فلسفه یا خِرَددوستی (به انگلیسی: Philosophy) (به پارسی میانه: دوستدار دانش، xraddōstih) دانشی است که به تفکر دربارهٔ مسائل بنیادین و اساسیای که در جهان و زندگی با آنها روبرو هستیم مثلاً هستی، واقعیت، آگاهی، ارزش، خِرَد، ذهن و زبان؛ میپردازد.
واژه فلسفه شکل معرب واژهٔ یونانی فیلوسوفیا (به یونانی: φιλοσοφία، philosophia) و به معنای «دانشْدوستی» است. این واژه ریشهٔ یونانی (به یونانی: φιλοσοφία) دارد که سپس به عربی و فارسی راه یافتهاست. نخستینبار فیثاغورس این واژه را به کار بردهاست.
تفاوت فلسفه با دیگر راههای پرداختن به مسائل، رویکرد نقّادانه و معمولاً سازمان یافتهٔ فلسفه و تکیه آن بر استدلالهای عقلانی و منطقی است. با این اوصاف، اگرچه فلسفه، پژوهشی تخصصی است و به فیلسوفان اختصاص دارد اما ریشهاش در نیازهای مشترک مردمی است که هر چند فیلسوف نیستند اما به این نیازها آگاهند.
تعاریف گوناگونی از فیلسوفان برای فلسفه وجود دارد از جمله آنها میتوان به:
فلسفه به ۵ دوره جزئی و ۳ دوره کلی تقسیم میشود. ۳ دوره اصلی شامل:
۱- فلسفه باستان[ویرایش]
مصر و بابل[ویرایش]
یونان و روم[ویرایش]
۲- فلسفه قرون وسطی (قرن ۵ تا ۱۶ میلادی)[ویرایش]
۳- فلسفه قرون جدید (قرن ۱۷ تا ۲۰ میلادی)[ویرایش]
فلسفه مدرن اولیه[ویرایش]
فلسفه قرن ۱۹[ویرایش]
فلسفه قرن ۲۰[ویرایش]
فلسفه را بهطور معمول به ۵ دسته ذیل تقسیم میکنند:
معرفتشناسی در پیوند با چیستی، اعتبار و دامنه دانش است، همانند روابط بین حقیقت، باور و نظریههای توجیه. معرفتشناسی، به بررسی روشهای کسب دانش، بررسی نظریههای کسب دانش در طول تاریخ و سنجش اعتبار هر کدام از طرق کسب دانش میپردازد.
مابعدالطبیعه یا متافیزیک[ویرایش]
مسائل بنیادی فلسفهٔ اخلاق شامل: درستی و نادرستی امور، شناخت امور خیر و شر و بازشناسی فضایل است.
دستهبندی اشتباه فلسفه[ویرایش]
فلسفههای مضاف (خاص)[ویرایش]
فلسفههای خاص یا فلسفههای مضاف به شاخههایی از فلسفه گفته میشود که یک حوزه یا پدیده خاص را بهطور تخصصی از دیدگاه فلسفی مورد مطالعه قرار میدهند. از جمله فلسفههای خاص میتوان به فلسفهٔ کنش، زیستشناسی، شیمی، آموزش، اقتصاد، مهندسی، زیستبوم، فیلم، جغرافیا، اطلاعات، بهداشت، تاریخ، طبیعت انسان، شادی، زبان، حقوق، ادبیات، ریاضیات، ذهن، موسیقی، وجود، فرهنگ، فلسفه، فیزیک، سیاست، روانشناسی، دین، علم، جامعهشناسی، فناوری، جنگ و جنسیت اشاره کرد.
جواد طباطبایی دربارهٔ اصطلاح «فلسفه مضاف» میگوید: «در ده بیست سال گذشته رایج شده که فلسفههایی را جزو فلسفههای مضاف میدانند؛ همچنین در سالهای اخیر کلمات و ترکیبهای زشت و نابهنجار بسیاری کشف و جعل کردند و به کار میبرند که این هم یکی از آنهاست. فلسفههای مضاف در هیچ جای دنیا معنا ندارد، جز در میان بخشی از جماعت ظاهراً فلسفی ایران. معلوم نیست که فلسفه مضاف یعنی چه؟ این را از آب مضاف قیاس گرفتند. اگر کتابی به این اسم دیدید حتماً نخرید و اگر هم این اصطلاح را تا حالا به کار میبردید دیگر به کار نبرید. فلسفه مضاف نداریم، بلکه یک فلسفه داریم، وقتی به یونان بر میگردیم، در سالهای سقراطی و افلاطونی یک فلسفه بیشتر وجود ندارد و آنها این تقسیمبندی اینگونهای را انجام ندادند.»
شاخههای تخصصی تر[ویرایش]
مکتبها و سنتهای معروف فلسفی[ویرایش]
ایدئالیسم آلمانی، نام جنبشی در فلسفه آلمان است که در دهه هشتاد قرن هجدهم میلادی آغاز و در دهه چهل قرن نوزدهم پایان یافت. مشهورترین نمایندگان این جنبش: کانت، فیشته، فریدریش ویلهلم یوزف شلینگ و هگل هستند.
پدیدارشناسی یا پدیدهشناسی فلسفه؛ مطالعهٔ ساختارِ تجربه یا آگاهی است. این جنبش فلسفی در ابتدای سدهٔ بیستم میلادی توسط ادموند هوسرل پایهگذاری شد و سپس توسط حلقهای از متاثرینش در دانشگاه گوتینگن و دانشگاه لودویگ ماکسیمیلیان مونیخ در آلمان گسترش یافت.
ساختارگرایی و پساساختارگرایی[ویرایش]
ساختارگرایی که به وسیلهٔ زبانشناس سوئیسی فردینان دوسوسور بنیانگذاری شده، در پی روشن کردن سیستمهایی از نشانهها از طریق تحلیل کردن گفتمانها میباشد و پساساختارگرایی به مجموعهای از افکار روشنفکرانه فیلسوفان اروپای غربی و جامعهشناسانی گفته میشود که با گرایش فرانسوی، مطلب نوشتهاند.
مکتبها و سنتهای فلسفی[ویرایش]
تفاوت با دیگر معرفتها[ویرایش]
تفاوت فلسفه و علوم تجربی[ویرایش]
در سده ششم قبل از میلاد مسیح که فلسفه در یونان باستان شکل گرفت، به همه مطالعات نظری فلسفه میگفتند و فیلسوفان نخستین در موضوعاتی کاوش میکردند که اکنون باید آنها را موضوعات علم بهشمار آورد؛ اما علوم گوناگون که به نتایجی رسیدند که دربارهشان همرایی پدید آمد، از فلسفه جدا شدند و به رشتهای مستقل تبدیل گردیدند. ناممکن نیست که علوم دیگری از فلسفه جدا شوند، مثلاً منطق در راهی گام برمیدارد که به شاخهای مستقل از فلسفه تبدیل گردد.
از همین روست که فلسفه را مادر علوم نامیدهاند. بحث فلسفی بیشتر متوجه تفکر محض است. هدف این بحث در اصل آن است که اشتباهات برطرف گردد و دشواریها و پیچیدگیها از میان برداشته شود. آنگاه که از این وظیفه فراغت حاصل شود، آنچه برای فلسفه به جا میماند، پیامدهای نتیجه نیست؛ بلکه از میان رفتن چیزهایی است که پیش از آن مشکل و مسئله قلمداد میشدهاست.
فلسفه، مطالعه واقعیت است، اما نه آن جنبهای از واقعیت که علوم گوناگون بدان پرداختهاند. به عنوان نمونه، علم فیزیک دربارهٔ اجسام مادی از آن جنبه که حرکت و سکون دارند و علم زیستشناسی دربارهٔ موجودات از آن حیث که حیات دارند، به پژوهش و بررسی میپردازد؛ ولی در فلسفه کلیترین امری که بتوان با آن سر و کار داشت، یعنی وجود؛ موضوع تفکر قرار میگیرد؛ به عبارت دیگر، در فلسفه، اصل وجود بهطور مطلق و فارغ از هر گونه قید و شرطی مطرح میگردد. به همین دلیل ارسطو در تعریف فلسفه میگوید: «فلسفه علم به احوال موجودات است، از آن حیث که وجود دارند».
بهطور خلاصه فلسفه مجموعه نتیجهگیریها نیست، بلکه بیشتر راه و روش تفکر است؛ از همین روست که فلاسفه تحصّلی، کارکردهای فلسفه را در سه حوزه منطقی، زبانشناختی و کاربردی (فلسفه علم، اخلاق، سیاست و…) دانستهاند.
تاریخ فلسفه به سان تاریخ علوم زائده فرعی موضوع اصلی نیست. بلکه به یک معنا خود موضوع است. مثلاً دانستن تاریخ زیستشناسی، پایه دانستن زیستشناسی نوین نیست. زیستشناسی شاخهای از دانش است، تاریخ زیستشناسی توضیح چگونگی دست یافتن به این دانش است، و این دو موضوعاتی جداگانهاند.
اما مطالعه فلسفه بیشتر مطالعه سیر داد و ستد اندیشهها دربارهٔ موضوعات فلسفی است؛ و همین داد و ستد اندیشههاست که تاریخ فلسفه را تشکیل دادهاست.
دانشمند از دانشش نتایج اخلاقی و فرجام گرایانه نمیگیرد، یعنی داوری نمیکند که کار جهان درست است یا خراب. حال آن که یکی از وظایف سنتی فلسفه که در آن تردید نکردهاند؛ رهنمود دادن است. رهنمود در این باب که چگونه باید زیست، و این وظیفه موضوع علم نیست.
به دشواری میتوان تصور کرد که رشته دیگری (البته به جز دین) بتواند آن دگرگونی عمیقی را که فلسفه در دیدگاه دانشپژوه ایجاد میکند به وجود آورد.
فیزیکدانی بزرگ شما را میخواند تا تصوراتی را که دربارهٔ نحوه پیدایش کهکشانها دارید تغییر دهید؛ اما فیلسوفی بزرگ در واقع شما را فرا میخواند تا زندگیتان را دگرگون سازید.
علم پیش فرضهایی دارد که قبلاً در فلسفه مورد توجه قرار گرفتهاند. گزارههایی مانند اینکه: طبیعت مادی واقعیت دارد؛ طبیعت دارای قوانین ثابت علت و معلولی است؛ طبیعت قابل فهم و از منابع معرفت بشری است؛ علمی نیستند، بلکه لازمه پرداخت به علم میباشند.
درست است که برای مثال دانشمندان علوم لزوماً از دلالتهای فلسفه علم بر کارشان آگاهی ندارند و فلسفه قادر بر تحت تأثیر قرار دادن نحوه کارشان نیست، اما بیتردید فلسفه علاوه بر آنکه میتواند تفکر دانشمندان را نسبت به آنچه انجام میدهند تغییر دهد؛ بلکه پیشفرض هرگونه علم ورزی است.
تفاوت فلسفه و دین[ویرایش]
در دین، معرفت متکی بر وحی است و حقایق نهایی در پرتوی وحی فهمیده میشوند؛ اما در فلسفه، وحی نیز باید به محک منطق و استدلال آزموده شود. البته در منابع شیعی دو حجت برای انسان مطرح شده یکی وحی و دیگری عقل.
گرچه مردان معمولاً در بحثهای فلسفی غالب هستند اما زنان هم در طول تاریخ فلسفه حضور داشتهاند. از فیلسوفان زن دوران باستان میتوان به هیپارچیا (فیلسوف در حدود ۳۲۵ سال قبل از میلاد) و آرت سیرن (فیلسوف قرن ۵ و ۴ قبل از میلاد) اشاره کرد. زنان در طول دورههای باستانی، قرون وسطی و مدرن حضور داشته و پذیرفته شدهاند اما هیچ فیلسوف زنی تا قرن بیست و یکم به کانون غرب راه نیافته البته برخی منابع به این که سوزان لانگر، هانا آرنت و سیمون دو بوار وارد کانون شدهاند؛ اشاره دارند.
در اوایل دهه ۱۸۰۰، برخی از کالجها و دانشگاههای انگلیس و ایالات متحده آمریکا زنان را پذیرفتند و تعداد زنان دانشگاهی افزایش یافت؛ با این وجود، وزارت آموزش و پرورش ایالات متحده از دهه ۱۹۹۰ گزارش داده که تعداد کمی از زنان تحصیلات خود را در فلسفه به پایان رساندهاند و فلسفه یکی از مؤلفههای متناسب با جنسیت در علوم انسانی است. در سال ۲۰۱۴؛ اینساید هایر إدیوکیشن (Inside Higher Education)، فلسفه را تاریخچه طولانی از زاد و ولد و آزار و اذیت جنسی نسبت به دانش آموزان و استادان زن فلسفه شرح کرد. جنیفر ساول استاد فلسفه دانشگاه شفیلد هم در سال ۲۰۱۵ اظهار داشت زنان پس از آزار و اذیت، حمله یا مقابله فلسفه را ترک میکنند.
در اوایل دهه ۹۰؛ انجمن فلسفی کانادایی، عدم تعادل جنسیتی و تعصب جنسیتی را در زمینه علم فلسفه ذکر کرد و در ژوئن ۲۰۱۳، یک استاد جامعهشناسی ایالات متحده اظهار داشت که از تمامی نویسندگان نشریات فلسفه فقط ۳/۶ درصد را زنان تشکیل میدهند. همه اینها در حالی است که سایر حوزههای انسانی تا حدودی جنسیتی هستند؛ ولی فلسفه عمدتاً مردانه است و حتی گفته میشود فلسفه از ریاضیات هم مردانهتر است.
دشمنان و نقد[ویرایش]
فلسفه گرچه نسبت بسیار نزدیکی با نقد دارد، اما هرگز خود از نقد کاملاً مصون نبودهاست. دیکتاتورها معمولاً یکی از بزرگترین دشمنان فلسفه و فیلسوفان بودهاند. دین هم بهطور کلی با فلسفه پیوند خوبی نداشتهاست. گروهی دیگر گرچه از فلسفه به عنوان یک علم پشتیبانی میکنند اما نسبت به آسیبهای آن هشدار میدهند رنه دکارت هم بر این باور است که هر چقدر یک فیلسوف بزرگتر باشد، امکان خطای او بیشتر است.
کتب گزیده از قطعات فلسفی[ویرایش]
برای مطالعه بیشتر[ویرایش]
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will?
Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity"), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics; he used the term "natural philosophy" because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomy, medicine and physics.
In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic, physics, and ethics. He was copying Epicurus' division of his doctrine into canon, physics, and ethics. In section thirteen of the first book of his Lives and Opinions of the Eminent Philosophers, the 3rd-century Diogenes Laërtius, the first historian of philosophy, established the traditional division of philosophical inquiry into three parts:
This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.). Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others.
Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity.
In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations.
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales (c. 624 – 546 BCE) and Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE) who practiced a "love of wisdom" (philosophia) and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature). Socrates was a very influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: ancient (Greco-Roman), medieval philosophy (Christian European), and modern philosophy.
The ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both extremely influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Stoicism, Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics (with competing theories such as atomism and monism), cosmology, the nature of the well-lived life (eudaimonia), the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason (logos). With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was also increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca (see Roman philosophy).
Medieval philosophy (5th–16th centuries) is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of God, the nature of faith and reason, metaphysics, the problem of evil were discussed in this period. Some key Medieval thinkers include St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, Anselm and Roger Bacon. Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology (ancilla theologiae) and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of Scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts. The Renaissance period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism.
Early modern philosophy in the Western world begins with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and René Descartes (1596–1650). Following the rise of natural science, modern philosophy was concerned with developing a secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the Church. Major modern philosophers include Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. 19th-century philosophy (late modern philosophy) is influenced by the wider movement termed the Enlightenment, and includes figures such as Hegel a key figure in German idealism, Kierkegaard who developed the foundations for existentialism, Nietzsche a famed anti-Christian, John Stuart Mill who promoted utilitarianism, Karl Marx who developed the foundations for communism and the American William James. The 20th century saw the split between analytic philosophy and continental philosophy, as well as philosophical trends such as phenomenology, existentialism, logical positivism, pragmatism and the linguistic turn (see Contemporary philosophy).
Middle Eastern philosophy
The regions of the fertile Crescent, Iran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical Wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture. Early wisdom literature from the fertile crescent was a genre which sought to instruct people on ethical action, practical living and virtue through stories and proverbs. In Ancient Egypt, these texts were known as sebayt ('teachings') and they are central to our understandings of Ancient Egyptian philosophy. Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. Jewish philosophy and Christian philosophy are religio-philosophical traditions that developed both in the Middle East and in Europe, which both share certain early Judaic texts (mainly the Tanakh) and monotheistic beliefs. Jewish thinkers such as the Geonim of the Talmudic Academies in Babylonia and Maimonides engaged with Greek and Islamic philosophy. Later Jewish philosophy came under strong Western intellectual influences and includes the works of Moses Mendelssohn who ushered in the Haskalah (the Jewish Enlightenment), Jewish existentialism and Reform Judaism.
Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroaster, one of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil. This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as Manichaeism, Mazdakism, and Zurvanism.
After the Muslim conquests, Early Islamic philosophy developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions. This Islamic Golden Age influenced European intellectual developments. The two main currents of early Islamic thought are Kalam which focuses on Islamic theology and Falsafa which was based on Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism. The work of Aristotle was very influential among the falsafa such as al-Kindi (9th century), Avicenna (980 – June 1037) and Averroes (12th century). Others such as Al-Ghazali were highly critical of the methods of the Aristotelian falsafa. Islamic thinkers also developed a scientific method, experimental medicine, a theory of optics and a legal philosophy. Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history.
In Iran several schools of Islamic philosophy continued to flourish after the Golden Age and include currents such as Illuminationist philosophy, Sufi philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy. The 19th- and 20th-century Arab world saw the Nahda (awakening or renaissance) movement which influenced contemporary Islamic philosophy.
Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: darśana; 'world views', 'teachings') refers to the diverse philosophical traditions that emerged since the ancient times on the Indian subcontinent. Jainism and Buddhism originated at the end of the Vedic period, while Hinduism emerged as a fusion of diverse traditions, starting after the end of the Vedic period.
Hindus generally classify these traditions as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on whether they accept the authority of the Vedas and the theories of Brahman and Atman (soul, self) therein. The orthodox schools include the Hindu traditions of thought, while the heterodox schools include the Buddhist and the Jain traditions. Other schools include the Ajñana, Ajivika and Cārvāka which became extinct over their history.
Important Indian philosophical concepts shared by the Indian philosophies include dharma, karma, artha, kama, dukkha (suffering), anitya (anicca, impermanence), dhyana (jhana, meditation), renunciation (with or without monasticism or asceticism), various samsara with cycles of rebirth, moksha (nirvana, kaivalya, liberation from rebirth), and virtues such as ahimsa.
Jain philosophy accepts the concept of a permanent soul (jiva) as one of the five astikayas, or eternal infinite categories that make up the substance of existence. The other four being dharma, adharma, akasha (space) and pudgala (matter). The Jain thought separates matter from the soul completely. It has two major subtraditions: Digambara (sky dressed, naked) and Svetambara (white dressed), along with several more minor traditions such as Terapanthis. Asceticism is a major monastic virtue in Jainism. Jain texts such as the Tattvartha Sutra state that right faith, right knowledge and right conduct is the path to liberation. The Jain thought holds that all existence is cyclic, eternal and uncreated. The Tattvartha Sutra is the earliest known, most comprehensive and authoritative compilation of Jain philosophy.
Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha (fl. between sixth and fourth centuries BCE) and is preserved in the early Buddhist texts. It originated in India and later spread to East Asia, Tibet, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, developing syncretic traditions in these regions. The Mahayana branches of Buddhist thought are the dominant philosophical traditions in East Asian regions such as China, Korea and Japan. The Theravada forms are dominant in Southeast Asian countries, such as Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand.
Because ignorance to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering (dukkha), Buddhist philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and psychology. Buddhist philosophical texts must also be understood within the context of meditative practices which are supposed to bring about certain cognitive shifts. Key innovative concepts include the four noble truths as an analysis of suffering, anicca (impermanence) and anatta (not-self).
After the death of the Buddha, various groups began to systematize his main teachings, eventually developing comprehensive philosophical systems termed 'Abhidharma'. Following the Abhidharma schools, Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu developed the theories of shunyata (emptiness of all phenomena) and vijñapti-matra (appearance only), a form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism. The Dignāga school of pramāṇa (lit. means of knowledge) promoted a sophisticated form of Buddhist logico-epistemology.
There were numerous schools, sub-schools and traditions of Buddhist philosophy in India. According to Oxford professor of Buddhist philosophy Jan Westerhoff, the major Indian schools from 300 BCE to 1000 CE were:
After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, some of these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan Buddhist, East Asian Buddhist and Theravada Buddhist traditions.
The Vedas-based orthodox schools are a part of the Hinduism traditions and they are traditionally classified into six darsanas: Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta. The Vedas as a knowledge source were interpreted differently by these six schools of Hindu philosophy, with varying degrees of overlap. They represent a "collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection", according to Chadha. They also reflect a tolerance for a diversity of philosophical interpretations within Hinduism while sharing the same foundation.
Some of the earliest surviving Hindu mystical and philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE). Hindu philosophers of the six schools developed systems of epistemology (pramana) and investigated topics such as metaphysics, ethics, psychology (guna), hermeneutics and soteriology within the framework of the Vedic knowledge, while presenting a diverse collection of interpretations. These schools of philosophy accepted the Vedas and the Vedic concept of Atman and Brahman, differed from the following Indian religions that rejected the authority of the Vedas:
East Asian philosophy
East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China, and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the "Hundred Schools of Thought" flourished (6th century to 221 BCE). This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major philosophical schools of China, Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism as well as numerous other less influential schools. These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such Tao, Yin and yang, Ren and Li which, along with Chinese Buddhism, directly influenced Korean philosophy, Vietnamese philosophy and Japanese philosophy (which also includes the native Shinto tradition). Buddhism began arriving in China during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), through a gradual Silk road transmission and through native influences developed distinct Chinese forms (such as Chan/Zen) which spread throughout the East Asian cultural sphere. During later Chinese dynasties like the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) as well as in the Korean Joseon dynasty (1392–1897) a resurgent Neo-Confucianism led by thinkers such as Wang Yangming (1472–1529) became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state.
In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy. Chinese Marxist philosophy developed under the influence of Mao Zedong, while a Chinese pragmatism under Hu Shih and New Confucianism's rise was influenced by Xiong Shili. Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences (Rangaku) and the modernist Meirokusha intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought. The 20th century saw the rise of State Shinto and also Japanese nationalism. The Kyoto School, an influential and unique Japanese philosophical school developed from Western phenomenology and Medieval Japanese Buddhist philosophy such as that of Dogen.
African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. Modern African thought has been occupied with Ethnophilosophy, with defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be African. During the 17th century, Ethiopian philosophy developed a robust literary tradition as exemplified by Zera Yacob. Another early African philosopher was Anton Wilhelm Amo (c. 1703–1759) who became a respected philosopher in Germany. Distinct African philosophical ideas include Ujamaa, the Bantu idea of 'Force', Négritude, Pan-Africanism and Ubuntu. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of Africana philosophy, the philosophical literature of the African diaspora which includes currents such as black existentialism by African-Americans. Modern African thinkers have been influenced by Marxism, African-American literature, Critical theory, Critical race theory, Postcolonialism and Feminism.
Indigenous American philosophy
Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the Indigenous people of the Americas. There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures. Among some of the Native Americans in the United States there is a belief in a metaphysical principle called the "Great Mystery" (Siouan: Wakan Tanka, Algonquian: Gitche Manitou). Another widely shared concept was that of Orenda or "spiritual power". According to Peter M. Whiteley, for the Native Americans, "Mind is critically informed by transcendental experience (dreams, visions and so on) as well as by reason." The practices to access these transcendental experiences are termed Shamanism. Another feature of the indigenous American worldviews was their extension of ethics to non-human animals and plants.
In Mesoamerica, Aztec philosophy was an intellectual tradition developed by individuals called Tlamatini ('those who know something') and its ideas are preserved in various Aztec codices. The Aztec worldview posited the concept of an ultimate universal energy or force called Ometeotl which can be translated as "Dual Cosmic Energy" and sought a way to live in balance with a constantly changing, "slippery" world. The theory of Teotl can be seen as a form of Pantheism. Aztec philosophers developed theories of metaphysics, epistemology, values, and aesthetics. Aztec ethics was focused on seeking tlamatiliztli (knowledge, wisdom) which was based on moderation and balance in all actions as in the Nahua proverb "the middle good is necessary".
The Inca civilization also had an elite class of philosopher-scholars termed the Amawtakuna who were important in the Inca education system as teachers of religion, tradition, history and ethics. Key concepts of Andean thought are Yanantin and Masintin which involve a theory of “complementary opposites” that sees polarities (such as male/female, dark/light) as interdependent parts of a harmonious whole.
Philosophical questions can be grouped into categories. These groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. The groupings also make philosophy easier for students to approach. Students can learn the basic principles involved in one aspect of the field without being overwhelmed with the entire set of philosophical theories.
Various sources present different categorical schemes. The categories adopted in this article aim for breadth and simplicity.
These five major branches can be separated into sub-branches and each sub-branch contains many specific fields of study.
These divisions are neither exhaustive, nor mutually exclusive. (A philosopher might specialize in Kantian epistemology, or Platonic aesthetics, or modern political philosophy.) Furthermore, these philosophical inquiries sometimes overlap with each other and with other inquiries such as science, religion or mathematics.
Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, time, objects and their properties, wholes and their parts, events, processes and causation and the relationship between mind and body. Metaphysics includes cosmology, the study of the world in its entirety and ontology, the study of being.
A major point of debate is between realism, which holds that there are entities that exist independently of their mental perception and idealism, which holds that reality is mentally constructed or otherwise immaterial. Metaphysics deals with the topic of identity. Essence is the set of attributes that make an object what it fundamentally is and without which it loses its identity while accident is a property that the object has, without which the object can still retain its identity. Particulars are objects that are said to exist in space and time, as opposed to abstract objects, such as numbers, and universals, which are properties held by multiple particulars, such as redness or a gender. The type of existence, if any, of universals and abstract objects is an issue of debate.
Epistemology is the study of knowledge (Greek episteme). Epistemologists study the putative sources of knowledge, including intuition, a priori reason, memory, perceptual knowledge, self-knowledge and testimony. They also ask: What is truth? Is knowledge justified true belief? Are any beliefs justified? Putative knowledge includes propositional knowledge (knowledge that something is the case), know-how (knowledge of how to do something) and acquaintance (familiarity with someone or something). Epistemologists examine these and ask whether knowledge is really possible.
Skepticism is the position which doubts claims to knowledge. The regress argument, a fundamental problem in epistemology, occurs when, in order to completely prove any statement, its justification itself needs to be supported by another justification. This chain can go on forever, called infinitism, it can eventually rely on basic beliefs that are left unproven, called foundationalism, or it can go in a circle so that a statement is included in its own chain of justification, called coherentism.
Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. It is associated with a priori knowledge, which is independent of experience, such as math and logical deduction. Empiricism is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience as the source of knowledge.
Among the numerous topics within metaphysics and epistemology, broadly construed are:
Value theory (or axiology) is the major branch of philosophy that addresses topics such as goodness, beauty and justice. Value theory includes ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, feminist philosophy, philosophy of law and more.
Ethics, or "moral philosophy", studies and considers what is good and bad conduct, right and wrong values, and good and evil. Its primary investigations include how to live a good life and identifying standards of morality. It also includes meta-investigations about whether a best way to live or related standards exists. The main branches of ethics are normative ethics, meta-ethics and applied ethics.
A major area of debate involves consequentialism, in which actions are judged by the potential results of the act, such as to maximize happiness, called utilitarianism, and deontology, in which actions are judged by how they adhere to principles, irrespective of negative ends.
Aesthetics is the "critical reflection on art, culture and nature." It addresses the nature of art, beauty and taste, enjoyment, emotional values, perception and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more precisely defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Its major divisions are art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. An example from art theory is to discern the set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement such as the Cubist aesthetic. The philosophy of film analyzes films and filmmakers for their philosophical content and explores film (images, cinema, etc.) as a medium for philosophical reflection and expression.
Political philosophy is the study of government and the relationship of individuals (or families and clans) to communities including the state. It includes questions about justice, law, property and the rights and obligations of the citizen. Politics and ethics are traditionally linked subjects, as both discuss the question of how people should live together.
Other branches of value theory:
Logic, science and mathematics
Many academic disciplines generated philosophical inquiry. The relationship between "X" and the "philosophy of X" is debated. Richard Feynman argued that the philosophy of a topic is irrelevant to its primary study, saying that "philosophy of science is as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds." Curtis White, by contrast, argued that philosophical tools are essential to humanities, sciences and social sciences.
Logic is the study of reasoning and argument. An argument is "a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition." The connected series of statements are "premises" and the proposition is the conclusion. For example:
Deductive reasoning is when, given certain premises, conclusions are unavoidably implied. Rules of inference are used to infer conclusions such as, modus ponens, where given “A” and “If A then B”, then “B” must be concluded.
Because sound reasoning is an essential element of all sciences, social sciences and humanities disciplines, logic became a formal science. Sub-fields include mathematical logic, philosophical logic, Modal logic, computational logic and non-classical logics. A major question in the philosophy of mathematics is whether mathematical entities are objective and discovered, called mathematical realism, or invented, called mathematical antirealism.
Philosophy of science
This branch explores the foundations, methods, history, implications and purpose of science. Many of its sub-divisions correspond to a specific branch of science. For example, philosophy of biology deals specifically with the metaphysical, epistemological and ethical issues in the biomedical and life sciences. The philosophy of mathematics studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations and implications of mathematics.
History of philosophy
Some philosophers specialize in one or more historical periods. The history of philosophy (study of a specific period, individual or school) is related to but not the same as the philosophy of history (the theoretical aspect of history, which deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence and the possibility of objectivity).
Philosophy of religion
Philosophy of religion deals with questions that involve religion and religious ideas from a philosophically neutral perspective (as opposed to theology which begins from religious convictions). Traditionally, religious questions were not seen as a separate field from philosophy proper, the idea of a separate field only arose in the 19th century.
Issues include the existence of God, the relationship between reason and faith, questions of religious epistemology, the relationship between religion and science, how to interpret religious experiences, questions about the possibility of an afterlife, the problem of religious language and the existence of souls and responses to religious pluralism and diversity.
A variety of other academic and non-academic approaches have been explored.
The ideas conceived by a society have profound repercussions on what actions the society performs. Weaver argued that ideas have consequences. Philosophy yields applications such as those in ethics – applied ethics in particular – and political philosophy. The political and economic philosophies of Confucius, Sun Tzu, Chanakya, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Taymiyyah, Machiavelli, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Marx, Tolstoy, Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. have been used to shape and justify governments and their actions. Progressive education as championed by Dewey had a profound impact on 20th-century US educational practices. Descendants of this movement include efforts in philosophy for children, which are part of philosophy education. Clausewitz's political philosophy of war has had a profound effect on statecraft, international politics and military strategy in the 20th century, especially around World War II. Logic is important in mathematics, linguistics, psychology, computer science and computer engineering.
Other important applications can be found in epistemology, which aid in understanding the requisites for knowledge, sound evidence and justified belief (important in law, economics, decision theory and a number of other disciplines). The philosophy of science discusses the underpinnings of the scientific method and has affected the nature of scientific investigation and argumentation. Philosophy thus has fundamental implications for science as a whole. For example, the strictly empirical approach of B.F. Skinner's behaviorism affected for decades the approach of the American psychological establishment. Deep ecology and animal rights examine the moral situation of humans as occupants of a world that has non-human occupants to consider also. Aesthetics can help to interpret discussions of music, literature, the plastic arts and the whole artistic dimension of life. In general, the various philosophies strive to provide practical activities with a deeper understanding of the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings of their fields.
Some of those who study philosophy become professional philosophers, typically by working as professors who teach, research and write in academic institutions. However, most students of academic philosophy later contribute to law, journalism, religion, sciences, politics, business, or various arts. For example, public figures who have degrees in philosophy include comedians Steve Martin and Ricky Gervais, filmmaker Terrence Malick, Pope John Paul II, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger, technology entrepreneur Peter Thiel, Supreme Court Justice Stephen Bryer and vice presidential candidate Carly Fiorina.
Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy. The doctorate of philosophy (PhD) developed in Germany as the terminal Teacher's credential in the mid 17th century. At the end of 1817, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed Professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia. In the United States, the professionalization grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German model.
Within the last century, philosophy has increasingly become a professional discipline practiced within universities, like other academic disciplines. Accordingly, it has become less general and more specialized. In the view of one prominent recent historian: "Philosophy has become a highly organized discipline, done by specialists primarily for other specialists. The number of philosophers has exploded, the volume of publication has swelled, and the subfields of serious philosophical investigation have multiplied. Not only is the broad field of philosophy today far too vast to be embraced by one mind, something similar is true even of many highly specialized subfields." Some philosophers argue that this professionalization has negatively affected the discipline.
The end result of professionalization for philosophy has meant that work being done in the field is now almost exclusively done by university professors holding a doctorate in the field publishing in highly technical, peer-reviewed journals. While it remains common among the population at large for a person to have a set of religious, political or philosophical views that they consider their "philosophy", these views are rarely informed by or connected to the work being done in professional philosophy today. Furthermore, unlike many of the sciences for which there has come to be a healthy industry of books, magazines, and television shows meant to popularize science and communicate the technical results of a scientific field to the general populace, works by professional philosophers directed at an audience outside the profession remain rare. Philosopher Michael Sandel's book Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? and Harry Frankfurt's On Bullshit are examples of works that hold the uncommon distinction of having been written by professional philosophers but directed at and ultimately popular among a broader audience of non-philosophers. Both works became 'New York Times best sellers.
Many inquiries outside of academia are philosophical in the broad sense. Novelists, playwrights, filmmakers, and musicians, as well as scientists and others engage in recognizably philosophical activity.
Role of women
Although men have generally dominated philosophical discourse, women have engaged in philosophy throughout history. Women philosophers have contributed since ancient times–notably Hipparchia of Maroneia (active c. 325 BCE) and Arete of Cyrene (active 5th–4th centuries BCE). More were accepted during the ancient, medieval and modern eras, but no women philosophers became part the Western canon until the 20th and 21st century, when some sources indicate that Susanne Langer, G.E.M. Anscombe, Hannah Arendt and Simone de Beauvoir entered the canon.
In the early 1800s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women, producing more female academics. Nevertheless, U.S. Department of Education reports from the 1990s indicate that few women ended up in philosophy, and that philosophy is one of the least gender-proportionate fields in the humanities. In 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy "...discipline's own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment" of women students and professors. University of Sheffield philosophy professor Jennifer Saul stated in 2015 that women are "...leaving philosophy after being harassed, assaulted, or retaliated against."
In the early 1990s, the Canadian Philosophical Association noted a gender imbalance and gender bias in the academic field of philosophy. In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total." Susan Price argues that the philosophical "...canon remains dominated by white males – the discipline that...still hews to the myth that genius is tied to gender." Morgan Thompson suggests that discrimination, differences in abilities, grade differences and the lack of role models in philosophy could be potential factors for the gender gap. According to Saul, "[p]hilosophy, the oldest of the humanities, is also the malest (and the whitest). While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics." Similarly, research into professional participation in Australian philosophy indicates only a minor increase of women in senior positions since the 1960s, as well as a patterned under-citation of female philosophers.
The film The Matrix (1999) makes numerous references to philosophy including Buddhism, Vedanta, Advaita Hinduism, Christianity, Messianism, Judaism, Gnosticism, existentialism and nihilism. Its premise resembles parts of Plato's Allegory of the cave, Descartes's evil demon, Kant's reflections on the Phenomenon versus the Ding an sich, Zhuangzi's "Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly", Marxist social theory, and the brain in a vat thought experiment. Many references to Baudrillard's Simulacra and Simulation appear in the film, although Baudrillard himself considered this a misrepresentation.