Al-Karajī Abū Bakr Muhammad was a Persian mathematician and engineer.
  81. Bosworth, C.E. (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IV (2. impression. ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 702. ISBN 9004057455. AL-KASHl Or AL-KASHANI, GHIYATH AL-DIN DjAMSHlD B. MASCUD B. MAHMUD, Persian mathematician and astronomer who wrote in his mother tongue and in Arabic. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  82. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Al-Kāshī, or al-Kāshānī (Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd ibn Mas˓ūd al-Kāshī (al-Kāshānī)), was a Persian mathematician and astronomer.
  83. Reference, Marshall Cavendish (2011). Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-7614-7929-1. Persian poet, philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician Omar Khayyam was a Persian polymath, accomplished in fields as diverse as philosophy, astronomy, and math. Best known in modern Iran for his scientific achievements, ...
  84. Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Berlin New York: Springer. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4020-4960-6. Retrieved 2 December 2016. Abū Muh.ammad ˓Abd al-Jabbār ibn ˓Abd al-Jabbār al-Kharaqī was a Persian astronomer, mathematician and geographer.
  85. Saliba, George (September 1998). "Science and medicine". Iranian Studies. 31 (3–4): 681–690. doi:10.1080/00210869808701940. Take, for example, someone like Muhammad b. Musa al-Khwarizmi (fl. 850) who may present a problem for the EIr, for although he was obviously of Persian descent, he lived and worked in Baghdad and was not known to have produced a single scientific work in Persian. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  86. Hockey, Thomas (2014). Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers. New York: Springer. p. 1181. ISBN 978-1-4419-9918-4. Khafri was an Iranian theoretical astronomer who produced innovative planetary theories at a time well beyond the supposed period of the decline of Islamic science.
  87. al-Qūhī, Abu Sahl Wayjan ibn Rustam (c. 940-c. 1000)
  88. Younes, Karamati,; Farzin, Negahban,. "Abū Isḥāq al-Kūbunānī". Brill. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
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  90. Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. The greatest of these figures, who ushered in the golden age of Islamic medicine and who are discussed separately by E. G. Browne in his Arabian Medicine, are four Persian physicians: 'All b. Rabban al-Tabarl, Muhammad b. Zakariyya' al-Razl, 'All b. al-'Abbas al-Majusi and Ibn Sina.
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  92. Islam and Science, by M. H. Syed, p. 212
  93. فهرست دانشمندان ایرانی پیش از دوران معاصر at دانشنامه ایرانیکا
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  95. André Godard, "The art of Iran", Praeger, 1965. pg 234: "Hamd Allah Mustawfi Qazwini. Persian historian and geographer, born in 680 H (AD 1281-1282). "
  96. Carole Hillenbrand, "Turkish myth and muslim symbol: the battle of Manzikert", Edinburgh University Press, 2007. pg 97: "The Persian chronicler Hamdallah .."
  97. Hitti, Philip K. (1977). History of the Arabs from the earliest times to the present (10th ed.). London: Macmillan. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-333-09871-4. A Jewish physician of Persian origin, Masarjawayh of al-Basrah (...)
  98. Milaha, V. Christides, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and CH. PELLAT, (Brill, 1991), 43.
  99. Nasir-i Khusraw, Azim Nanji, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, 1006.
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  102. Iranian Entomology: An Introduction, Volume I, ed. Cyrus Abivardi, (Springer, 2001), 495.
  103. Bernard Lewis, A Middle East Mosaic: Fragments of Life, Letters and History, (Random House, 2000), 439.
  104. Young, M.J.L.; Latham, J.D.; Serjeant, R.B., eds. (2006). Religion, learning, and science in the ʻAbbasid period (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-521-02887-5. In the middle of the fifth/eleventh century, al-Quda'i was at work in Egypt. He was Iranian by birth (...)