فروع دین

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

فروع دین در اسلام شیعه دوازده‌امامی اعمال ده‌گانه‌ای هستند که مسلمانان شیعه باید به انجام برسانند:[۱] نماز، روزه، زکات، خمس، حج، جهاد، امر به معروف، نهی از منکر، تولّی، و تبرّی.[۲]

فروع دین در اصطلاح دین اسلام بر مسائلی اطلاق می‌شود که به عمل و عبادات مربوط است. به‌طور کلی احکام شرعی اسلام یا متعلق به عمل و طاعات است یا متعلق به معرفت و اعتقاد، قسمت اول را احکام فرعی یا عملی و قسمت دوم را احکام اصلی یا اعتقادی می‌گویند.[۳]

فروع دین[ویرایش]

از نظر فقه شیعه فروع دین یا احکام سه بخش است که بشرح زیر می‌باشد:

  1. احکام عبادی (عبادات)
  2. معاملات (عقود و ایقاعات)
  3. سیاسات[۴][۵]

عبادات[ویرایش]

۱- نماز (صلوه) ۲- روزه (صوم) ۳- خمس ۴- زکات ۵- حج ۶- جهاد ۷- امر به معروف ۸- نهی از منکر ۹- تولی ۱۰- تبری

معاملات[ویرایش]

عقود: بیع - اجاره - رهن - امانت - نکاح - قرض- وصیت - عاریه - شرکت - وقف - وکالت - جعاله - مزارعه - مساقات - سلف - سلم - مضاربه[۶][۷]

ایقاعات: طلاق - سوگند- ایلاء

سیاسات[ویرایش]

قصاص - حدود - تعزیرات - دیات

عمل به فروع دین[ویرایش]

شخص مکلف در دین اسلام برای عمل به فروع دین یا باید درجه اجتهاد رسیده باشد و طبق فتوای خود عمل کند یا طریقه احتیاط را پیش بگیرد یا از مجتهد تقلید کند[۸]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Gibney, Ed (2012). Evolutionary Philosophy. lulu.com. p. 110. ISBN 978-1105696602.
  2. مجموعه آثار استاد شهید مطهری. جلد ۲۶. صفحه ۲۵۷. نویسنده: مطهری، مرتضی. ناشر: صدرا. محل نشر: تهران - تهران. سال نشر: ۱۳۸۷.
  3. لغتنامه دهخدا[۱]
  4. مبادی فقه و اصول، علیرضا فیض، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران
  5. محقق داماد، سید مصطفی. قواعد فقه
  6. قانون مدنی
  7. مکاسب و معاملات - کافی -ج 5
  8. محمدحسین فلاح‌زاده (تابستان ۸۴آموزش فقه، قم: انتشارات الهادی، ص. صااافقالفحه ۲۷ تاریخ وارد شده در |سال= را بررسی کنید (کمک)ISBN 964-400-157-5

In Twelver Shia Islam, the ten Ancillaries of the Faith (Arabic: فروع الدينfurūʿ ad-dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims have to carry out.[1]

According to Twelver doctrine, what is referred to as pillars by Sunni Islam are called the practices or secondary principles. There are three additional practices. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar. The second is Commanding what is just (Arabic: أمر بالمعروف‎), which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life and to encourage others to do the same. The third is Forbidding what is evil (Arabic: النهي عن المنكر‎), which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to encourage others to do the same.[2][3][4] Twelvers have five Principles of the Religion which relate to Aqidah.[5]

Salat (Prayer)

A Muslim must pray five times a day.[1] It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. When they do this, they must face Kaaba in Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates themselves, and concludes while sitting on the ground.[6] During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers. The word salah is commonly translated as "prayer" or "communication to Allah".

The prophet Muhammad described salat as the "centerpole" of the religion. The main meaning of salat in Arabic is to pray or bless. Salat has been classified into two basic kinds: required and recommended. The required salat is the second Pillar, while other salats are considered as recommended ones. The primary required salat is performed five times a day in the specified periods.[7]

Sawm (Fast)

Fasting in Islam refers to completely refrain from food, drink, smoking, and sexual activity during the day from dawn to dusk.[8]

It is required to fast during the month of Ramadan. All Muslims who are in the coming of age have to fast, although there are a number of exceptions to not fasting, such as illness and travel, pregnancy and menstruating. Missed fasting needs to be practiced in another time.[7]

There are some verses as to fasting in Quran such as "The month of Ramadhan is that in which the Qur'an was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore, whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; God desires ease for you, and does not desire for you difficulty, and (desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of God for having guided you and that you may give thanks."[9]

Hajj (Pilgrimage)

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia,[10] the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey and can support their family during their absence.[11][12][13] In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the ‘House of God’, in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The rites of Hajj begin on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar.[14] Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.[15][16][17]

The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: Each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for the Muslims), runs back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. After the sacrifice of their animal, the Pilgrims then are required to shave their head. Then they celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha.[18][19][20][21]

Zakah (Charity)

According to Chittick, The root of Zakat is purity means that people purify their property by paying a share of it to Allah. To be more precise, Zakat is defined as a determined percentage of one's acquired property or profit for the year that is paid to the needy who is described by Quran the poor, those who collect the zakat, those whose hearts are to be reconciled to Islam, captives, those in debt, those who are fighting for Allah, and travelers.[7]

Khums (One-fifth)

Khums, in the Ja'fari Shia tradition, is applied to the business profit, or surplus, of a business income. It is payable at the beginning of the financial year, though this is regarded as being the time at which the amount becomes clear. Ghanima and one-fifth tax of khums applies wherever gain or profit is involved. "Ghanima" has two meanings as mentioned above; the second meaning is illustrated by the common use of the Islamic banking term "al-ghunm bil-ghurm" meaning "gains accompany liability for loss or risk"[22][23]

In 13th century Shia region, the khums was divided into two portions. One portion went to the descendants of Muhammad, the other portion was divided equally and one part given to Imam and clergy, while the other part went to the orphaned and poor Muslims.[24] The famous view of contemporary Faqihs is that Imam's portion (during the Occultation (Islam)) is used in the fields that Marja' Taqlid has valid knowledge/doubt that if the infallible Imam would be apparent, he would use it in those ways, such as reinforcing Islam and Seminary, Islam promotion, building mosques in necessary situations, libraries and schools' affairs, handling old people, and actually all blessing affairs in the order of priority and their religious significance.[25] Khums became a major source of income and financial independence of the clergy in Shia regions. This practice has continued among Shia Muslims.[26]

Jihad (Struggle)

Struggling to please God. There are many types of Jihad.

Tawalla and Tabarra

Expressing love towards Ali and the house of Muhammad prophet means Tawalla and Tabarra is introduced as showing avoidance of the enemies of the house of the prophet.[27] This rule are connected to social, military and political challenge. Based on these two principles, unity is establishing in society by following truth, justice, freedom, purity and the impure, oppressive, and the unjust ones are stopped.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Gibney, Ed (2012). Evolutionary Philosophy. lulu.com. p. 110. ISBN 978-1105696602.
  2. ^ Momen (1987), p.180
  3. ^ Momem (1987), p.178
  4. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Pillars of Islam". Britannica.
  5. ^ Momem (1987), p.176
  6. ^ "True Islam - Number of Salat". True Islam - Number of Salat. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  7. ^ a b c Murata, Sachiko; Chittick, William (2017-05-24). The Vision of Islam. Paragon House. ISBN 978-1557785169.
  8. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad. "Fasting in Islam: An Overview". al-islam. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  9. ^ "Fasting in the Quran". Tanzil.
  10. ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  11. ^ Long, Matthew (2011). Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  12. ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
  13. ^ Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs - Islam Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine See drop-down essay on "Islamic Practices"
  14. ^ "Hajj, The Holy Pilgrimage".
  15. ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
  16. ^ "ihram". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Ihram - Summary". Hajj Portal. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  18. ^ Karen Armstrong (2002). Islam: A Short History. Modern Library Chronicles (Revised Updated ed.). Modern Library. pp. 10–12. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X.
  19. ^ Anisa Mehdi; John Bredar (2003). "Inside Makkah". National Geographic Society.
  20. ^ "Eid ul Adha". BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  21. ^ Sahih Bukhari-hadith No-732-733
  22. ^ Glossary of Islamic Banking Terms
  23. ^ "...Challenges Facing Islamic Banking by Ibrahim F I Shihata". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  24. ^ John L. Esposito (2004), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195125597, p. 174
  25. ^ Borujerdi, Al-Mustanad Fi Sharh Orwatol-Wuthqa, P. 330
  26. ^ Malik, Jamal (2008). Islam in South Asia a short history. Leiden: Brill. pp. 405–406, note 6. ISBN 978-90-04-16859-6.
  27. ^ Roff, William R. (2015-05-08). Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning. Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 978-1138818385.
  28. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Athar Husayn S.H. "Philosophy of Islamic Laws". al-islam.

External links