فلسفه مصر باستان

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از فلسفه مصر باستان تقریبا هیچ چیز شناخته شده نیست بجز دستاوردها و آثار فكری اندکی؛ با این وجود بررسی و تحليل همان آثار نشان می‌دهد كه در مشرق زمين قرن‌ها قبل از پيدايش فلسفه در يونان باستان، ديدگاه و نگرش فلسفی وجود داشته و فلاسفه مصر با اينكه به شهرت افلاطون يا ارسطو نمی‌باشند و فاصله‌ای بيش از دوهزار سال با اين انديشمندان دارند؛ اما رويكرد و نظريات مفيد و در خور توجهی را ارائه داده‌اند. با ذکر این مطلب بسیاری از محققان معتقدند فلسفه یونان باستان ریشه‌هایش را در مصر داشته است، ایشان همچنین بر این اعتقادند که مصر نفوذ اندکی بر فلسفه‌های اروپا و آسیا داشته است.

قدیمی‌ترین اثر فلسفی مصر که مربوط به تقریبا ۲۵ قرن پیش از میلاد[۱] است توسط فیلسوف مصر باستان پتاه‌هتپ (اواخر قرن ۲۵ و اوایل قرن ۲۴ پیش‌ازمیلاد) نوشته شده‌است، ویل این اثر جامع در مورد رفتار اخلاقی و فلسفه اخلاق، تحت عنوان تعلیم‌های پتاه‌هتپ (The Maxims of Ptahhotep) شناخته شده‌است. این اثر؛ که معتقدند توسط نوه‌اش با نام پتاه‌هتب چفی (Ptahhotep Tshefi) گردآوری شده؛ یک سری از ۳۷ نامه یا ماکسیم خطاب به پسرش، آخت‌هتپ (Akhethotep) می باشد؛ که درباره موضوعاتی همانند رفتار هرروزه و روال‌های اخلاقی صحبت می‌کند.

ویژگی‌ها[ویرایش]

فلسفه مصر باستان به عنوان آغاز فلسفه، توسط یونانیان باستان اعتبار یافت.

فلسفه مصر باستان به شدت به رفتار مناسب و همچنین عدالت توجه داشت. بسیاری از متون این فلسفه به خوانندگان خود توضیح می‌داد که چگونه رفتار نمایند.

انعطاف‌پذیر بودن، عمل گرا بودن و توجه کردن به احساسات از ویژگی‌های این فلسفه محسوب می‌شود.[۲]

فلسفه بدبینی[ویرایش]

بدبينی فلسفی جديدی نيست. در مصر باستان هم بدبينی وجود داشته‌است. ايپوور رهبر و پيشوای فلسفه بدبينی بوده‌است. اين حكيم معروف، از اعماق وجود فرياد می‌زده است که:

«ای كاش بشر نابود می‌شد؛ ای كاش نطفه منعقد نمی‌گشت و كسی متولد نمی‌شد.»

اين فيلسوف ظاهراً اولين حكيمی بوده‌است كه نسبت به تمدن بشر اظهار بدبينی می‌كرده و طرفدار نابودی بشر بوده‌است. ديدگاه و رويكردهای بدبينانه او نسبت به زمان خود شگفت انگيز است.[۳]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. به گفت ویل دورانت «ظاهرا قدمت اثر وی به ۲۸۸۰ پیش‌ازمیلاد برمی‌گردد»، ولی بیش‌تر مورخان پتاه‌هتپ را متعلق به چندین قرن پس از آن تاریخ می دانند. Lutz, D.W. & Desta, I.H. Philos. of Manag. (2013) 12: 1. https://doi.org/10.5840/pom20131228، صفحه ۱
  2. Bleiberg, Edward (2005). "Ancient Egypt 2675-332 B.C.E. : Philosophy". In Bleiberg, Edward; et al. Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Vol. 1: Ancient Egypt 2675-332 B.C.E. Detroit: Gale. pp. 182–197. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. روزنامه رسالت چاپ ۲۹ تیر ۱۳۹۱

منابع[ویرایش]

Today, there is some debate regarding ancient Egyptian philosophy and its true scope and nature.[1]

Several of the ancient Greek philosophers regarded Egypt as a place of wisdom and philosophy. Isocrates (b. 436 BCE) states in Busiris that "all men agree the Egyptians are the healthiest and most long of life among men; and then for the soul they introduced philosophy’s training…"[2] He declares that Greek writers traveled to Egypt to seek knowledge. One of them was Pythagoras of Samos who "was first to bring to the Greeks all philosophy," according to Isocrates.

Plato states in Phaedrus that the Egyptian Thoth "invented numbers and arithmetic… and, most important of all, letters.”[3] In Plato’s Timaeus, Socrates quotes the ancient Egyptian wise men when the law-giver Solon travels to Egypt to learn: "O Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children."[4] Aristotle attests to Egypt being the original land of wisdom, as when he states in Politics that "Egyptians are reputed to be the oldest of nations, but they have always had laws and a political system."[5]

One of the Egyptian figures who often is being considered an early philosopher was Ptahhotep.[6] He served as vizier to the pharaoh in the late 25th, early 24th century BC. Ptahhotep is known for his comprehensive work on ethical behavior and moral philosophy, called The Maxims of Ptahhotep. The work, which is believed to have been compiled by his grandson Ptahhotep Tjefi, is a series of 37 letters or maxims addressed to his son, Akhethotep, speaking on such topics as daily behavior and ethical practices.[7][8]

A text for the American Philosophical Association describes the 3200-year-old text "The Immortality of Writers", or "Be a Writer" (c. 1200 BCE), as a "remarkable example of classical Egyptian philosophy."[9] The text, which Dag Herbjørnsrud attributes to the writer Irsesh, states:

"Man perishes; his corpse turns to dust; all his relatives return to the earth. But writings make him remembered in the mouth of the reader. A book is more effective than a well-built house or a tomb-chapel, better than an established villa or a stela in the temple! [...] They gave themselves a book as their lector-priest, a writing-board as their dutiful son. Teachings are their mausolea, the reed-pen their child, the burnishing-stone their wife. Both great and small are given them as their children, for the writer is chief."[10]

Herbjørnsrud writes: "In 2018, projects are under way to translate several ancient Egyptian texts for the first time. Yet we already have a wide variety of genres to choose from in order to study the manuscripts from a philosophical perspective: The many maxims in “The Teaching of Ptahhotep”, the earliest preserved manuscript of this vizier of the fifth dynasty is from the 19thcentury BCE, in which he also argues that you should “follow your heart”; “The Teaching of Ani”, written by a humble middle-class scribe in the 13th century BCE, which gives advice to the ordinary man; “The Satire of the Trades” by Khety, who tries to convince his son Pepy to “love books more than your mother” as there is nothing “on earth” like being a scribe; the masterpiece “The Dispute Between a Man and His Ba” of the 19th century BCE – in which a man laments “the misery of life,” while his ba (personality/soul) replies that life is good, that he should rather “ponder life” as it is a burial that is miserable – recently discussed by Peter Adamson and Chike Jeffers in their “Africana Philosophy” podcast series. Or we can read Amennakht (active in 1170–1140 BCE), the leading intellectual of the scribal town Deir El-Medina, whose teaching states that “it is good to finish school, better than the smell of lotus blossoms in summer.”[11]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Juan José Castillos, Ancient Egyptian Philosophy, RSUE 31, 2014, 29-37.
  2. ^ "Isocrates, Busiris, section 22". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  3. ^ "Plato, Phaedrus, section 274d". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  4. ^ "Plato, Timaeus, section 21e". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  5. ^ "Aristotle, Politics, Book 7, section 1329b". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  6. ^ Fontaine, Carole R. "A Modern Look at Ancient Wisdom: The Instruction of Ptahhotep Revisited." The Biblical Archaeologist 44, no. 3 (1981): 155-60. doi:10.2307/3209606.
  7. ^ Browder, Anthony (1988). Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization. Karmaic Institute.
  8. ^ Simpson, W. K., ed. The Maxims of Ptahhotep. Las Vegas, Nevada: Evan Blythin, 1986.
  9. ^ Contributor, Blog (2018-12-17). "The Radical Philosophy of Egypt: Forget God and Family, Write!". Blog of the APA. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  10. ^ "Writings from Ancient Egypt: Be a Writer". www.penguin.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  11. ^ Contributor, Blog (2018-12-17). "The Radical Philosophy of Egypt: Forget God and Family, Write!". Blog of the APA. Retrieved 2019-06-19.