فهرست دامنه‌های سطح‌بالا

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

در زیر فهرست دامنه‌های سطح‌بالا (TLDs) است. دامنه سطح‌بالا اطلاعات پس زمینه مقاله را فراهم می‌کند.

فهرست رسمی از همه دامنه‌های سطح‌ بالا که توسط آیانا تنظیم شده‌است.[۱]


تعدادی از دامنه سطح‌بالای پیشنهاد شده توسط آیانا/آیکان در دست بررسی می‌باشد .

دامنه‌های سطح‌ بالا عمومی[ویرایش]

دامنه سطح بالای عمومی کاربرد یادداشت آی‌دی‌ان DNSSEC
.aero صنایع حمل و نقل هوایی   نه نه
.asia منطق آسیا-اقیانوسیه برای ارگان‌ها، شرکت‌ها و نهادهایی که در آسیا ویا اقیانوسیه مستقر هستند آری آری
.biz تجارت استفاده از آن آزاد است. نه آری
.cat کاتالان برای زبان کاتالان آری آری
.com تجاری استفاده از آن آزاد است. آری آری
.coop تعاونی   نه نه
.edu آموزشی  
.gov دولت آمریکا  
.info اطلاعات استفاده از آن آزاد است.
.int ارگان‌های بین‌المللی  
.jobs شرکت‌ها  
.mil صنایع نظامی آمریکا  
.mobi درایوهای موبایل  
.museum موزه‌ها  
.name برای نام‌ها  
.net شبکه استفاده از آن آزاد است.
.org ارگان‌ها  
pro professions  
.tel صنایع ارتباطی و اینترنتی  
.travel صنایع توریستی

دامنه سطح بالای کد کشوری[ویرایش]

دامنه سطح بالای کد کشوری کشور یادداشت
.ac  اسنشن  
.ad  آندورا  
.ae  امارات متحده عربی  
.af  افغانستان  
.ag  آنتیگوا و باربودا  
.ai  آنگویلا  
.al  آلبانی  
.am  ارمنستان  
.an  آنتیل هلند  
.ao  آنگولا  
.aq  جنوبگان  
.ar  آرژانتین  
.as  ساموای آمریکا  
.at  اتریش  
.au  استرالیا  
.aw  آروبا  
.ax  جزایر آلند  
.az  جمهوری آذربایجان  
.ba  بوسنی و هرزگوین  
.bb  باربادوس  
.bd  بنگلادش  
.be  بلژیک  
.bf  بورکینافاسو  
.bg  بلغارستان  
.bh  بحرین  
.bi  بوروندی  
.bj  بنین  
.bm  برمودا  
.bn  برونئی  
.bo  بولیوی  
.br  برزیل  
.bs  باهاما  
.bt  پادشاهی بوتان  
.bv  جزیره بووه  
.bw  بوتسوانا  
.by  بلاروس  
.bz  بلیز  
.ca  کانادا  
.cc  جزایر کوکوس  
.cd  جمهوری دموکراتیک کنگو  
.cf  جمهوری آفریقای مرکزی  
.cg  جمهوری کنگو  
.ch  سوئیس  
.ci  ساحل عاج  
.ck  جزایر کوک  
.cl  شیلی  .
.cm  کامرون  
.cn  چین  
.co  کلمبیا  
.cr  کاستاریکا  
.cu  کوبا  
.cv  کیپ ورد  
.cx  جزیره کریسمس  
.cy  قبرس  
.cz  جمهوری چک  
.de  آلمان  
.dj  جیبوتی  
.dk  دانمارک  
.dm  دومینیکا  
.do  جمهوری دومینیکن  
.dz  الجزایر  
.ec  اکوادور  
.ee  استونی  
.eg  مصر  
.er  اریتره  
.es  اسپانیا  
.et  اتیوپی  
.eu  اتحادیه اروپا  
.fi  فنلاند  
.fj  فیجی  
.fk  جزایر فالکلند  
.fm  ایالات فدرال میکرونزی  
.fo  جزایر فارو  
.fr  فرانسه  
.ga  گابن  
.gb  بریتانیا .gb به ندرت استفاده می‌شود و به جای آن از .uk استفاده می‌گردد
.gd  گرنادا  
.ge  گرجستان  
.gf  گویان فرانسه  
.gg  گرنزی  
.gh  غنا  
.gi  جبل طارق  
.gl  گرینلند  
.gm  گامبیا  
.gn  گینه  
.gp  جزیره گوادلوپ  
.gq  گینه استوایی  
.gr  یونان  
.gs  جورجیای جنوبی و جزایر ساندویچ جنوبی  
.gt  گواتمالا  
.gu  گوآم  
.gw  گینه بیسائو  
.gy  گویان  
.hk  هنگ کنگ  
.hm  جزیره هرد و جزایر مک‌دونالد  
.hn  هندوراس  
.hr  کرواسی  
.ht  هائیتی  
.hu  مجارستان  
.id  اندونزی  
.ie  جمهوری ایرلند  
.il  اسرائیل  
.im  جزیره من  
.in  هند  
.io  قلمرو اقیانوس هند بریتانیا  
.iq  عراق  
.ir  ایران  
.is  ایسلند  
.it  ایتالیا  
.je  جرسی  
.jm  جامائیکا  
.jo  اردن  
.jp  ژاپن  
.ke  کنیا  
.kg  قرقیزستان  
.kh  کامبوج  
.ki  کیریباتی  
.km  کومور  
.kn  سنت کیتس و نویس  
.kp  کره شمالی  
.kr  کره جنوبی  
.kw  کویت  
.ky  جزایر کیمن  
.kz  قزاقستان  
.la  لائوس  
.lb  لبنان  
.lc  سنت لوسیا  
.li  لیختن‌اشتاین  
.lk  سری‌لانکا  
.lr  لیبریا  
.ls  لسوتو  
.lt  لیتوانی  
.lu  لوکزامبورگ  
.lv  لتونی  
.ly  لیبی  
.ma  مراکش  
.mc  موناکو  
.md  مولداوی  
.me  مونته‌نگرو  
.mg  ماداگاسکار  
.mh  جزایر مارشال  
.mk  جمهوری مقدونیه  
.ml  مالی  
.mm  میانمار  
.mn  مغولستان  
.mo  ماکائو  
.mp  جزایر ماریانای شمالی  
.mq  مارتینیک  
.mr  موریتانی  
.ms  مونتسرات  
.mt  مالت  
.mu  موریس  
.mv  مالدیو  
.mw  مالاوی  
.mx  مکزیک  
.my  مالزی  
.mz  موزامبیک  
.na  نامیبیا  
.nc  کالدونیای جدید  
.ne  نیجر  
.nf  جزیره نورفولک  
.ng  نیجریه  
.ni  نیکاراگوئه  
.nl  هلند اولین دامنه کشوری رسمی
.no  نروژ برای ثبت آن باید شرکت در نروژ ثبت شود
.np  نپال  
.nr  نائورو  
.nu  نیووی  
.nz  نیوزیلند  
.om  عمان  
.pa  پاناما  
.pe  پرو  
.pf  پلی‌نزی فرانسه  
.pg  پاپوآ گینه نو  
.ph  فیلیپین  
.pk  پاکستان  
.pl  لهستان  
.pm  سنت پیر و ماژلان  
.pn  جزایر پیت‌کرن  
.pr  پورتوریکو  
.ps  فلسطین  
.pt  پرتغال  
.pw  پالائو  
.py  پاراگوئه  
.qa  قطر  
.re  رئونیون  
.ro  رومانی  
.rs  صربستان  
.ru  روسیه  
.rw  رواندا  
.sa  عربستان سعودی  
.sb  جزایر سلیمان  
.sc  سیشل  
.sd  سودان  
.se  سوئد  
.sg  سنگاپور  
.sh  سینت هلینا  
.si  اسلوونی  
.sj  سوالبارد و جزایر  یان ماین  
.sk  اسلواکی  
.sl  سیرالئون  
.sm  سان مارینو  
.sn  سنگال  
.so  سومالی  
.sr  سورینام  
.st  سائوتومه و پرنسیپ  
.su former  اتحاد جماهیر شوروی Still in use.
.sv  السالوادور  
.sy  سوریه  
.sz  اسواتینی  
.tc  جزایر تورکس و کایکوس  
.td  چاد  
.tf  سرزمین‌های قطب جنوب و جنوبی فرانسه  
.tg  توگو  
.th  تایلند  
.tj  تاجیکستان  
.tk  توکلائو  
.tl  تیمور شرقی  
.tm  ترکمنستان  
.tn  تونس  
.to  تونگا  
.tp  تیمور شرقی  
.tr  ترکیه  
.tt  ترینیداد و توباگو  
.tv  تووالو  
.tw  تایوان  
.tz  تانزانیا  
.ua  اوکراین  
.ug  اوگاندا  
.uk  بریتانیا  
.us  ایالات متحده آمریکا  
.uy  اروگوئه  
.uz  ازبکستان  
.va  واتیکان  
.vc  سنت وینسنت و گرنادین‌ها  
.ve  ونزوئلا  
.vg  جزایر ویرجین انگلستان  
.vi  جزایر ویرجین ایالات متحده  
.vn  ویتنام  
.vu  وانواتو  
.wf  والیس و فوتونا  
.ws  ساموآ  
.ye  یمن  
.yt  مایوت  
.yu  یوگسلاوی  
.za  آفریقای جنوبی  
.zm  زامبیا  
.zw  زیمبابوه  
آی‌دی‌ان TLD[۲] زبان کلمه
.xn--0zwm56d چینی ساده 测试. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20130530041350/http://xn--fsqu00a.xn--0zwm56d/)
.xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g هندی (دبیره دوانگاری) परीक्षा. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20131010102249/http://xn--p1b6ci4b4b3a.xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g/)
.xn--80akhbyknj4f زبان روسی (دبیر سیریلیک) испытание. (ICANN’s example.test: http://пример.испытание/[پیوند مرده])
.xn--9t4b11yi5a کره‌ای 테스트. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20131009201036/http://xn--9n2bp8q.xn--9t4b11yi5a/)
.xn--deba0ad ییدیش טעסט. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20111002054014/http://xn--fdbk5d8ap9b8a8d.xn--deba0ad/)
.xn--g6w251d زبان چینی سنتی 測試. (ICANN’s example.test: http://例子.測試/[پیوند مرده])
.xn--hgbk6aj7f53bba فارسی آزمایشی. (ICANN’s example.test: http://مثال.آزمایشی/[پیوند مرده])
.xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a تامیل பரிட்சை. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20130618235538/http://xn--zkc6cc5bi7f6e.xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a/)
.xn--jxalpdlp یونانی (دبیره یونانی) δοκιμή. (ICANN’s example.test: https://web.archive.org/web/20130323103917/http://xn--hxajbheg2az3al.xn--jxalpdlp/)
.xn--kgbechtv عربی (دبیره عربی) إختبار. (ICANN’s example.test: http://مثال.إختبار/[پیوند مرده])
.xn--zckzah زبان ژاپنی テスト. (ICANN’s example.test : http://例え.テスト/[پیوند مرده])
زیربنا وجود یادداشت
.arpa Address and Routing Parameter Area This is an Internet infrastructure TLD.
سامانه نام دامنه IDN ccTLD کشور خط دامنه سطح‌بالای کد کشوری
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  الجزایر عربی .dz
xn--90ae .бг  بلغارستان سیریلیک .bg
.ge  گرجستان گرجی .ge
xn--4dbrk0ce .ישראל  اسرائیل عبری .il
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  مراکش عربی .ma
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  عمان عربی .om
پاکستان.  پاکستان عربی .pk
xn--90a3ac .срб  صربستان سیریلیک .rs
xn--j1amh .укр  اوکراین سیریلیک .ua

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. IANA maintained list of top-level domains
  2. The IDNA TLDs have been added for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA at the top level, and are likely to be temporary. Each of the eleven TLDs encodes a word meaning "test" in some language. See the ICANN announcement of 15 October 2007 and the IDN TLD evaluation gateway بایگانی‌شده در ۲۷ مه ۲۰۰۸ توسط Wayback Machine.

This list of Internet top-level domains (TLD) contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) at the Root Zone Database.[1][2] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains. As of June 2019, the root domain contains 1530 top-level domains,[3] while a few have been retired and are no longer functional.

Types

IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[4]

Original top-level domains

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

Name Entity Administrator[5] Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools, and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name,[citation needed] to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.net network Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.int international organizations Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, a few grandfathered domains do not meet these criteria. No Yes Yes Yes
.edu education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific higher educational institutions such as, but not limited to, trade schools and universities. In the U.S., its use was restricted in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions, such as the Exploratorium, that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes Yes Yes
.gov U.S. national and state government agencies General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to United States governmental entities and agencies as well as qualifying state, county and local municipal government agencies. No Yes Yes Yes
.mil U.S. military United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes Yes Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa "Address and Routing Parameter Area" Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. No Yes

Country code top-level domains

As of May 20, 2017, there were 255 Country code top-level domains. (For comparison, at the same time the United Nations comprised 193 countries.)

Table legend
Name DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for European Union which does not exist, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain instead of ".gb".
Entity Country, dependency, or region
Explanation Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German name for Germany).
Notes General remarks
IDN Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply)
IPv6 Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[6][7] Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates No Yes
.af  Afghanistan Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft) Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence) No Yes
.al  Albania Citizenship no longer required No Yes
.am  Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business No Yes Yes Yes
.ao  Angola No Unknown
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ? Yes Yes ?
.ar  Argentina Spanish[cctld 1] Yes Yes Yes
.as  American Samoa (United States) In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain. Yes No Yes
.at  Austria Yes[cctld 2] Yes Yes Yes
.au  Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[8] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. No Yes No Yes
.aw  Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens Yes Yes
.ax  Åland (Finland) .al, .an, .ad already allocated Yes Yes
.az  Azerbaijan Yes Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes
.bb  Barbados No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh Yes No Yes
.be  Belgium Also unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[9] Yes Yes Yes[10]
.bf  Burkina Faso No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria See also .бг (.bg in cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD Yes Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain Yes Yes
.bi  Burundi Yes Yes
.bj  Benin Yes Yes
.bm  Bermuda Local corporate registration required Yes Yes
.bn  Brunei Yes No
.bo  Bolivia Yes Yes
.br  Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[11] Yes[12] Yes No[cctld 3]
.bs  Bahamas Yes Yes
.bt  Bhutan Yes No
.bw  Botswana Yes Yes
.by  Belarus Byelarus’ Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany Yes Yes
.bz  Belize Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) Yes Yes
.ca  Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. French[cctld 4] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica Yes[cctld 5] Yes Yes
.ci  Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands No Yes
.cl  Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong, Macau and also maintain TLDs. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.co  Colombia Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register. Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica Yes Yes
.cu  Cuba No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde No Yes
.cw  Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Curaçao, West Indies No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island Christmas Xmas Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus No No
.cz  Czech Republic No[cctld 6] Yes Yes
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[cctld 7] Yes Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti Unofficially used by Disc Jockeys No Yes
.dk  Denmark Yes[cctld 8] Yes Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic No Yes
.dz  Algeria El Djazair No Yes
.ec  Ecuador In Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".[14] No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Yes[cctld 9] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt No Yes
.er  Eritrea Eritrea Yes Yes
.es  Spain España Yes Yes
.et  Ethiopia No No
.eu  European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[cctld 10] Yes Yes Yes[15]
.fi  Finland Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[cctld 11] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia Also unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark) royar Yes Yes
.fr  France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.gd  Grenada Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[16] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana (France) Guyane Française No
.gg  Guernsey (United Kingdom) Guernsey / Guernesey Commonly used in reference to the gamer slang for "good game". No Yes
.gh  Ghana No No
.gi  Gibraltar (United Kingdom) Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark) Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. No Yes
.gn  Guinea A local contact is required Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe (France) Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale Also used as a free domain service to the public. No
.gr  Greece Yes[cctld 14] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam (United States) Based on Guam's postal abbreviation. Registry has been closed since 2017. No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau Guinea, West Africa Yes Yes
.gy  Guyana No Yes
.hk  Hong Kong Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes Yes Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands No Yes
.hn  Honduras Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary Citizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU   Yes Yes
.id  Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[17] Yes Yes Yes
.ie  Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[18][19] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.il  Israel Yes Yes Yes
.im  Isle of Man (United Kingdom) No Yes
.in  India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). Yes [cctld 15] Yes Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output that is useful for domain hacks. Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq Partial[20] Yes
.ir  Iran Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[cctld 16] Yes[21] Yes
.je  Jersey (United Kingdom) No Yes
.jm  Jamaica No No
.jo  Jordan No Yes
.jp  Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. Yes Yes Yes Yes[22]
.ke  Kenya Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer No No
.ki  Kiribati Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis No Yes
.kp  North Korea Korea Democratic People's Republic Restricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea. No No
.kr  South Korea Korea Republic Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait No No
.ky  Cayman Islands Yes Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan No Yes
.la  Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[23] Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein Also unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense singular ending li Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka Yes Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia Partial[20] No
.ls  Lesotho No No
.lt  Lithuania Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya No Yes
.ma  Morocco Maroc Partial[20] Yes
.mc  Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco No Yes
.md  Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. No Yes
.me  Montenegro Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.) Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar Yes Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands No
.mk  North Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia No Yes
.ml  Mali Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.mm  Myanmar Yes No
.mn  Mongolia The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands (United States) Marianas Pacific No Yes
.mq  Martinique (France) No No
.mr  Mauritania No Yes
.ms  Montserrat Unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. No Yes
.mt  Malta No No
.mu  Mauritius No Yes
.mv  Maldives No Yes
.mw  Malawi No Yes
.mx  Mexico Yes Yes
.my  Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[cctld 17] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique No No
.na  Namibia Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia (France)   Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. Yes Yes
.ne  Niger No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua No No
.nl  Netherlands First official country code TLD.[24] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes Yes Yes
.np    Nepal All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. No No
.nr  Nauru Was previously used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.[25] No Yes
.nu  Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[cctld 18] Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand Māori[cctld 19] Yes Yes[26]
.om  Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. No No
.pa  Panama No No
.pe  Peru Yes[cctld 20] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia (France) Polynésie française With Clipperton Island No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea No No
.ph  Philippines No Yes
.pk  Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 No Yes
.pl  Poland Yes[cctld 21] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France) Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico (United States) Yes Yes
.ps  Palestine[27] West Bank and Gaza Strip. No Yes
.pt  Portugal Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[28]
.pw  Palau Pelew Yes Yes Yes Yes[29]
.py  Paraguay No No
.qa  Qatar No No
.re  Réunion (France) Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania Yes[30] Yes[31] Yes Yes[32]
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija Yes No Yes Yes
.ru  Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. No Yes Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[33] Arabic[9] Yes[34] Yes Yes[35]
.sb  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, British Yes No
.sc  Seychelles Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan No Yes
.se  Sweden S/E are the only letters occurring in both Sverige and Sweden Yes[cctld 22] Yes Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore Yes Yes
.sh  Saint Helena Yes[cctld 23] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia Yes[cctld 24] Yes Yes
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens Yes Yes Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone No Yes
.sm  San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark No Yes
.sn  Senegal Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. Yes Yes
.so  Somalia Relaunched on 1 November 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname No Yes
.ss  South Sudan Added to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available.
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz) No Yes
.su  Soviet Union Still in use. Yes[cctld 25] Yes Yes Yes[cctld 26]
.sv  El Salvador No No
.sx  Sint Maarten .si, .sm, and .ms already allocated. Yes No
.sy  Syria Yes Yes
.sz  Eswatini Swaziland Registration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. It has also been adopted by the community of the game Team Fortress 2.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo No Yes
.th  Thailand Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan No Yes
.tk  Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is deactivated since 2015. Yes Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan Yes[cctld 27] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia Yes Yes Yes Yes
.to  Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tr  Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[cctld 28] No Yes Yes[36]
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."[37] Yes[cctld 29] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[38] Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[39] Yes Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan No Yes
.va   Vatican City Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State) No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Partial[20] Yes
.ve  Venezuela Registration is at the third level. No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands (United States) No Yes
.vn  Vietnam Yes[cctld 30] Yes Yes
.vu  Vanuatu Yes Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Western Samoa Marketed for use in general Websites Yes Yes[40] Yes
.ye  Yemen No No
.yt  Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[cctld 12] Yes[cctld 13] Yes Yes
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika Yes Yes
.zm  Zambia Yes Yes[cctld 31]
.zw  Zimbabwe No No

Notes

  1. ^ (17 November 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see IDN Zeichentabelle (PDF, in german language).
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ "About Internationalized Domain Names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  5. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  6. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[13]
  7. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  8. ^ (1 January 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from 13 June 2011 "Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN)". Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  10. ^ Supported characters (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic): see details Archived 20 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (Latin): see details
  12. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs"..
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  14. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Now, get Internet domain names in regional languages". The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  17. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  18. ^ see [1]
  19. ^ "F.A.Q. for Domain Names with macrons (IDNs) - .nz Domain Name Commission". Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  20. ^ (8 December 2007): see details[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "www.dns.pl: IDN". Retrieved 11 September 2003.
  22. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  23. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  24. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  25. ^ (28 April 2008) see details Archived 19 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "ccTLD.su". Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  27. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  28. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  29. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  30. ^ "TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet". Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  31. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm

Internationalized country code top-level domains

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country/Region Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر. Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Jazā'ir .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hay .am Yes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a البحرين.  Bahrain Arabic Arabic al-Bahrain Not delegated .bh No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla .bd Yes
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel .by No
xn--90ae .бг[41]  Bulgaria Bulgarian Cyrillic bg .bg No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Miṣr / Maṣr[42] .eg Yes
xn--e1a4c .ею  European Union Bulgarian Cyrillic eyu .eu Yes
xn--qxa6a .ευ  European Union Greek Greek ey Not delegated .eu
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE .ge No
xn--qxam .ελ[41]  Greece Greek Greek el In use since July 2018 .gr No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 .hk Yes
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 August 2014[43] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārata Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Became available 2015 .in Yes
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--2scrj9c .ಭಾರತ  India Kannada Kannada Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--rvc1e0am3e .ഭാരതം  India Malayalam Malayalam Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--45br5cyl .ভাৰত  India Assamese Bengali Bharatam Not in use .in
xn--3hcrj9c .ଭାରତ  India Oriya Oriya Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgbbh1a بارت.  India Kashmiri Arabic (Kashmiri) Bārat Not in use .in
xn--h2breg3eve .भारतम्  India Sanskrit Devanagari Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--h2brj9c8c .भारोत  India Santali Devanagari Bharot Not in use .in
xn--mgbgu82a ڀارت.  India Sindhi Arabic (Sindhi) Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Persian Arabic (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b عراق.  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿIrāq Not in use .iq No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--q7ce6a .ລາວ  Laos Lao Lao Lao Not delegated .la
xn--mix082f .澳门  Macao Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mix891f .澳門  Macao Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysīyā .my Yes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd موريتانيا.  Mauritania Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Mūrītāniyā .mr No
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Maġrib .ma No
xn--d1alf .мкд  North Macedonia Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd .mk No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿUmān .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Pākistān .pk Yes
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  Palestinian Authority Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filasṭīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qaṭar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Suʿūdīya .sa Yes[34]
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbian Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg Yes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg Yes
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhala Sinhala Lanka .lk Partial[20]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilaṅkai .lk Partial[20]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūdān .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl سورية.  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūriyya .sy Yes
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn Yes
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Yaman Not delegated .ye No

Source:[44]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs

Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Israel, Japan and Libya.

ICANN-era generic top-level domains

English

A

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.academy academic institutes Donuts[donuts 1] Yes Yes
.accountant accountants and accounting firms Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Donuts[donuts 2] Yes Yes
.active general The Active Network Unknown Yes
.actor actors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.adult adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. SITA No No
.africa ZA Central Registry Unknown Yes
.agency business associations Donuts[donuts 3] Yes[9] Yes
.airforce defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.analytics Campus IP LLC[46]
.apartments apartments Donuts Yes Yes
.app Apps[47] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.archi architects and architect firms[48] Restricted to individuals and organizations that can verify participation in architecture industry.[49] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.army defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.art artists, museums, art galleries, dealers, service providers and contractors UK Creative Ideas Yes Yes
.associates business associations Donuts[donuts 4] Yes Yes
.attorney attorneys and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.auction Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.audible Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.author Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.auto Cars Registry Limited[46]
.autos DERAutos Unknown Yes
.aws Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]

B

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.baby Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.[46]
.band Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.bank banks Restricted to banks and savings associations fTLD Registry Services, LLC Unknown Yes
.bar Bars and related industry Punto 2012 Yes Yes
.barefoot Gallo Vineyards, Inc.[46]
.bargains coupons and online sellers Donuts[donuts 5] Yes Yes
.baseball MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC[46]
.basketball Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA)[46]
.beauty L'Oréal[46]
.beer breweries and beer aficionados Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.berlin companies, brands, persons and other things with relation to Germany's capital Berlin dotBERLIN GmbH & Co. KG Yes
.best BestTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.bestbuy BBY Solutions, Inc.[46]
.bet Afilias plc[46]
.bible Respect for "the Bible", "God as He is revealed in the Bible", and "orthodox" Christianity[51][52] American Bible Society[46]
.bid auctions Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Yes Yes
.bike bicycles Donuts[donuts 6] Yes[53] Yes
.bingo bingo Donuts Yes Yes
.bio biodiversity, biographies May require compliance with organic agriculture principles.[54] STARTING DOT LIMITED Unknown Yes
.biz business Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. NeuStar Yes[9] Yes
.black those who like the color black[55] Afilias Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.blockbuster Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.blog Blogs Automattic[56] Unknown Yes
.blue those who like the color blue[57] Afilias Yes Yes
.boo Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.book Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC[46]
.bot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.boutique specialized businesses Donuts[donuts 7] Yes Yes
.box individuals and businesses, in order to promote personal cloud storage NS1 Limited Yes Yes
.broadway Celebrate Broadway, Inc.[46]
.broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD[46]
.build construction industry Open Top Level Domain—[58] Plan Bee LLC Yes Yes
.builders construction workers Donuts[donuts 8] Yes Yes
.business businesses Donuts[donuts 9] Yes Yes
.buy Amazon Registry Services, INC[46]
.buzz marketing and social networking DOTSTRATEGY Yes Yes

C

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.cab cabs and taxi companies Donuts[donuts 10] Yes Yes
.cafe coffee industry Donuts Yes Yes
.call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.cam entertainment[59] Acwebconnecting[60] Yes Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Donuts[donuts 11] Yes Yes
.camp camps and camping Donuts[donuts 12] Yes Yes
.cancerresearch Organizations, research institutes and individuals interested in ending cancer through research[61] Australian Cancer Research Foundation Unknown Yes
.capital financial firms Donuts[donuts 13] Yes Yes
.car Cars Registry Limited[46]
.cards general Donuts[donuts 14] Yes Yes
.care healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 15] Yes Yes
.career dotCareer LLC Yes Yes
.careers Employment Donuts[donuts 16] Yes Yes
.cars Automotive Uniregistry Yes Yes
.case CNH Industrial N.V.[46]
.cash financial Donuts[donuts 17] Yes Yes
.casino casinos Donuts Yes Yes
.catering Food service Donuts[donuts 18] Yes Yes
.catholic Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[46]
.center general Donuts[donuts 19] Yes Yes
.cern CERN CERN Unknown Unknown
.ceo CEOs [62] CEOTLD Pty Ltd Unknown Yes
.cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD[46]
.channel Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.chat online chat Donuts Yes Yes
.cheap Resellers Donuts[donuts 20] Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.church churches Donuts[donuts 21] Yes Yes
.cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl[46]
.circle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.city general Donuts[donuts 22] Yes Yes
.claims retail, auctions Donuts[donuts 23] Yes Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Donuts[donuts 24] Yes Yes
.click Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Donuts[donuts 25] Yes Yes
.clothing Apparel Donuts[donuts 26] Yes Yes
.cloud Aruba S.p.A.
.club groups, organizations, assemblies, communities, general [63] .CLUB DOMAINS Yes[64] Yes
.coach travel (flights and motor coaches) Donuts Yes Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Donuts[donuts 27] Yes Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Donuts[donuts 28] Yes Yes
.college Educational XYZ.com Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Donuts[donuts 29] Yes Yes
.company business associations Donuts[donuts 30] Yes Yes
.compare iSelect Ltd[46]
.computer Technology Donuts[donuts 31] Yes Yes
.condos Real estate Donuts[donuts 32] Yes Yes
.construction Construction industry Donuts[donuts 33] Yes Yes
.consulting hired advisors Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.[46]
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Donuts[donuts 34] Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.cool General interests Donuts[donuts 35] Yes Yes
.coop cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. DotCooperation No Yes
.country general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.coupon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.coupons coupons Donuts Yes Yes
.courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[46]
.credit Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 36] Yes Yes
.creditcard Financial institutions Donuts[donuts 37] Yes Yes
.cruise Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.[46]
.cricket cricket Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.cruises cruise businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 38] Yes Yes

D

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.dad families Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.data Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.date online dating Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.dating online dating Donuts[donuts 39] Yes Yes
.day general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.deal Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.deals online shopping and couponing Donuts[donuts 40] Yes Yes
.degree general Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.delivery general Donuts[donuts 41] Yes Yes
.democrat Democratic Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.dental dentists Donuts[donuts 42] Yes Yes
.dentist dentists Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.design graphic art and fashion Top Level Design Yes Yes
.dev development - Google Unknown Yes
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Donuts[donuts 43] Yes Yes
.diet Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.digital general Donuts[donuts 44] Yes Yes
.direct general Donuts[donuts 45] Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Donuts[donuts 46] Yes Yes
.discount general Donuts[donuts 47] Yes Yes
.diy Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.doctor Brice Trail, LLC[46]
.dog dog stores and owners Donuts Yes Yes
.domains domain registries Donuts[donuts 48] Yes Yes
.dot Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.download technology Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.duck Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[46]

E

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.earth Interlink Co., Ltd.[46]
.eat restaurants and foodies Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.eco Sustainability minded companies, non-profits and professionals.[65] Open to anyone pledging a commitment to sustainability action.[66] Big Room Inc.[67] No Yes
.education educational institutes Donuts[donuts 49] Yes Yes
.email email Donuts[donuts 50] Yes Yes
.energy energy industry and marketing Donuts[donuts 51] Yes Yes
.engineer engineers and engineering firms Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.engineering engineering firms Donuts[donuts 52] Yes Yes
.enterprises business associations Donuts[donuts 53] Yes Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Donuts[donuts 54] Yes Yes
.esq lawyers, law firms, legal professionals To be restricted to verified lawyers and attorneys[68] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.estate real estate businesses Donuts[donuts 55] Yes Yes
.events happenings Donuts[donuts 56] Yes Yes
.exchange generic trade Donuts[donuts 57] Yes Yes
.expert generic expertise Donuts[donuts 58] Yes Yes
.exposed general interest Donuts[donuts 59] Yes Yes
.express shipping Donuts Yes Yes

F

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.fail general Donuts[donuts 60] Yes Yes
.faith religion and churches Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.family families Unknown Yes
.fan Asiamix Digital Ltd[46]
.fans general Unknown Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Donuts[donuts 61] Yes Yes
.fashion clothing industry Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fast Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.feedback Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd[46]
.final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br[46]
.finance financial Donuts[donuts 62] Yes Yes
.financial financial Donuts[donuts 63] Yes Yes
.fire Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Donuts[donuts 64] Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.fit Fitness and exercise Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.fitness Fitness and exercise Donuts[donuts 65] Yes Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Donuts[donuts 66] Yes Yes
.florist florists Donuts[donuts 67] Yes Yes
.flowers florists and gardens Uniregistry Yes Yes
.fly travel To be restricted to verified airlines, travel agencies and travel resellers[69] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.foo web development [70] Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.food Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.foodnetwork Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.football soccer and American football Donuts Yes Yes
.forsale online retail Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.forum Fegistry, LLC[46]
.foundation charitable organizations Donuts[donuts 68] Yes Yes
.free Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.frontdoor Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.fun Radix Registry Unknown Unknown
.fund financial Donuts[donuts 69] Yes Yes
.furniture furniture businesses Donuts[donuts 70] Yes Yes
.futbol
.fyi "for your information" Donuts Yes Yes

G

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.gallery photo and art galleries Donuts[donuts 71] Yes Yes
.game Uniregistry, Corp.[46]
.games United TLD Holdco Ltd.[46]
.garden gardening Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.gdn none, anyone GDN Registry Unknown Unknown
.gift gift-giving Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.gifts gift-giving Donuts[donuts 72] Yes Yes
.gives charities and gift-giving Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.glass window sales and repairs Donuts[donuts 73] Yes Yes
.global general Dot GLOBAL Yes Yes
.gold gold and luxury Donuts Unknown Yes
.golf golf Donuts Yes Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Republican State Leadership Committee Spanish[71] Yes
.graphics graphics Donuts[donuts 74] Yes Yes
.green the environmentally-focused "As a Registrant you may not ... use a .green name or its content in a way that negatively affects the mission, purpose of the .green TLD, or its brand."[72] Afilias Unknown Yes
.gripe opinion sites Donuts[donuts 75] Yes Yes
.grocery Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.[46]
.group Romeo Town, LLC[46]
.guide help sites Donuts[donuts 76] Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.guru generic expertise Donuts[donuts 77] Yes[73] Yes

H

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.hair L'Oreal[46]
.hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.health DotHealth, LLC[46]
.healthcare healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 78] Unknown Yes
.help help sites Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.here generic geographic Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV dotHIV Unknown Yes
.hockey hockey Donuts Yes Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Donuts[donuts 79] Yes Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Donuts[donuts 80] Yes Yes
.homegoods The TJX Companies, Inc.[46]
.homes real estate professionals Dominion Enterprises Unknown Yes
.homesense The TJX Companies, Inc.[46]
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.hospital Ruby Pike, LLC[46]
.host network companies Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.hosting Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.hot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.hotels Booking.com B.V.[46]
.house real estate and construction businesses Donuts[donuts 81] Yes Yes
.how how-to guides Google[n 2] Unknown Yes

I

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.[46]
.icu entrepreneurs and business owners ShortDot SA
.industries industrial businesses Donuts[donuts 82] Yes Yes
.info information Afilias German[9] Yes
.ing Verbal suffix: e.g., "jump.ing". Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[74] Top Level Design Yes Yes
.institute[75] Donuts[donuts 83] Yes Yes
.insurance fTLD Registry Services LLC[46]
.insure Insurance companies Donuts[donuts 84] Yes Yes
.international international entities Donuts[donuts 85] Yes Yes
.investments financial Donuts[donuts 86] Yes Yes

J, K

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.jewelry jewelry stores Donuts Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[76] Employ Media No Yes
.joy Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.kim Kim (Korean surname) Afilias Unknown Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Donuts[donuts 87] Yes Yes

L

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.land real estate Donuts[donuts 88] Yes Yes
.latino Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.law Restricted to qualified lawyers, courts of law, law schools, and legal regulators.[77] Minds + Machines Group Limited[46]
.lawyer lawyers and legal organizations Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.lease financing Donuts[donuts 89] Yes Yes
.legal lawyers and legal organizations Donuts Yes Yes
.lgbt the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community "Registrants are prohibited from using the .LGBT domain in a manner that is harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, defamatory, or hateful with respect to the LGBT community."[78] Afilias Unknown Yes
.life general Donuts[donuts 90] Yes Yes
.lifeinsurance American Council of Life Insurers[46]
.lighting lighting Donuts[donuts 91] Yes Yes
.like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.limited general Donuts[donuts 92] Yes Yes
.limo limousine businesses Donuts[donuts 93] Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[79] Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.live United TLD Holdco Ltd.[46]
.living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.[46]
.loan banks and lenders Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.loans banks and lenders Donuts[donuts 94] Yes Yes
.locker Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.lol LOL: laughing out loud Uniregistry[80] Unknown Yes
.lotto Afilias Unknown Yes
.love dating sites Unknown Yes
.ltd Donuts Unknown Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Luxury Partners Yes Yes

M

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.makeup L'Oréal[46]
.management business management Donuts[donuts 95] Yes Yes
.map Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.market marketing services and retailers Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.marketing marketing services Donuts[donuts 96] Yes Yes
.markets financial and stock markets IG Group Unknown Yes
.mba Masters in Business Administration Donuts Yes Yes
.med Medistry LLC[46]
.media general media interests Donuts[donuts 97] Yes Yes
.meet social gatherings, meeting new people Afilias Unknown Yes
.meme Internet memes Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.memorial memorial sites Donuts Yes Yes
.men men Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.menu restaurants Wedding TLD2 Yes Yes
.mint Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.[46]
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Afilias Yes Yes
.mobile Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[46]
.moe Japanese otaku culture; see moe (slang) Interlink Yes Yes
.mom Uniregistry, Corp.[46]
.money financial Donuts Yes Yes
.monster Organizations xyz.com Yes Yes
.mortgage mortgage lenders Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.motorcycles motorcycles DERMotorcycles Unknown Yes
.mov Digital video Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.movie movies and cinemas Donuts Yes Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Museum Domain Management Association Latin script[9] Yes
.music Music dissemination and appreciation Under contention

N, O

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.name individuals, by name Open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Verisign Yes[9] Yes
.navy defense contractors Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.network general Donuts[donuts 98] Yes Yes
.new general Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.news news sites Unknown Yes
.ngo Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ong.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.ninja general expertise Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.now Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.observer news organizations Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
.off Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.[46]
.org general Public Interest Registry
.one general .one (top-level domain) Unknown Yes
.ong Non-governmental organizations.
Sold packaged with .ngo.
Restricted to validated NGOs, as determined by PIR. See the eligibility requirements. Public Interest Registry Unknown Yes
.onl short for "online" I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.online generic Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.ooo general Infibeam No Yes
.open American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.[46]
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[81] Afilias Unknown Yes
.origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.[46]

P, Q

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.page Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.partners businesses Donuts[donuts 99] Yes Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Donuts[donuts 100] Yes Yes
.party nightclubs and social gatherings Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.pay Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pet Afilias plc[46]
.pharmacy pharmacies "All registrants within the .pharmacy gTLD are vetted prior to registration to confirm that they meet all applicable regulatory standards, including pharmacy licensure and valid prescription requirements, in the jurisdictions where they are based and where they serve patients."[82] National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Unknown Yes
.phone Dish DBS Corporation[46]
.photo photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 101] Yes Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 102] Yes Yes
.physio physical therapists Must be eligible for membership within an association that is a member of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, have proper training as a physical therapist outside WCPT's reach, or otherwise supports physical therapy.[83][84] PhysBiz Unknown Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Donuts[donuts 103] Yes Yes
.pid Top Level Spectrum Unknown Yes
.pin Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pink those who like the color pink Afilias Yes Yes
.pizza pizza parlors Donuts[donuts 104] Yes Yes
.place general Donuts[donuts 105] Yes Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Donuts[donuts 106] Yes Yes
.plus generic Donuts Yes Yes
.poker Poker players and sites Afilias[n 4] Unknown Yes
.porn adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[85] Universal Postal Union No[86] Yes
.press publishing and journalism Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.prime Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.pro professions/professionals Registry Services Corporation No Yes
.productions studio/art businesses Donuts[donuts 107] Yes Yes
.prof Professors, teachers and learning Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.promo Afilias plc[46]
.properties real estate Donuts[donuts 108] Yes Yes
.property real estate Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.protection security XYZ.COM LLC[46]
.pub bars and pubs Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.qpon coupons dotCOOL Unknown Yes

R

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.racing racing Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.radio radio stations European Broadcasting Union (EBU)[46]
.read ebook websites Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.realestate real estate dotRealEstate LLC[46]
.realtor realtors To be restricted to members of the National Association of Realtors and the Canadian Real Estate Association, and related associations.[87] Real Estate Domains Unknown Yes
.realty Fegistry, LLC[46]
.recipes recipes and cooking Donuts[donuts 109] Yes Yes
.red those who like the color red[88]
Also Spanish variant of .net
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Afilias Yes Yes
.rehab Rehab centers and support sites Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.reit real estate investment trusts Restricted to REITs, as determined by national law.[89] National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts Unknown Yes
.ren Renren users (ren means "people/person" in Mandarin Chinese pinyin) Restricted TLD[90] Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co. Unknown Yes
.rent Real estate professionals and small businesses xyz.xyz Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Donuts[donuts 110] Yes Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Donuts[donuts 111] Yes Yes
.report business services Donuts[donuts 112] Yes Yes
.republican Republican Party politics Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rest Restaurants and related industry Punto 2012 Yes[91] Yes
.restaurant restaurants Donuts[donuts 113] Yes Yes
.review public reviews Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.reviews public reviews Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy I-REGISTRY Unknown Yes
.rip memorial sites[92] Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.rocks general Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.room Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.rugby World Rugby Strategic Developments Limited[46]
.run running and jogging Donuts Yes Yes

S

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.safe Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.sale retail Unknown Yes
.save Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.scholarships scholarship related Scholarships.com[93][94] Unknown Unknown
.school schools Donuts[donuts 114] Yes Yes
.science science-related sites Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.search Charleston Road Registry Inc.[46]
.secure Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.security XYZ.COM LLC[46]
.select iSelect Ltd[46]
.services business services Donuts[donuts 115] Yes Yes
.sex adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. ICM Registry Yes Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.shoes shoes Donuts[donuts 116] Yes Yes
.shop GMO Registry, Inc.[46]
.shopping Over Keep, LLC[46]
.show entertainment and vlogs Donuts Yes Yes
.showtime CBS Domains Inc.[46]
.silk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.singles online dating Donuts[donuts 117] Yes Yes
.site general Unknown Yes
.ski STARTING DOT LIMITED[46]
.skin L'Oréal[46]
.sky Sky International AG[46]
.sling Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation[46]
.smile Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.soccer soccer Donuts Yes Yes
.social general interest Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.software computer software Rightside Group[n 1] Unknown Yes
.solar solar-power Donuts[donuts 118] Yes Yes
.solutions business services Donuts[donuts 119] Yes Yes
.song Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.space as a creative space Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.spot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.spreadbetting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD[46]
.storage Self Storage Company LLC[46]
.store stores Radix Registry Yes Yes
.stream Global Registry Services Ltd[45]
.studio art, fitness, & entertainment Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.study OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD[46]
.style fashion Donuts Yes Yes
.sucks gripe sites Vox Populi Unknown Yes
.supplies manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 120] Yes Yes
.supply manufacturing industries Donuts[donuts 121] Yes Yes
.support help pages Donuts[donuts 122] Yes[95] Yes
.surf surfing Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.surgery healthcare industry Donuts[donuts 123] Yes Yes
.systems technology Donuts[donuts 124] Yes Yes

T, U, V

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.talk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.tax financial Donuts Yes Yes
.taxi taxi services Donuts Yes Yes
.team team sports Donuts Yes Yes
.tech technology Radix Registry Yes Yes
.technology technology Donuts Yes Yes
.tel Internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[96] Yes
.tennis tennis Donuts Yes Yes
.theater theaters and cinemas Donuts Yes Yes
.theatre XYZ.COM LLC[46]
.tickets Accent Media Limited[46]
.tips general help topics Donuts Yes Yes
.tires tire manufacturers Donuts Yes Yes
.today general Donuts Yes Yes
.tools manufacturing industries Donuts Yes Yes
.top general Jiangsu Bangning Unknown Yes
.tours tourism Donuts Yes Yes
.town generic geographic Donuts Yes Yes
.toys toy businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.trade businesses Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Yes Yes
.trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD[46]
.training sports and fitness Donuts Yes Yes
.travel travel and tourism industry related sites Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No Yes
.travelersinsurance Travelers TLD, LLC[46]
.trust Artemis Internet Inc[46]
.tube Latin American Telecom LLC[46]
.tunes Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.uconnect FCA US LLC[46]
.university young adults, university life Donuts Yes Yes
.vacations travel Donuts Yes Yes
.ventures funding for start-ups Donuts Yes Yes
.vet veterans and veterinarians Yes Yes
.video video sharing Unknown Yes
.villas real estate and/or travel businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.vip Minds + Machines Group Limited[46]
.vision eye-care businesses Donuts Yes Yes
.vodka Vodka-related businesses and interest Yes Yes
.vote democratic elections and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[97] Afilias Unknown Yes
.voting polling sites Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.voyage travel Donuts Yes Yes

W, X, Y, Z

Name Target market Restrictions Operator/Registry IDN DNSSEC
.wang general
Wǎng is a Chinese Mandarin pinyin rendering of 网 (traditional 網) meaning "web" or "portal".[98]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Yes[99] Yes
.watch Watches Donuts Yes Yes
.watches Richemont DNS Inc.[46]
.weather International Business Machines Corporation[46]
.webcam Web cam shows and video sharing Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Yes Yes
.website general Radix Registry Unknown Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with large third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[100]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[101]
No Yes
.wedding wedding-oriented businesses Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.whoswho general An open TLD, any person or entity is permitted to register. Conceived for those cited in one of the Who's Who reference titles published around the world, the registry was opened for use by private individuals, and for-profit and nonprofit entities, including those with social media aspirations. Registry policies allow for rapid takedown of non-compliant domains, for violations including imposturous registration of another's names, and proscribed uses, including pornography or adult services/applications. Who's Who Registry Yes Yes
.wiki wikis "An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation" Top Level Design Yes Yes
.win games, Microsoft Windows Global Registry Services Ltd[45] Unknown Yes
.wine Wine Unknown Unknown
.winners The TJX Companies, Inc.[46]
.work general Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.works general Donuts Yes Yes
.world general Donuts Yes Yes
.wow Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.wtf general Donuts Yes Yes
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Uniregistry Yes Yes
.xyz general XYZ.com Yes[102] Yes
.yachts DERYachts, LLC [46]
.yoga yoga Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.you Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.zero Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
.zone general Donuts Yes Yes

Chinese

Name Chinese term Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.shouji 手机 shŏujī mobile phone QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
.tushu 图书 túshū books Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.wanggou 网购 wǎnggòu online shopping Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
.weibo 微博 wēibó microblogging Sina Corporation
.xihuan 喜欢 xǐhuān like QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.

French

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E. [46]
.clinique "hospital" The Estée Lauder Companies Inc. [46]
.luxe "luxury" Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.maison "house" Donuts[donuts 125] Chinese, French, German, Spanish[103] Yes
.moi "me" Amazon Registry Services, Inc. [46]
.rsvp Invitations and replies Google[n 2] Unknown Yes
.sarl Société à responsabilité limitée, Francophone Limited liability company Donuts[donuts 126] Yes Yes

German

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.epost e-mail Deutsche Post AG
.gmbh GmbH Upon request, you will be required to demonstrate current or pending designation as a GmbH company whose existence can be validated with the respective public authorities in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein or Switzerland. Extra Dynamite, LLC
.haus "house" Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.immobilien "real estate" Rightside Group[n 1] German[9] Yes
.jetzt "now" New TLD Company Yes Yes
.kaufen "buy" Rightside Group[n 1] German[9] Yes
.kinder "children" restricted .brand TLD Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
.reise "travel" Must be an eligible member of the travel business community; also, domain must be used for travel-related purposes.[104] dotreise Latin script[9] Yes
.reisen "traveling" Donuts[donuts 127] German[9] Yes
.schule "school" Donuts[donuts 128] Yes Yes
.versicherung "insurance" Latin script[9] Yes

Hindi

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.desi देसी, Hindi for the peoples and cultures of South Asia
See also Desi
Desi Networks Unknown Yes
.shiksha शिक्षा, Hindi for "education". Afilias Unknown Yes

Italian

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.casa "house" Minds + Machines[n 3] Yes Yes
.immo French, German,[105] and Italian abbreviation for "real estate" Donuts[donuts 129] Yes Yes
.moda "fashion" Rightside Group[n 1] Spanish[9] Yes
.voto "vote", for election and campaign websites Must use the domain in connection with a "clearly identified political/democratic process."[106] Initially only available to registrations in the United States.[107] Afilias Unknown Yes

Portuguese

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.bom good Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
.passagens ticket Travel Reservations SRL

Spanish

Name Translation Restrictions Operator IDN DNSSEC
.abogado "lawyer" To be restricted to licensed lawyers or law firms.[108] Minds + Machines[n 3] Unknown Yes
.gratis "free" Donuts[donuts 130] Yes Yes
.futbol Football (soccer) Rightside Group[n 1] Yes Yes
.hoteles hotels Travel Reservations SRL
.juegos "games" Uniregistry Yes[50] Yes
.ltda companies in South America Domains are limited to registered LTDAs (like LLCs) in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, and Ecuador.[109] InterNetX Unknown Yes
.soy "I am"
Also refers to the soybean and its food derivatives
Google[n 2] Latin script, Japanese[110] Yes
.tienda "shop", "store" Donuts Spanish Yes
.uno "one", for websites targeting Spanish speaking consumers Spanish Yes
.viajes "travel" Donuts Spanish Yes
.vuelos flights Travel Reservations SRL

Internationalized generic top-level domains

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and support second-level IDNs.

Arabic script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--4gbrim[111] موقع. Arabic Arabic mawqiʿ "site" or "location" Open TLD Yes
xn--fhbei[111] .كوم Arabic kūm com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl[46]
xn--mgbb9fbpob[111] .موبايلي Arabic mūbāylī My mobile (phone) Owned by: GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[46]
xn--mgbi4ecexp[111] .كاثوليك Arabic kāthūlīk Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)[46]
xn--ngbc5azd[111] شبكة. Arabic Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--ngbe9e0a[111] .بيتك Arabic baytak your home Owned by: Kuwait Finance House[46]
xn--mgbab2bd[111] بازار. Persian Arabic bâzâr "market", "bazaar" Open TLD Yes

Chinese characters

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--3ds443g[111] .在线 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[112]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[111] .中文网 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngwén wǎng "(written) Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[112]
Yes
xn--ses554g[111] .网址 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhǐ "network address" or "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--5tzm5g[111] .网站 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngzhàn "website" Open TLD Yes
xn--io0a7i[111] .网络 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǎngluò "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qx5d[111] .公司 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) gōngsī "business organization" or "company" Open TLD Yes
xn--czru2d[111] .商城 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shāngchéng "mall" Open TLD Yes
xn--nqv7f[111] .机构 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jīgòu "agency" Open TLD Yes
xn--6qq986b3xl[111] .我爱你 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) wǒ ài nǐ "I love you" Open TLD Yes
xn--czr694b[111] .商标 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) shāngbiāo "trademark" Open TLD Yes
xn--rhqv96g[111] .世界 Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) shìjiè "world" Open TLD Yes
xn--3bst00m[111] .集团 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) jítuán "conglomerate" Open TLD Yes
xn--30rr7y[111] .慈善 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Císhàn "philanthropy" Open TLD Yes
xn--45q11c[111] .八卦 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Bāguà "gossip" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qw42g[111] .公益 Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Gōngyì "philanthropy" Open TLD Yes

Cyrillic script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--d1acj3b[111] .дети Russian Cyrillic (Russian) dyeti "kids" or "children" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aqecdr1a[111] .католик Cyrillic Katolik Catholic Owned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (Pontifical Council for Social Communications)[46]
xn--j1aef[111] .ком Russian Cyrillic (Russian) kom com
xn--80asehdb[111] .онлайн Russian Cyrillic (Russian) onlain "online" Open TLD Yes
xn--c1avg[111] .орг Russian Cyrillic (Russian) org "org" or "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aswg[111] .сайт Russian Cyrillic (Russian) sait "site" Open TLD Yes

Other script

DNS Name IDN Language Script Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--i1b6b1a6a2e[111] .संगठन Hindi Devanagari saṅgaṭhana "organization" Open TLD Yes
xn--11b4c3d[111] .कॉम Hindi Devanagari kom com
xn--c2br7g[111] .नेट Hindi Devanagari net net
xn--mk1bu44c[111] .닷컴 Korean Hangul datkeom / tatk'ŏm dotcom
xn--t60b56a[111] .닷넷 Korean Hangul datnet / tatnet dotnet
xn--9dbq2a[111] .קום Hebrew Hebrew qwm "com" Open TLD Yes
xn--q9jyb4c[111] .みんな Japanese Hiragana minna everyone Open TLD[113] Yes
xn--1ck2e1b[111] .セール Japanese Katakana sēru sale Owned by: Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[46]
xn--bck1b9a5dre4c[111] .ファッション Japanese Katakana fasshon fashion
xn--cck2b3b[111] .ストア Japanese Katakana sutoa store
xn--eckvdtc9d[111] .ポイント Japanese Katakana pointo point
xn--gckr3f0f[111] .クラウド Japanese Katakana kuraudo cloud
xn--tckwe[111] .コム Japanese Katakana komu com Owned by: VeriSign Sarl[46]
xn--42c2d9a[111] .คอม Thai Thai khom com

Geographic top-level domains

Africa

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.africa Africa [46]
.capetown Cape Town, South Africa [114] Unknown Yes
.durban Durban, South Africa [115] Unknown Yes
.joburg Johannesburg, South Africa [116] Unknown Yes

Asia

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.abudhabi Abu Dhabi [46]
.arab League of Arab States [46]
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Chinese, Japanese, Korean[9] Yes
.doha Doha [46]
.dubai Dubai [46]
.krd  Kurdistan This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Kurdistan[117][118] Kurdish Yes
.kyoto Kyoto, Japan [119]
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [120] Japanese[9] Yes
.okinawa Okinawa, Japan Japanese Yes
.osaka Osaka, Japan [46]
.ryukyu Ryukyu Islands, Japan [121] Unknown Yes
.taipei Taipei, Taiwan Introduced in September, 2014[122] Unknown Yes
.tatar Tatar peoples and places Tatarstan is a region in Russia, though this TLD is meant for the global Tatar community.[123] Unknown Yes
.tokyo Tokyo, Japan [124] Yes Yes
.yokohama Yokohama, Japan [125] Japanese Yes

Europe

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.alsace  Alsace, France [126] Unknown Yes
.amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands [127] Unknown Yes
.bcn Barcelona, Spain [46]
.barcelona Barcelona, Spain Unknown Yes
.bayern  Bavaria, Germany [128] Yes Yes
.berlin  Berlin, Germany [129] Latin and Cyrillic scripts[9] Yes
.brussels Brussels, Belgium [130] Latin script[9] Yes
.budapest Budapest, Hungary [131] Unknown Yes
.bzh  Brittany, France; Breton language and culture Breizh in Breton.[132] This is a TLD for Web sites in the Breton language or related to Breton culture French[9] Yes
.cat  Catalonia, Spain; Catalan language and culture This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[133] Catalan[9] Yes
.cologne Cologne, Germany [134] Yes Yes
.corsica  Corsica, France TLD Related to Corsican Culture Unknown Yes
.cymru  Wales, United Kingdom [135] Welsh[9] Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[136] Unknown Yes
.frl  Friesland, Netherlands Fryslân in (West) Frisian, one of the twelve provinces in the Netherlands.[137] Unknown Yes
.gal  Galicia, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[138] Unknown Yes
.gent Ghent, Belgium [139] Unknown Yes
.hamburg Hamburg, Germany Latin script[9] Yes
.helsinki Helsinki, Finland
.irish  Ireland; global Irish community Unknown Yes
.ist İstanbul, Turkey Unknown Unknown
.istanbul İstanbul, Turkey Unknown Unknown
.koeln Cologne, Germany [140] Yes Yes
.london London, United Kingdom [141] Yes Yes
.madrid Madrid, Spain [142] Unknown Yes
.moscow [ru] Moscow, Russia [143] Yes Yes
.nrw North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany [144] Yes Yes
.paris Paris, France [145] French[9] Yes
.ruhr Ruhr, Germany [146] German[9] Yes
.saarland  Saarland, Germany [147] Unknown Yes
.scot  Scotland, United Kingdom [148] Unknown Yes
.stockholm Stockholm, Sweden [46]
.swiss   Switzerland [46] Yes[149] Yes
.tirol  Tyrol, Austria [150] Yes[9] Yes
.vlaanderen  Flanders, Belgium [151] Latin script[9] Yes
.wales  Wales, United Kingdom [135] Welsh[9] Yes
.wien  Vienna, Austria [152] Latin script[9] Yes
.zuerich Zurich, Switzerland [153] Unknown Yes

North America

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC Alternatives
.boston Boston, Massachusetts [46] .boston.ma.us
.miami Miami, Florida [154] Unknown Yes
.nyc New York City, New York [155] Spanish[9] Yes .new-york.ny.us
.quebec Québec, Canada [156] Unknown Yes .qc.ca
.vegas Las Vegas, Nevada [157] Yes Yes .las-vegas.nv.us

Oceania

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.kiwi New Zealanders [158] Latin script[9] Yes
.melbourne Melbourne, Australia [159] Unknown Yes
.sydney Sydney, Australia [160] Unknown Yes

South America

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.lat Latin America [161] Spanish[162] Yes
.rio Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [163] Unknown Yes

Internationalized geographic top-level domains

DNS name IDN Entity Language Script Transliteration Notes Other TLD IDN DNSSEC
xn--1qqw23a[111] .佛山 Foshan, China Chinese Chinese fóshān [164] Yes Yes
xn--xhq521b[111] .广东 Guangdong, China Chinese Chinese guǎngdōng [46]
xn--80adxhks[111] .москва [ru] Moscow, Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) moskva [165] .moscow Russian[9] Yes
xn--p1acf[111] .рус [ru] Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rus [46] .ru / .рф
xn--mgbca7dzdo[111] .ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Arabic Arabic Abū Ẓabī [46] .abudhabi
xn--ngbrx[111] .عرب Arab Arabic Arabic ‘Arab [46]

Brand top-level domains

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.aaa American Automobile Association, Inc. [46]
.aarp AARP [46]
.abarth Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (Abarth) [46]
.abb ABB Ltd [46]
.abbott Abbott Laboratories, Inc. [46]
.abbvie AbbVie Inc. [46]
.abc American Broadcasting Companies, Inc.[166] [46]
.accenture Accenture plc [46]
.aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH & Co. KG [46]
.aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux [46]
.aetna Aetna Life Insurance Company [46]
.afl Australian Football League [46]
.agakhan Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation) [46]
.aig American International Group, Inc. [46]
.aigo aigo Digital Technology Co, Ltd. [46]
.airbus Airbus S.A.S. [46]
.airtel Bharti Airtel Limited [46]
.akdn Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation) [46]
.alfaromeo Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (Alfa Romeo) [46]
.alibaba Alibaba Group Holding Limited [46]
.alipay Alibaba Group Holding Limited [46]
.allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft [167] Unknown Yes
.allstate Allstate Fire and Casualty Insurance Company [46]
.ally Ally Financial Inc. [46]
.alstom ALSTOM [46]
.americanexpress American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. [46]
.amex American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. [46]
.amica Amica Mutual Insurance Company [46]
.android Google (Android) [168] Unknown Yes
.anz Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited [46]
.aol AOL Inc. [46]
.apple Apple Inc. [46]
.aquarelle Aquarelle.com Group [169]