فردگرایی یا فردباوری(به انگلیسی: individualism) دیدگاه اخلاقی، فلسفه سیاسی، ایدئولوژی یا مرام اجتماعی است که بر ارزش اخلاقی فرد تأکید میکند. «فردیت» به یک تعبیر بدین معناست که هر آدمیزاد دارای خلوت و حریم خصوصیِ فیزیکی و روانی، و عقیده فردی و دیگر حقوق اساسی است که در هر شرایطی میبایست محترم شمرده شوند. فردگرایان اِعمال اهداف و خواستههای شخص را ترویج میکنند و بنابراین برای استقلال و اتکای به نفس ارزش قائل میشوند و از این دفاع میکنند که منافع فرد باید نسبت به حکومت یا یک گروه اجتماعی در اولویت باشد، و در عین حال با دخالت خارجی در امور شخصی توسط جامعه یا نهادهایی چون دولت مخالفت میکنند.
فردگرایی فرد را در مرکز توجه خود مینهد و بدین ترتیب «با این بنیان اساسی شروع میکند که فردِ بشرْ در تقلای خود برای آزادی دارای اهمیت اساسی است.» لیبرالیسم، اگزیستانسیالیسم و آنارشیسم مثالهایی از جنبشهای هستند که فرد بشر را چون واحدی مرکزی برای تحلیل در نظر میگیرند. بنابراین فردگرایی «حق فرد برای آزادی و رسیدن به استعدادهای نفس خویش» است.
این لفظ همچنین برای اشاره به «کیفیت فرد بودن؛ فردیت» مربوط به داشتن «مشخصه فردی؛ یک ویژهخو» مورد استفاده قرار گرفتهاست زین رو فردگرایی با منافع هنری و بوهمی و شیوههای زندگی که در آن گرایشی برای خویش آفرینی وجود دارد و همچنین با مواضع فلسفی و اخلاقیات اومانیستی. مرتبط است تا سنت یا دیدگاهها و رفتارهای تودهای مردمی
فردگرایی را میتوان جهانبینیای تصور کرد که فرد در مرکز آن قرار دارد. اهدافِ فردی، ویژگیهای منحصربهفرد، فرمان راندن بر خویشتن، کنترلِ شخصی در عین احترام به فردیت دیگران و توجه به مسائلِ اجتماعی از خصوصیاتِ این نوع جهانبینی است. جمع گرایی را نیز میتوان وجودِ یک سری تعهدهای گروهی و متقابل میان اعضای گروه بدانیم که افراد موظف به اجرای آنها هستند.
اغلب پنداشته میشود آنچه در یک فرهنگ صادق است برای تک تکِ افرادِ درون آن فرهنگ نیز درست میباشد. به عبارتِ دیگر افراد درونِ یک فرهنگِ فردگرا، همگی فردگرا بوده (فرد محوری) و آنهایی که در فرهنگِ جمعگرا زندگی میکنند همگی جمعگرا هستند (جمع محوری). باید گفت که این دیدگاه همیشه صحیح نیست. تریاندیس و همکارانش (۲۰۰۱) چندین فرهنگ را مطالعه کردند و به این نتیجه رسیدند که تنها حدود % ۶۰ افرادی که در یک فرهنگِ فرد گرا زندگی میکنند فرد محور هستند. در فرهنگهای جمع گرا نیز حدود %۶۰ از افراد جمع محور بودند؛ بنابراین میتوان نتیجه گرفت که بینِ خصوصیاتِ یک فرهنگ و افراد درون فرهنگِ مزبور رابطهٔ کاملاً مستقیم وجود ندارد.
هر انسان ادراکی از وجود خویشتن دارد که آن را میتوان هویت شخصی یا خود نام نهاد. مجموعه این تصورات در یک کلیت کم وبیش منسجم وحدت مییابند و خودپنداشت فرد را میسازند. خودپنداشت مجموعه تصورات انسان دربارهٔ ویژگیهای درونی و برونی خویش است. همانگونه که انسانْ واجدِ خودپنداشتِ فردی میشود، بتدریج واجد تصوراتی از جامعه و فرهنگی که در آن زیست میکند نیز میشود که میتوان آن را خودپنداشتِ جمعی نامید. خودپنداشت فردی ناظر به هویت شخصی و خودپنداشت جمعی ناظر به هویت جمعی یا ملی است.
در جوامع سنتی متأسفانه تنها بدیلی که برای جمعگرایی شناخته و تصور میشود خودپرستی (egotism)، یا به زبان آشناتر «تکروی» است. تکروی البته مفهومی متفاوت از فردیت است؛ «فردیت» قبول این امر است که فرد دارایِ کرامت، حیطه شخصی و حقوق اساسی است. درحالی که «تکروی» به رسمیت شناختن این حقوق تنها برای خود (یا در نهایت نزدیکان خود) است و سلب آن از دیگرانی که معمولاً به چشم «رقیب» دیده میشوند.
در زبان انگلیسی واژه فردگرایی برای اولینبار توسط طرفداران رابرت اون در دهه ۱۸۳۰ میلادی مطرح شد، هر چند که مشخص نیست آیا آنان تحت تأثیر پیروان سن سیمون از این اصطلاح استفاده کردند یا اینکه هر دو جریان بهطور مستقل این مفهوم را ابداع کردند. سن سیمون که به دنبال ریشه یابی دلایل شکست انقلاب فرانسه در سال ۱۷۸۹ میگشت، از این واژه برای توضیح در مورد روحیه رهبران انقلاب استفاده کرد. آن زمان بسیاری مانند ژوزف د میستره که به مدرسه دینی آزادی خواهان فرانسه وابسته بودند از این واژه به صورتی توهین آمیز استفاده میکردند و کلاً بار این کلمه را منفی تلقی میکردند. سن سیمون برخلاف گفتههای مخالفین که ریشههای شکست انقلاب را در آزادیخواهی میدیدند، ریشه آن را در «فردگرایی»، «خودپرستی» یا «آنارشی» میدانست چیزی که خود با جمله: ظلم استثمار انسان به وسیله انسان در قرن جدید صنعتی آن را توضیح میداد. در همان حال نیز بسیاری از افرادی که موافق با مکتب مساوات بشر بودند، توسط گروههای ضد-فردگرایی که توسط انقلاب به وجود آمده بودند مورد حمله قرار میگرفتند. فردگرایی هسته متا فیزیکی و هستی شناختی لیبرالیسم است. با این وجود سن سیمون به اقتصاد لیبرالیسمی (لیبرالیسم) میتاخت و به خاطر سیاستهای آنها که نه تنها مرز بین فقیر و غنی را نابود نکرده بود بلکه به آن شدت نیز بخشیده بود میتاخت و برای همین نیز دست به ابداع سوسیالیسم زد و میتوان گفت او اولین واضع فلسفه سوسیالیسم است.
در انگلیس نیز اولین کاربرد واژه فردگرایی توأم با تمسخر و توسط فردی به نام اوونیتن در سال ۱۸۳۰ بود. کاملاً مشخص نیست که این فرد از گفتههای سن سیمینتون اطلاعی داشتهاست یا نه ولی عاقبت او نیز نتوانست با فلسفه داراییهای اشتراکی که توسط جمع گرایان عنوان میشد کنار بیاید و آن را رد کرد. البته در اینجا باید به این نیز اشاره کرد که بیشترین مخالفان فردگرایی را روحانیون تشکیل میدادهاند و آن را مخالف فرامین الهی ارزیابی میکردهاند.
فردگرایی و جامعه[ویرایش]
در اجتماعی که فردیت اشخاص شکل نگرفته افراد از نظر روانی همه درهمگرهخورده و وابسته به دیگرانند. در چنین جمع تودهواری احساسات و افکار و واکنشها و سرنوشت افراد همه وابسته به یکدیگر و منبعث از مفاهیم مبهمی از قبیل «نظر جمع» یا رسم و رسوم و سنتهاست؛ افراد نه تنها تشویق نمیشوند که از خود نظری داشته باشند بلکه اغلب فقط آنگاه تأیید میشوند که به نظر جمع اقتدا کنند و همرنگ جماعت باشند. در چنین جوامعی حتی در مواردی کاملاً شخصی و فردی (نظیر انتخاب رشته دانشگاهی یا همسر و محل سکونت) نیز تصمیمات به صلاحدید خانواده یا دستور بزرگان گرفته میشود. در چنین جمعی افراد از نظر احساس و اندیشه میتوانند کاملاً وابسته به یکدیگر باقی بمانند و نسل به نسل خوشبختی و استقلال خود را به بهای جلب محبت و رضایت اطرافیان فدا کنند. در چنین شرایطی است که نقش احساسات و عواطف در تعاملات جمعی بسی برجستهتر از نقش عقلانیت و اندیشه میشود.
فردگرایی بر این است که شخصی که در جامعه شرکت میکند سعی میکند منافع خودش را به پیش ببرد یا اقلاً این حق را مطالبه میکند که بدون لحاظ کردن منافع جامعه منافع خود را پی بگیرد (فردگرا الزاماً اگوییست نیست). هیچ فلسفهای که قربانی کردن منافع شخصی فرد را برای اهداف بالاتر اجتماعی قربانی کند مطلوب فردگرا نیست. به هر روی، ژان ژاک روسو، ادعا میکند که مفهوم خواست عمومی در قرارداد اجتماعی تنها مجموعهٔ خواستهای فردی نیست و منافع فرد را به پیش میبرد (قید قانون به خودی خود برای فرد مفید خواهد بود، چنانکه فقدان احترام به قانون، از نظر روسو، الزاماً مستلزم شکلی از نادانی و تسلیم شدن به شور فرد به جای خودمختاری مرجح عقل است)
جوامع و گروهها ممکن است در میزان اتکا به رفتار «متوجه به خود» (فردگرایانه، و شاید خودخواهانه) به جای «متوجه به دیگری» (معطوف به گروه، و با ذهنیت گروهی یا جامعهای) متفاوت باشند. روث بندیکت بین جوامع «گناه» (مثل اروپای قرون وسطی) و جوامع «شرم» (مانند ژاپن، «شرمسار کردن نیاکان خود») با یک «استاندارد مرجع خارجی» تمایز قائل میشود، که در آن مردم به همتایان خود مینگرند تا فیدبک بگیرند که چه عملی «مقبول» هست یا نه (به عنوان فکر گروهی هم شناخته میشود).
ویژگیهای شخصیتی فردگرایان[ویرایش]
دغدغه فردگرایان بیش از همه محافظت از خودمختاری فردی در برابر الزامات تحمیل شده از سوی نهادهای اجتماعی (نظیر دولت یا اخلاقیات مذهبی) است. برای ال. سوزان براون "لیبرالیسم و آنارشیسم دو فلسفهٔ سیاسی ای هستند که بهطور بنیادین معطوف آزادی فردیند ولی به انحای متمایزی با هم متفاوتند. آنارشیسم در تعهد به آزادی فردی با لیبرالیسم مشترک است ولی مناسبات مالکیت رقابتی لیبرالیسم را نفی میکند.
لیبرترینیسم مدنی نوعی اندیشهٔ سیاسی است که از آزادیهای مدنی حمایت و بر برتری حقوق فردی و آزادی شخصی در برابر هر نوع اقتدار (چون دولتها، ابرشرکتها، هنجارهای اجتماعی تحمیل شده از سوی فشار نظیر، غیره) تأکید میکند.
در فلسفه سیاست، تئوری فردگرایی دولتی به این اشاره دارد که دولت باید حافظ آزادی فردگرایان باشد این مصونیت تا زمانی وجود دارد که این افراد نخواهند مانع آزادی دیگران گردیده یا از دیگران به منظور نفع خود سوءاستفاده کنند. این تقابل با تئوری سیاسی جمع گرایان درجایی که زندگی فردگرایان تحت فشار قرار میگیرد و به آنها تحمیل بیرونی صورت میگیرد، رد شده و دو گونه تعریف را برای این منظور به وجود آوردهاست که «قریحه فردگرایی» و «آزادی فردگرایان» از آن جملهاند. فردگرایان به صورت عمده نگرانند که حقوقشان در تحمیلهای محیط و جامعه تحت فشار قرار گیرد و برای همین نیز خواستار حمایت از حقوق فردگرایان هستند.
این اصل از اصول اولیه و پذیرفته شده نظامهای اقتصادی سرمایهداری میباشد. بر مبنای این بینش شالوده اصلی جامعه فرد است که از وجود حقیقی برخوردار است و در واقع اجتماع چیزی جز مجموع اجزای تشکیل دهندهٔ آن که تک تک افراد هستند نیست که با حفظ استقلال و هویت خود آن را به وجود آوردهاند. بدین ترتیب اجتماع از وجود حقیقی برخوردار نیست و وجود آن اعتباری است و وابسته به حضور اجزاء تشکیل دهندهٔ خود که همان افراد هستند میباشد. همان طوری که اجزاء تشکیل دهنده هر شی ای با حفظ هویت خود آن شی را به وجود میآورند و در واقع خواصی که آن شی دارد به اعتبار خاصیت آن اشیاء میباشد. همینطور اجتماع نیز به اعتبار اجتماع افراد حقیقی شکل گرفتهاست و خود فاقد هر گونه وجود حقیقی است و وجود حقیقی متعلق به افراد است و جامعه در واقع پیکرهای فرضی دارد و خود وجودی مستقل ندارد. اولویت فرد و تقدم منافع فرد بر منافع جامعه در مکاتب سرمایهداری از همین بینش ناشی میشود.
از آنجایی که فرد قبل از وجود اجتماع به وجود آمده پس وجود فرد به لحاظ تاریخی نیز مقدم بر وجود اجتماع میباشد پس خواستههای او نیز به لحاظ اخلاقی مقدم برخواستههای اجتماع میباشد. در نتیجه فردگرایی هستی شناختی مبنای فلسفی فردگرایی اخلاقی و سیاسی را تشکیل میدهد. فرد گرایی اخلاقی لیبرالی ارزش را به دنیای واقعیت وابسته نمیداند بلکه آن را ناشی از اراده انسان میداند؛ بنابراین سود جویی شخصی و منافع فردی جایگزین ارزشهای اخلاقی شده و یکی از وجوه تقابل لیبرالیسم با مذهب از اینجاست. چون در حالی مذهب سعی در اشاعهٔ ارزشهای اخلاقی و تقدم منافع کل جامعه بر مثلاً یک نفر دارد اما لیبرالیسم دقیقاً بلعکس این موضوع را بیان میکند.
انتقادها از مفهوم فردگرایی و جمع گرایی[ویرایش]
نوشتار اصلی: انتقادها از مفهوم فردگرایی و جمع گرایی
۲- رابطهٔ فردگرایی و جمع گرایی: در سال ۱۹۹۳ توسطِ تیمِ تحقیقاتیِ تریاندیس و در سال ۱۹۹۶ توسط گلفاند، تریاندیس و چان، تحقیقاتِ هافس تد (۱۹۸۰ و ۱۹۸۳) را مورد حمله قرار داد. تریاندیس و همکارانش، به مشاهده ی درجاتِ مختلفِ فرد گرایی و جمع گرایی در فرهنگهای مختلف پرداختند. یافتهٔ کلیدی آنها این بود که فرد گرایی و جمع گرایی اساساً مستقل از یکدیگر بوده و با یکدیگر همبستگی ندارند! این یافته فرضِ هافستد مبنی بر وجودِ یک همبستگی کاملاً منفی بینِ فرد گرایی و جمع گرایی را رد میکرد.
Individualism. (2008, September 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20:40, September 9, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=236693157
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism, and more corporate social forms.
Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Anarchism, existentialism, and liberalism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization".
It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors, as with humanist philosophical positions and ethics.
In the English language, the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late 1830s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, who was a millenarian and a Christian Israelite. Although an early Owenite socialist, he eventually rejected its collective idea of property, and found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius." Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness. William Maccall, another Unitarian preacher, and probably an acquaintance of Smith, came somewhat later, although influenced by John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, and German Romanticism, to the same positive conclusions, in his 1847 work "Elements of Individualism".
An individual is a person or any specific object in a collection. In the 15th century and earlier, and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual means "indivisible", typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person." (q.v. "The problem of proper names"). From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individuated being; a person separated from everything with unique character by possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires in comparison to other persons.
The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. For Carl Jung, individuation is a process of transformation, whereby the personal and collective unconscious is brought into consciousness (by means of dreams, active imagination or free association to take examples) to be assimilated into the whole personality. It is a completely natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development. In L'individuation psychique et collective, Gilbert Simondon developed a theory of individual and collective individuation in which the individual subject is considered as an effect of individuation rather than a cause. Thus, the individual atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Individuation is an always incomplete process, always leaving a "pre-individual" left-over, itself making possible future individuations. The philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and also upon similar ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. For Stiegler "the I, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, which is a collective individual. The I is constituted in adopting a collective tradition, which it inherits and in which a plurality of I 's acknowledge each other's existence."
Individualism and society
Individualism holds that a person taking part in society attempts to learn and discover what his or her own interests are on a personal basis, without a presumed following of the interests of a societal structure (an individualist need not be an egoist). The individualist does not follow one particular philosophy, rather creates an amalgamation of elements of many, based on personal interests in particular aspects that he/she finds of use. On a societal level, the individualist participates on a personally structured political and moral ground. Independent thinking and opinion is a common trait of an individualist. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, claims that his concept of "general will" in the "social contract" is not the simple collection of individual wills and that it furthers the interests of the individual (the constraint of law itself would be beneficial for the individual, as the lack of respect for the law necessarily entails, in Rousseau's eyes, a form of ignorance and submission to one's passions instead of the preferred autonomy of reason).
Societies and groups can differ in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly "self-regarding" (individualistic, and/or self-interested) behaviors, rather than "other-regarding" (group-oriented, and group, or society-minded) behaviors. Ruth Benedict made a distinction, relevant in this context, between "guilt" societies (e.g., medieval Europe) with an "internal reference standard", and "shame" societies (e.g., Japan, "bringing shame upon one's ancestors") with an "external reference standard", where people look to their peers for feedback on whether an action is "acceptable" or not.
Individualism is often contrasted either with totalitarianism or with collectivism, but in fact, there is a spectrum of behaviors at the societal level ranging from highly individualistic societies through mixed societies to collectivist.
Methodological individualism is the view that phenomena can only be understood by examining how they result from the motivations and actions of individual agents. In economics, people's behavior is explained in terms of rational choices, as constrained by prices and incomes. The economist accepts individuals' preferences as givens. Becker and Stigler provide a forceful statement of this view:
According to an Oxford Dictionary, "competitive individualism" in sociology is:
Competitive individualism is a form of individualism that arises from competitive systems. The function of the system is to maintain an inequality in the society and fields of human engagement. This pins the ups and downs of a person's life onto themselves by not acknowledging a range of factors like influence of socioeconomic class, race, gender, etc. It supports the privilege theories that affirms position of certain individuals higher in the hierarchy of ranks at the expense of others. For better individuality cooperation is considered to be a better remedy for personal growth.
With the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism. Nobody will waste his life in accumulating things, and the symbols for things. One will live. To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all.
Individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy against obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality). For L. Susan Brown, "Liberalism and anarchism are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations."
Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure, etc.). Civil libertarianism is not a complete ideology; rather, it is a collection of views on the specific issues of civil liberties and civil rights. Because of this, a civil libertarian outlook is compatible with many other political philosophies, and civil libertarianism is found on both the right and left in modern politics. For scholar Ellen Meiksins Wood, "there are doctrines of individualism that are opposed to Lockean individualism ... and non-lockean individualism may encompass socialism".
British Historians Emily Robinson, Camilla Schofield, Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, and Natalie Thomlinson have argued that by the 1970s Britons were keen about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. They demanded greater personal autonomy and self-determination and less outside control. They angrily complained that the 'establishment' was withholding it. They argue this shift in concerns helped cause Thatcherism, and was incorporated into Thatcherism's appeal.
Liberalism (from the Latin liberalis, "of freedom; worthy of a free man, gentlemanlike, courteous, generous") is the belief in the importance of individual freedom. This belief is widely accepted in the United States, Europe, Australia and other Western nations, and was recognized as an important value by many Western philosophers throughout history, in particular since the Enlightenment. It is often rejected by collectivist, Abrahamic or Confucian in civilized societies (though Taoists were and are known to be individualists). The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote praising "the idea of a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed".
Liberalism has its roots in the Age of Enlightenment and rejects many foundational assumptions that dominated most earlier theories of government, such as the Divine Right of Kings, hereditary status, and established religion. John Locke is often credited with the philosophical foundations of classical liberalism. He wrote "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions."
In the 17th century, liberal ideas began to influence governments in Europe, in nations such as The Netherlands, Switzerland, England and Poland, but they were strongly opposed, often by armed might, by those who favored absolute monarchy and established religion. In the 18th century, in America, the first modern liberal state was founded, without a monarch or a hereditary aristocracy. The American Declaration of Independence includes the words (which echo Locke) "all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to insure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed."
Autarchism is a political philosophy that promotes the principles of individualism, the moral ideology of individual liberty and self-reliance. It rejects compulsory government and supports the elimination of government in favor of ruling oneself to the exclusion of rule by others.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict.
In 1793, William Godwin, who has often been cited as the first anarchist, wrote Political Justice, which some consider to be the first expression of anarchism. Godwin, a philosophical anarchist, from a rationalist and utilitarian basis opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present "necessary evil" that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge. Godwin advocated individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labour be eliminated on the premise that this would be most conducive with the general good.
An influential form of individualist anarchism, called "egoism," or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner. Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire, without regard for God, state, or morality. To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality". Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organization in place of the state. Egoist anarchists claim that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. "Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay.
Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist, and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The Peaceful Revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster "It is apparent...that Proudhonian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews...William B. Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form.". Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his books Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Later Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty.
From these early influences individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small but diverse following of bohemian artists and intellectuals, free love and birth control advocates (see Anarchism and issues related to love and sex), individualist naturists nudists (see anarcho-naturism), freethought and anti-clerical activists as well as young anarchist outlaws in what came to be known as illegalism and individual reclamation (see European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France). These authors and activists included Oscar Wilde, Emile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi among others. In his important essay The Soul of Man under Socialism from 1891 Oscar Wilde defended socialism as the way to guarantee individualism and so he saw that "With the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism. Nobody will waste his life in accumulating things, and the symbols for things. One will live. To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all." For anarchist historian George Woodcock "Wilde's aim in The Soul of Man under Socialism is to seek the society most favorable to the artist ... for Wilde art is the supreme end, containing within itself enlightenment and regeneration, to which all else in society must be subordinated ... Wilde represents the anarchist as aesthete." Woodcock finds that "The most ambitious contribution to literary anarchism during the 1890s was undoubtedly Oscar Wilde The Soul of Man under Socialism" and finds that it is influenced mainly by the thought of William Godwin.
Ethical egoism, also called simply egoism, is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people do only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds merely that it is rational to act in one's self-interest. However, these doctrines may occasionally be combined with ethical egoism.
Ethical egoism contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents have an obligation to help and serve others. Egoism and altruism both contrast with ethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat one's self (also known as the subject) with no higher regard than one has for others (as egoism does, by elevating self-interests and "the self" to a status not granted to others), but that one also should not (as altruism does) sacrifice one's own interests to help others' interests, so long as one's own interests (i.e. one's own desires or well-being) are substantially-equivalent to the others' interests and well-being. Egoism, utilitarianism, and altruism are all forms of consequentialism, but egoism and altruism contrast with utilitarianism, in that egoism and altruism are both agent-focused forms of consequentialism (i.e. subject-focused or subjective), but utilitarianism is called agent-neutral (i.e. objective and impartial) as it does not treat the subject's (i.e. the self's, i.e. the moral "agent's") own interests as being more or less important than if the same interests, desires, or well-being were anyone else's.
Ethical egoism does not, however, require moral agents to harm the interests and well-being of others when making moral deliberation; e.g. what is in an agent's self-interest may be incidentally detrimental, beneficial, or neutral in its effect on others. Individualism allows for others' interest and well-being to be disregarded or not, as long as what is chosen is efficacious in satisfying the self-interest of the agent. Nor does ethical egoism necessarily entail that, in pursuing self-interest, one ought always to do what one wants to do; e.g. in the long term, the fulfilment of short-term desires may prove detrimental to the self. Fleeting pleasance, then, takes a back seat to protracted eudaemonia. In the words of James Rachels, "Ethical egoism [...] endorses selfishness, but it doesn't endorse foolishness."
Ethical egoism is sometimes the philosophical basis for support of libertarianism or individualist anarchism as in Max Stirner, although these can also be based on altruistic motivations. These are political positions based partly on a belief that individuals should not coercively prevent others from exercising freedom of action.
Egoist anarchism is a school of anarchist thought that originated in the philosophy of Max Stirner, a 19th-century Hegelian philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best-known exponents of individualist anarchism." According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire, without regard for God, state, or morality. Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organisation in place of the state. Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. "Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy but within anarchism it has also gone beyond Stirner. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay. John Beverley Robinson wrote an essay called "Egoism" in which he states that "Modern egoism, as propounded by Stirner and Nietzsche, and expounded by Ibsen, Shaw and others, is all these; but it is more. It is the realization by the individual that they are an individual; that, as far as they are concerned, they are the only individual." Nietzsche (see Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche) and Stirner were frequently compared by French "literary anarchists" and anarchist interpretations of Nietzschean ideas appear to have also been influential in the United States. Anarchists who adhered to egoism include Benjamin Tucker, Émile Armand, John Beverley Robinson, Adolf Brand, Steven T. Byington, Renzo Novatore, James L. Walker, Enrico Arrigoni, Biofilo Panclasta, Jun Tsuji, André Arru and contemporary ones such as Hakim Bey, Bob Black and Wolfi Landstreicher.
Existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, generally held that the focus of philosophical thought should be to deal with the conditions of existence of the individual person and his or her emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts. The early 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, posthumously regarded as the father of existentialism, maintained that the individual solely has the responsibilities of giving one's own life meaning and living that life passionately and sincerely, in spite of many existential obstacles and distractions including despair, angst, absurdity, alienation, and boredom.
Subsequent existential philosophers retain the emphasis on the individual, but differ, in varying degrees, on how one achieves and what constitutes a fulfilling life, what obstacles must be overcome, and what external and internal factors are involved, including the potential consequences of the existence or non-existence of God. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophy, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Existentialism became fashionable after World War II as a way to reassert the importance of human individuality and freedom.
Freethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their opinions on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any logical fallacies or intellectually limiting effects of authority, confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmas. Regarding religion, freethinkers hold that there is insufficient evidence to scientifically validate the existence of supernatural phenomena.
Humanism is a perspective common to a wide range of ethical stances that attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities, particularly rationality. Although the word has many senses, its meaning comes into focus when contrasted to the supernatural or to appeals to authority. Since the 19th century, humanism has been associated with an anti-clericalism inherited from the 18th-century Enlightenment philosophes. 21st century Humanism tends to strongly endorse human rights, including reproductive rights, gender equality, social justice, and the separation of church and state. The term covers organized non-theistic religions, secular humanism, and a humanistic life stance.
Philosophical hedonism is a meta-ethical theory of value which argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good and pain is the only intrinsic bad. The basic idea behind hedonistic thought is that pleasure (an umbrella term for all inherently likable emotions) is the only thing that is good in and of itself or by its very nature. This implies evaluating the moral worth of character or behavior according to the extent that the pleasure it produces exceeds the pain it entails.
A libertine is one devoid of most moral restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society. Libertines place value on physical pleasures, meaning those experienced through the senses. As a philosophy, libertinism gained new-found adherents in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, particularly in France and Great Britain. Notable among these were John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, and the Marquis de Sade. During the Baroque era in France, there existed a freethinking circle of philosophers and intellectuals who were collectively known as libertinage érudit and which included Gabriel Naudé, Élie Diodati and François de La Mothe Le Vayer. The critic Vivian de Sola Pinto linked John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester's libertinism to Hobbesian materialism.
Objectivism is a system of philosophy created by philosopher and novelist Ayn Rand (1905–1982) that holds: reality exists independent of consciousness; human beings gain knowledge rationally from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive and deductive logic; the moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness or rational self-interest. Rand thinks the only social system consistent with this morality is full respect for individual rights, embodied in pure laissez-faire capitalism; and the role of art in human life is to transform man's widest metaphysical ideas, by selective reproduction of reality, into a physical form—a work of art—that he can comprehend and to which he can respond emotionally. Objectivism celebrates man as his own hero, "with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute."
Philosophical anarchism is an anarchist school of thought which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy and – in contrast to revolutionary anarchism – does not advocate violent revolution to eliminate it but advocates peaceful evolution to superate it. Though philosophical anarchism does not necessarily imply any action or desire for the elimination of the State, philosophical anarchists do not believe that they have an obligation or duty to obey the State, or conversely, that the State has a right to command.
Philosophical anarchism is a component especially of individualist anarchism. Philosophical anarchists of historical note include Mohandas Gandhi, William Godwin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner, Benjamin Tucker, and Henry David Thoreau. Contemporary philosophical anarchists include A. John Simmons and Robert Paul Wolff.
Subjectivism is a philosophical tenet that accords primacy to subjective experience as fundamental of all measure and law. In extreme forms like Solipsism, it may hold that the nature and existence of every object depends solely on someone's subjective awareness of it. For example, Wittgenstein wrote in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus: "The subject doesn't belong to the world, but it is a limit of the world" (proposition 5.632). Metaphysical subjectivism is the theory that reality is what we perceive to be real, and that there is no underlying true reality that exists independently of perception. One can also hold that it is consciousness rather than perception that is reality (subjective idealism). In probability, a subjectivism stands for the belief that probabilities are simply degrees-of-belief by rational agents in a certain proposition, and which have no objective reality in and of themselves.
Ethical subjectivism stands in opposition to moral realism, which claims that moral propositions refer to objective facts, independent of human opinion; to error theory, which denies that any moral propositions are true in any sense; and to non-cognitivism, which denies that moral sentences express propositions at all. The most common forms of ethical subjectivism are also forms of moral relativism, with moral standards held to be relative to each culture or society (c.f. cultural relativism), or even to every individual. The latter view, as put forward by Protagoras, holds that there are as many distinct scales of good and evil as there are subjects in the world. Moral subjectivism is that species of moral relativism that relativizes moral value to the individual subject.
Horst Matthai Quelle was a Spanish language German anarchist philosopher influenced by Max Stirner. He argued that since the individual gives form to the world, he is those objects, the others and the whole universe. One of his main views was a "theory of infinite worlds" which for him was developed by pre-socratic philosophers.
Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. The term comes from Latin solus (alone) and ipse (self). Solipsism as an epistemological position holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure. The external world and other minds cannot be known, and might not exist outside the mind. As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist. As such it is the only epistemological position that, by its own postulate, is both irrefutable and yet indefensible in the same manner. Although the number of individuals sincerely espousing solipsism has been small, it is not uncommon for one philosopher to accuse another's arguments of entailing solipsism as an unwanted consequence, in a kind of reductio ad absurdum. In the history of philosophy, solipsism has served as a skeptical hypothesis.
The doctrine of economic individualism holds that each individual should be allowed autonomy in making his or her own economic decisions as opposed to those decisions being made by the state, the community, the corporation etc. for him or her.
Liberalism is a political ideology that developed in the 19th century in England, Western Europe, and the Americas. It followed earlier forms of liberalism in its commitment to personal freedom and popular government, but differed from earlier forms of liberalism in its commitment to free markets and classical economics. Notable liberals in the 19th century include Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. Classical liberalism was revived in the 20th century by Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek, and further developed by Milton Friedman, Robert Nozick, Loren Lomasky, and Jan Narveson. The phrase classical liberalism is also sometimes used to refer to all forms of liberalism before the 20th century.
Individualist anarchism and economics
In regards to economic questions within individualist anarchism there are adherents to mutualism (Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Emile Armand, early Benjamin Tucker); natural rights positions (early Benjamin Tucker, Lysander Spooner, Josiah Warren); and egoistic disrespect for "ghosts" such as private property and markets (Max Stirner, John Henry Mackay, Lev Chernyi, later Benjamin Tucker, Renzo Novatore, illegalism). Contemporary individualist anarchist Kevin Carson characterizes American individualist anarchism saying that "Unlike the rest of the socialist movement, the individualist anarchists believed that the natural wage of labor in a free market was its product, and that economic exploitation could only take place when capitalists and landlords harnessed the power of the state in their interests. Thus, individualist anarchism was an alternative both to the increasing statism of the mainstream socialist movement, and to a classical liberal movement that was moving toward a mere apologetic for the power of big business." 
Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought which can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market. Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank which would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate only high enough to cover the costs of administration. Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility". Receiving anything less would be considered exploitation, theft of labor, or usury.
Libertarian socialism, sometimes dubbed socialist libertarianism, or left-libertarianism, is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy, as well as the state itself. It criticizes wage labour relationships within the workplace. Instead, it emphasizes workers' self-management of the workplace and decentralized structures of political organization. It asserts that a society based on freedom and justice can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian institutions that control certain means of production and subordinate the majority to an owning class or political and economic elite. Libertarian socialists advocate for decentralized structures based on direct democracy and federal or confederal associations such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, trade unions, and workers' councils. All of this is generally done within a general call for libertarian and voluntary human relationships through the identification, criticism, and practical dismantling of illegitimate authority in all aspects of human life. As such libertarian socialism, within the larger socialist movement, seeks to distinguish itself both from Leninism/Bolshevism and from social democracy.
Past and present political philosophies and movements commonly described as libertarian socialist include anarchism (especially anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism, and mutualism) as well as autonomism, communalism, participism, guild socialism, revolutionary syndicalism, and libertarian Marxist philosophies such as council communism and Luxemburgism; as well as some versions of "utopian socialism" and individualist anarchism.
Left-libertarianism, or left-wing libertarianism,[note 1] names several related but distinct approaches to politics, society, culture, and political and social theory, which stress both individual freedom and social justice. Unlike right-libertarians, they believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights, and maintain that natural resources (land, oil, gold, trees) ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Those left-libertarians who support private property do so under the condition that recompense is offered to the local community.
Left-libertarianism can refer generally to these related and overlapping schools of thought:
Right-libertarianism, or right-wing libertarianism, is a phrase used by some to describe either non-collectivist forms of libertarianism or a variety of different libertarian views some label "right" of mainstream libertarianism including "libertarian conservatism".
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy calls it "right libertarianism", but states: "Libertarianism is often thought of as 'right-wing' doctrine. This, however, is mistaken for at least two reasons. First, on social—rather than economic—issues, libertarianism tends to be 'left-wing'. It opposes laws that restrict consensual and private sexual relationships between adults (e.g., gay sex, non-marital sex, and deviant sex), laws that restrict drug use, laws that impose religious views or practices on individuals, and compulsory military service. Second, in addition to the better-known version of libertarianism—right-libertarianism—there is also a version known as 'left-libertarianism'. Both endorse full self-ownership, but they differ with respect to the powers agents have to appropriate unappropriated natural resources (land, air, water, etc.)."
As creative independent lifestyle
The anarchist writer and bohemian Oscar Wilde wrote in his famous essay The Soul of Man under Socialism that "Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force. There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine." For anarchist historian George Woodcock "Wilde's aim in The Soul of Man under Socialism is to seek the society most favorable to the artist...for Wilde art is the supreme end, containing within itself enlightenment and regeneration, to which all else in society must be subordinated...Wilde represents the anarchist as aesthete." The word individualism in this way has been used to denote a personality with a strong tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors.
Anarchist writer Murray Bookchin describes a lot of individualist anarchists as people who "expressed their opposition in uniquely personal forms, especially in fiery tracts, outrageous behavior, and aberrant lifestyles in the cultural ghettos of fin de siècle New York, Paris, and London. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ('free love') and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing."
In relation to this view of individuality, French individualist anarchist Emile Armand advocates egoistical denial of social conventions and dogmas to live in accord to one's own ways and desires in daily life since he emphasized anarchism as a way of life and practice. In this way he opines "So the anarchist individualist tends to reproduce himself, to perpetuate his spirit in other individuals who will share his views and who will make it possible for a state of affairs to be established from which authoritarianism has been banished. It is this desire, this will, not only to live, but also to reproduce oneself, which we shall call "activity".
In the book Imperfect Garden: The Legacy of Humanism, humanist philosopher Tzvetan Todorov identifies individualism as an important current of socio-political thought within modernity and as examples of it he mentions Michel de Montaigne, François de La Rochefoucauld, Marquis de Sade, and Charles Baudelaire. In La Rochefoucauld, he identifies a tendency similar to stoicism in which "the honest person works his being in the manner of a sculptor who searches the liberation of the forms which are inside a block of marble, to extract the truth of that matter." In Baudelaire he finds the dandy trait in which one searches to cultivate "the idea of beauty within oneself, of satisfying one's passions of feeling and thinking."
The Russian-American poet Joseph Brodsky once wrote that "The surest defense against Evil is extreme individualism, originality of thinking, whimsicality, even—if you will—eccentricity. That is, something that can't be feigned, faked, imitated; something even a seasoned imposter couldn't be happy with." Ralph Waldo Emerson famously declared, "Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist"—a point of view developed at length in both the life and work of Henry David Thoreau. Equally memorable and influential on Walt Whitman is Emerson's idea that "a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of small minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines." Emerson opposes on principle the reliance on civil and religious social structures precisely because through them the individual approaches the divine second-hand, mediated by the once original experience of a genius from another age. "An institution," he explains, "is the lengthened shadow of one man." To achieve this original relation one must "Insist on one's self; never imitate" for if the relationship is secondary the connection is lost.
Criticism of individualism
Some sociologists have criticized the excessive levels of individualism in the United States. T. W. Greene, for example, argued that three distinct yet overlapping ideologies of individualism are currently prevalent: (1) The ideology of self-willed wealth; (2) The ideology of full self-reliance; and (3) The ideology of high self-esteem. Each strand of individualism developed during periods of structural crisis and transition in the U.S. Individualistic ideologies sidetrack many Americans from acknowledging structural contributors to their nation's problems. The ideologies may cause adherents to believe all low-income individuals are lazy, for example, while dismissing evidence that the American middle class has declined for macro-economic reasons. By causing persons to blame individuals solely for their misfortunes, the three individualistic ideologies perpetuate systems of inequality. The same ideologies can also fuel selfish behaviors. Persons embracing individualistic ideologies may become preoccupied with attaining wealth, full self-reliance, and/or high self-esteem at the expense of altruism, healthy marriages, and the development of deep social bonds, which are assumed to be self-evident virtues. Greene concluded that Americans are too individualistic in the "wrong" ways (preoccupied with attaining individual wealth, full self-reliance, and high self-esteem), while not being individualistic enough in the "right" ways (thinking critically and independently as individuals).
Religion and individualism
People in Western countries tend to be more individualistic than communitarian. The authors of one study proposed that this difference is due in part to the influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. They pointed specifically to its bans on incest, cousin marriage, adoption, and remarriage, and its promotion of the nuclear family over the extended family.