فلوریانو پیکسوتو

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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فارسیEnglish
فلوریانو پیکسوتو
Floriano Peixoto (1891).jpg
فلوریانو پیکسوتو (۱۸۹۱)
۲مین رئیس‌جمهور برزیل
مشغول به کار
۱۸۹۱ – ۱۸۹۴
معاون رئیس‌جمهورنداشت
پس ازدیودورو دا فونسکا
پیش ازپرودنت مورایس
نخستین معاون رئیس‌جمهور برزیل
مشغول به کار
۱۸۹۱ – ۱۸۹۱
رئیس جمهوردیودورو دا فونسکا
پس ازایجاد پست
پیش ازمانوئل ویتورینو پریرا
اطلاعات شخصی
زاده
فلوریانو ویرا د آراجو پیکسوتو

۳۰ آوریل ۱۸۳۹
، آلاگواس
درگذشت۲۹ ژوئیهٔ ۱۸۹۵ (۵۶ سال)
، ریو دوژانیرو
ملیت برزیل
حزب سیاسینداشت
شغلسیاستمدار
تخصصنظامی
خدمات نظامی
جنگ‌ها/عملیات‌هاجنگ پاراگوئه

فلوریانو ویرا د آراجو پیکسوتو (به پرتغالی: Floriano Vieira de Araújo Peixoto) (زاده ۳۰ آوریل ۱۸۳۹ - درگذشته ۲۹ ژوئیه ۱۸۹۵) سرباز و سیاستمدار اهل برزیل و کهنه‌سرباز جنگ پاراگوئه و دومین رئیس‌جمهور برزیل بود.[۱]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Floriano Vierira Peixoto (in Portuguese)

Floriano Peixoto
Floriano Peixoto (1891).jpg
Marshal Floriano in 1893
President of Brazil
In office
23 November 1891 – 14 November 1894
Preceded byDeodoro da Fonseca
Succeeded byPrudente de Morais
Vice President of Brazil
In office
26 February 1891 – 23 November 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byManuel Vitorino
Minister of War
In office
19 April 1890 – 22 January 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byEduardo Wandenkolk
Succeeded byFalcão da Frota
President of the Mato Grosso Province
In office
13 September 1884 – 5 October 1885
MonarchPedro II
Preceded byBaron of Batovi
Succeeded byRamos Ferreira
Personal details
Born(1839-04-30)30 April 1839
Maceió, Alagoas, Empire of Brazil
Died29 July 1895(1895-07-29) (aged 56)
Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
NationalityBrazilian
Political partyIndependent
Spouse(s)Josina Peixoto
(m. 1872–1895; his death)
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)The Iron Marshal
AllegianceEmpire of Brazil Empire of Brazil
Brazil Brazil
Branch/serviceCoat of arms of the Brazilian Army.svg Brazilian Army
Years of service1861–1889
RankField Marshal
Battles/warsParaguayan War

Floriano Vieira Peixoto (Portuguese pronunciation: [floriˈɐ̃nu viˈejrɐ pejˈʃotu] 30 April 1839 – 29 July 1895), born in Ipioca (today a district of the city of Maceió in the State of Alagoas), nicknamed the "Iron Marshal",[1] was a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second President of Brazil.[2] He is the first Vice President of Brazil to have succeeded a former President mid-term.

Election and Succession as President

Monument to Marshal Floriano Peixoto, by Eduardo de Sá, in Downtown Rio de Janeiro

Floriano Peixoto was an army Marshal when elected vice-president in February 1891. Later, in November 1891, he rose to the presidency following the resignation of Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, the first president of Brazil. Floriano Peixoto came to the presidency in a difficult period of the new Brazilian Republic, which was in the midst of a general political and economic crisis made worse by the effects of the bursting of the Encilhamento economic bubble. As Vice President, he also served as the President of the Senate.[3]

Government

His government was marked by several revolutions. Ruling in authoritarian fashion, Floriano Peixoto defeated a naval officers' rebellion against him in 1893–1894 and a seditious military movement in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina during the same years. His government was marked by increased centralization of power and nationalism, with the florianista cult of personality being the first phenomena of favorable political expression towards a Republican politician in Brazil.[4]

Legacy

He is often referred to as "the Consolidator of the Republic" or "The Iron Marshal". He left the presidency on 15 November 1894. In spite of his unpopularity, he was responsible for the consolidation of the new Republican Government.

Desterro, the capital of the state of Santa Catarina, was renamed Florianópolis after its defeat by loyalist troops, in the end of the Federalist Riograndense Revolution.

References

  1. ^ "A República de Ferro" (in Portuguese). www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  2. ^ Floriano Vieira Peixoto (in Portuguese)
  3. ^ "República Velha (1889 - 1930) - Senado Federal". www25.senado.leg.br.
  4. ^ "Florianismo | Atlas Histórico do Brasil - FGV". atlas.fgv.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-19.

External links

Media related to Floriano Peixoto at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
New office Vice President of Brazil
1891
Succeeded by
Manuel Vitorino
Preceded by
Deodoro da Fonseca
President of Brazil
1891–1894
Succeeded by
Prudente de Morais
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Deodoro da Fonseca
Honorary President of the
Superior Military Court

1891–1894
Vacant