فارابی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
فارابی
Al-Farabi.jpg
دیناسلام
اطلاعات شخصی
تولد۲۵۰ شمسی
c. 872[۱]
فاراب on the Jaxartes (سیردریا) in modern Kazakhstan or ولایت فاریاب in خراسان بزرگ (افغانستان امروزی)[۳]
مرگ۳۲۸ شمسی
c. 950[۱]
دمشق[۲]
جایگاه
عنوانمعلم ثانی[۱]
فعالیت دینی
آثارkitāb al-mūsīqī al-kabīr ("The Great Book Of Music"), ārā ahl al-madīna al-fāḍila ("The Virtuous City"), kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-ʿulūm ("On The Introduction Of Knowledge"), kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-īqā'āt ("Classification Of Rhythms")[۱]

ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی (زادهٔ ۲۵۹ قمری / ۸۷۲ م.[۱] در فاراب – درگذشتهٔ ۳۳۹ قمری / ۹۵۰ م.[۲] در دمشق سوریه)[۴] از بزرگترین فلاسفه و دانشمندان ایرانی[۳][۵] عصر طلایی اسلام است.[۳][۳][۵]

فارابی در علم، فلسفه، منطق، جامعه‌شناسی، پزشکی، ریاضیات و موسیقی تخصص داشت. بیشترین آثار او در زمینه فلسفه، منطق، جامعه‌شناسی و همچنین دانشنامه‌نویسی بود. فارابی به مکتب نوافلاطونی تعلق داشت که سعی داشتند تفکرات افلاطون و ارسطو را با الهیات توحیدی هماهنگ کنند و در فلسفه اسلامی نیز از جمله اندیشمندان مشایی محسوب می‌شود. فارابی شرح‌های ارزشمندی بر آثار ارسطو نگاشته و به سبب همین او را معلم ثانی خوانده‌اند. وی آثاری نظیر «الجمع بین الرایین»، «اغراض ما بعدالطبیعه ارسطو»، «فصول الحکم» و «احصاءالعلوم» را از خود به یادگار نهاده‌است. در قرون وسطی آثاری چند از او به زبان لاتین برگردانده شده‌اند و او به خوبی در غرب نیز شهرت یافته‌است.

پدر و مادر فارابی از سغدیان ایرانی زبان بودند.[۶][۷] فارابی بیشتر عمر خود را در بغداد دارالخلافه حکومت عباسیان گذراند.

زندگی[ویرایش]

ابونصر محمد بن محمد طرخانی ملقب به فارابی، در حدود سال ۲۵۷هجری قمری/ ۸۷۰میلادی در دهکدهٔ «وسیج» از ناحیهٔ پاراب (فاراب) در فرارود (شهر اُترار کنونی در جنوب قزاقستان) یا پاریاب (فاریاب) خراسان در افغانستان کنونی به دنیا آمد. دهخدا به نفل از بدیع الزمان فروزانفر می‌نویسد: «اسم پدر او طرخان و نام جدش اوزلوغ است. درشرح زندگی فارابی مطلبی که بر جریان واقعی زندگی دوران طفولیت و جوانی وی باشد در کتاب‌ها وجود ندارد. ابن ابی اصیبعه دو خبر متناقض دربارهٔ او نقل می‌کند: اول اینکه فارابی در آغاز کار نگهبان باغی در دمشق بودو دوم اینکه، در عنفوان جوانی به قضاوت مشغول بود و چون به معارف دیگر آشنا شد، قضاوت را ترک کرد و با تمام میل به طرف معارف دیگر روی آورد.» در جوانی برای تحصیل به بغداد رفت و نزد «متی بن یونس» به فراگرفتن منطق و فلسفه پرداخت. سپس به حرّان سفر کرد و به شاگردی «یوحنا بن حیلان» درآمد.

از آغاز کار، هوش سرشار و علم آموزی وی سبب شد که همه موضوعاتی را که تدریس می‌شد، به خوبی فرا گیرد. به زودی نام او به عنوان فیلسوف و دانشمند شهرت یافت و چون به بغداد بازگشت، گروهی از شاگردان، گرد او فراهم آمدند که «یحیی بن عدی» فیلسوف مسیحی یکی از آنان بود.

در سال ۳۳۰هجری قمری/۹۴۱میلادی به دمشق رفت و به «سیف الدوله حمدانی» حاکم حلب پیوست و در زمره علمای دربار او درآمد. فارابی در سال ۳۳۸هجری قمری/۹۵۰میلادی در سن هشتاد سالگی در دمشق وفات یافت. عده ایی بر این باورند که ابونصر هنگامی که از دمشق به عسقلان می‌رفت به دزدان برخورد. ابونصر گفت: «هر آنچه از مرکب، سلاح، لباس و مال هست بگیرید و با من کاری نداشته باشید.» آن‌ها نپذیرفتند و قصد کشتن او کردند. ابونصر به ناچار با آن‌ها جنگید و کشته شد. امرای شام از حادثه با خبر شدند. ابونصر را دفن کردند و دزدان را بر سر قبر او دار زدند.

مورخان اسلامی معتقدند که فارابی فردی زهد پیشه و عزلت‌گزین و اهل تأمل بود. اعراض او از امور دنیوی به حدی بود که با آن که سیف الدوله برایش از بیت‌المال حقوق بسیار تعیین کرده بود، به چهار درهم در روز قناعت می‌ورزید.

فارابی در انواع علوم بی‌همتا بود. چنان‌که دربارهٔ هر علمی از علوم زمان خویش کتاب نوشت و از کتاب‌های وی معلوم می‌شود که در علوم زبان و ریاضیات و کیمیا و هیئت و علوم نظامی و موسیقی و طبیعیات و الهیات و علوم مدنی و فقه و منطق دارای مهارت بسیار بوده‌است.

درست است که کندی نخستین فیلسوف اسلامی است که راه را برای دیگران پس از خود گشود؛ اما او نتوانست مکتب فلسفی تأسیس کرده و میان مسائلی که مورد بحث قرار داده‌است، وحدتی ایجاد کند. در صورتی که فارابی توانست مکتبی کامل را بنیان نهد.

ابن سینا او را استاد خود می‌شمرد و ابن رشد و دیگر حکمای اسلام و عرب، برایش احترام بالایی قائل بودند. ازجمله سخنی از ابن سینا است که اوج منزلت علمی او را بیان می‌کند:کتاب مابعدالطبیعه را مطالعه کردم و بعد از چهل مرتبه مطالعه نتوانستم از اغراض مؤلف آن آگاهی پیدا کنم تا اینکه در بازار به کتابی از ابونصر فارابی برخورد کردم که شرحی بر کتاب مابعد الطبیعه بود بعد از مطالعه آن توانستم مطالب مابعد الطبیعه را در یابم و بسیار مسرور شدم.

در سنت فلسفه اسلامی، فارابی را بعد از ارسطو که ملقب به «معلم اول» بود، معلم ثانی لقب داده‌اند.

نسب‌ها[ویرایش]

تاریخ‌نگار عرب ابن ابی اصیبعه (وفات ۶۶۸ ه‍.ق) در کتاب اویون خود اشاره کرده‌است که فارابی که پدر قرآن است، از نسب پارسی بود؟[۳][۸] ابن ندیم در الفهرست خود و نیز الشهروزی که در حوالی سال‌های ۱۲۸۸ میلادی می‌زیست و اولین زندگی‌نامه را نوشته‌است، نسب وی را ایرانی می‌نویسند.[۹][۱۰] علاوه بر این‌ها فارابی در حاشیه بسیاری از کارهایش به زبان پارسی و سغدی منابعی را معرفی کرده (حتی به زبان یونانی، اما به ترکی نه)[۳]),[۱۱] حتی زبان سغدی به عنوان زبان مادری وی[۱۲] و زبان ساکنان فاراب دانسته شده‌است.[۱۳] محمد جواد مشکور ایرانی زبان بودن اصالت آسیای میانه را استدلال کرده‌است.[۱۴] اما فاراب در درجه نخست جزو سرزمین مسلمانان بود و در درجه نخست فارابی به دنیای اسلام و تمام بشریت تعلق دارد و عرب یا پارسی یا ترک بودن وی اهمیتی ندارد.[۱۴] اصالت پارسی فارابی توسط دیگر منابع نیز بحث شده‌است.[۱۵] همچنین پروفسور دانشگاه آکسفورد آقای بوسورث می‌نویسد که چهره‌های بزرگ مانند فارابی، بیرونی و ابن سینا توسط دانش پژوهان علاقه‌مند ترک به نژاد ترکی چسبانده شدند.[۱۶] در دانشنامه ایرانیکا دکتر گوآتاس اظهارات ابن خلکان را نکوهش کرده و مدارک پیش از وی در این زمینه از ابن اصیبعه در مورد پارسی بودن فارابی باعث شده تا ابن خلکان به تلاش برای مدرک‌سازی جهت ترک نشان دادن وی باشد.[۳] در این چهارچوب وی اشاره می‌کند که ابن خلکان ابتدای اسم فارابی نسبت الترک را افزود در حالی که فارابی هرگز چنین نسبتی را نداشته‌است.[۳]

اسکناسی که هم‌اکنون در جمهوری قزاقستان رواج دارد

قدیمی‌ترین کسی که نسب فارابی را ترک دانسته ابن خلکان بوده‌است. وی در اثر خود وفایات فارابی را متولد فاراب و روستای کوچکی به نام وسیج که اکنون به نام اترار در قزاقستان شناخته می‌شود و از والدینی ترک می‌داند. ابن خلکان گوید: ابو نصر به زبان ترکی، عربی و دری به خوبی آگاه بود و این از تألیفات او به خصوص «کتاب الموسیقی الکبیر» به وضوح پدیدار است. برخی منابع دیگر نیز به این جریان معتقدند.[۱۷]

علامه محمد قزوینی نیز جزو موافقان نسب ترکی فارابی است. او در بخشی از مقاله خود با عنوان" انتقاد مقاله یکی از فضلا در شفق سرخ" که به نوشته‌های مرزبان بن رستم باوندی در شفق سرخ پاسخ می‌دهد، می‌نویسد: "دیگر آنکه مرقوم فرموده‌اند:"کتب معروف… ابونصر فاریابی و محمد زکریای رازی و صدها علمای بزرگ ایران به جای اینکه به زبان فارسی نوشته شده باشند و این مفاخرت را برای ما بگذارند به زبان عربی تألیف شده‌اند. جوهری صاحب صحاح اللغه وقتی که قاموس معروف خود را نوشت به میان قبائل عرب رفت و کتاب خود را جلوی یکی از رؤسای عرب انداخت و با کمال غرور گفت خذوا لسانکم من ید رجل اعجمی". حالا ملاحظه بفرمایید در همین یک عبارت کوچک چند غلط بزرگ دست داده‌است. اولاً آنکه ابونصر فارابی را "فاریابی"نوشته‌اند و گویا "فاراب" را که شهر معروفی بوده‌است در اقصی بلاد ترکستان برساحل غربی سیحون (و همان اترار مورخین قرون وسطی است که امیر تیمور آنجا وفات کرد و خرابه‌های آن هنوز در نه فرسخی جنوب شرقی شهر" ترکستان" حالیه باقی است) با "فاریاب"که شهری بوده‌است در خراسان مابین مرو الرود و بلخ (و خرابه‌های آن نیز به اسم خیر آباد هنوز بافی است) و ظهیر فاریابی منسوب به آنجاست اشتباه کرده‌اند. ثانیاً ابونصر فارابی و جوهری صاحب صحاح هر دو را از از علمای بزرگ ایران شمرده‌اند (فاریابی را بالصراحه و جوهری را چنانکه از سیاق عبارت استنباط می‌شود چه صحبت از "صدها علمای ایران" است) و حال آنکه این دو نفر به تصریح عامه مورخین، ترک بوده‌اند و ابداً ربطی به نژاد ایرانی نداشته‌اند. واضح است که من نمی‌خواهم از مفاخر آبا و اجدادی خودمان بکاهم و یک ایرانی را ترک بقلم بدهم؛ ولی این را هم نمی‌خواهم که مثل قاضی نورالله شوشتری معروف به شیعه تراش، ایرانی تراشی کنم یا مثل اتراک لوس بی سواد حالیه که زرتشت و محمد را هم ترک می‌دانند یا مثل لویس کشیش عیسوی بیروتی صاحب کتاب "کتاب النصرانیه"که اغلب شعرای جاهلیت و اسلام را نصرانی تعداد کرده‌است من هم کسانی را که ایرانی نبوده‌اند ایرانی قلمداد کرده جزء مفاخر دروغی ایران بشمارم. بر فرض هم که من اینکار ر ا کردم مردم که کور و کر نیستند به که امر را مشتبه خواهم کرد؟ اگرچه ترک بودن فارابی و جوهری محل خلاف نیست که محتاج به اثباتی باشد ولی نمونه را برای یادآوری به یکی دو فقره از اقوال مورخین اشاره می‌شود:اما ابو نصر فارابی ابن خلکان او را چنین عنوان کرده‌است: "ابونصر محمد بن طرخان بن اوزلغ الفارابی الترکی الحکیم المشهور" و سپس در ترجمه حال او گوید"و کان رجلا ترکیا ولد فی بلده و نشا بها ثم خرج من بلده …" و بعد می‌گوید" ورد علی سیف الدوله فادخل علیه و هو بزی الاتراک و کان ذالک زیه دائماً"و بعد در آخر ترجمه در ضبط اسامی اجداد فارابی گوید" و طرخان بفتح الطاء المهمله… و اوزلغ بفتح الهمزه… و هما من اسماء الترک" و در شرح فاراب گوید:"و هی قاعده من قواعد مدن الترک" و قریب به همین مضمون است عیناً تاریخ الحکما قفطی و معجم البلدان یاقوت و مختصر البلدان ابوالفرج بن العبری نصرانی و تاریخ ابوالفداء. و همچنین کتب مستشرقین اروپا از قبیل دیتریسی مستشرق آلمانی معروف که بعضی از کتب فارابی را متنا و ترجمتا چاپ کرده‌است و مولفات کارا دو ور مستشرق فرانسوی معروف که متخصص در تاریخ فلاسفه اسلام است و تاریخ ادبیات عرب از بروکلمن آلمانی و نیکلسون انگلیسی و تاریخ ادبیات ایران از ادوارد برون انگلیسی و غیرهم. اما جوهری صاحب صحاح او نیز به اجماع مورخین، ترک و بر حسب اتفاق او هم از همان شهر فاراب سابق الذکر یعنی همشهری ابونصر فارابی بوده‌است. ثعالبی که معاصر او بوده و هر دو باهم مدتی در یک شهر یعنی در نیشابور می‌زیسته‌اند در یتیمه الدهر در ترجمه حال او گوید" من اعاجیب الدنیا و ذالک آنه من الفاراب احدی بلاد الترک و هو امام فی لغه العرب". و تقریباً عین همین مضمون را یاقوت در معجم الدبا و سیوطی در طبقات النحاه در حق او نوشته‌اند. قزوینی در آثار البلاد در تحت "فاراب" گوید" و من العجب انهما (ای الجوهری و خاله صاحب دیوان الادب) کانا من اقصی بلاد الترک و صارا من ائمه العربیه"[۱۸]

فلسفه فارابی[ویرایش]

از عصر فارابی تا عصر سبزواری، یعنی از قرن نهم تا نوزدهم میلادی، مبحث خلق جهان و حدوث و قدم عالم مهم‌ترین بحث تفکر اسلامی بود.[۱۹] فارابی به پیروی از ارسطو معتقد بود که جهان «قدیم» است. اما برای آنکه از چهارچوب تعلیمات قرآنی خارج نشود، سعی کرد بین عقیده ارسطو و مسئله خلق جهان در قرآن راهی بیابد. به همین سبب سعی می‌کرد موضوع «فیضان» و «[تجلی]» را با روش عقلی توضیح دهد. او عقل و انواع آن را ابداع خداوند می‌داند. اما اظهار می‌دارد که این ابداع در زمان اتفاق نیفتاده‌است.[۲۰] او معتقد است که «عقل فعال» ارسطو همان وحی قرآنی است.[۲۱]

فلسفه فارابی آمیزه‌ای است از حکمت ارسطویی و نوافلاطونی که رنگ اسلامی و به خصوص شیعی اثنی‌عشری به خود گرفته‌است. او در منطق و طبیعیات، ارسطویی است و در اخلاق و سیاست، افلاطونی و در مابعدالطبیعه به مکتب فلوطینی گرایش دارد.

وحدت فلسفه[ویرایش]

Iranian Farabi.jpg

فارابی از کسانی است که می‌خواهند آراء مختلف را با هم وفق دهند. او در این راه بر همه گذشتگان خود نیز سبقت گرفت. او در این راه تا آن جا پیش رفت که گفت: فلسفه، یکی بیشتر نیست و حقیقت فلسفی - هر چند مکاتب فلسفی متعدد باشند - متعدد نیست.

فارابی به وحدت فلسفه سخت معتقد بود و برای اثبات آن براهین و ادله بسیاری ذکر کرد و رسائل متعدد نوشت که از آن جمله، کتاب «الجمع بین رایی الحکیمین افلاطون الالهی و ارسطو» به دست ما رسیده‌است.

وی معتقد بود که اگر حقیقت فلسفی واحد است، باید بتوان در میان افکار فلاسفه بزرگ به ویژه افلاطون و ارسطو توافقی پدیدآورد. اساساً وقتی غایت و هدف این دو حکیم بزرگ، بحث دربارهٔ حقیقتی یکتا بوده‌است، چگونه ممکن است در آراء و افکار، با هم اختلاف داشته باشند؟

فارابی میان این دو فیلسوف یونانی پاره‌ای اختلافات یافته بود، اما معتقد بود که این اختلافات، اختلافاتی سطحی است و در مورد مسائل اساسی نیست. مخصوصاً آنکه آن‌ها مبدع و پدیدآورندهٔ فلسفه بوده و همه حکمای بعدی کم و بیش، به این دو متکی هستند.

مسائلی که به عنوان اختلاف مبانی افلاطون و ارسطو مطرح بود و فارابی درصدد هماهنگ ساختن بین آن‌ها برآمد، عبارت بودند از:

روش زندگی افلاطون و ارسطو، روش فلسفی افلاطون و ارسطو، نظریه مُثُل، نظریه معرفت یا تذکر، حدوث و قدم، نظریه عادت.

البته تردیدی نیست که فارابی در این امر رنج بسیاری متحمل شده‌است؛ اما نکته مهم در این رابطه این است که یکی از منابع او برای انجام این مقصود، کتاب «اثولوجیا» یا «ربوبیت» بود که یکی از بخش‌های کتاب «تاسوعات» فلوطین می‌باشد. وی فکر می‌کرد که این کتاب متعلق به ارسطو است و چون در آن به یک سلسله آراء افلاطونی برخورد کرده بود، همین امر او را بر این کار، تشویق می‌کرد. (در حالی که مطالب این کتاب، ارتباطی با ارسطو نداشت)

بنابراین، اگر چه فارابی در کار خود به توفیق کامل دست نیافت، ولی راه را برای دیگر فلاسفه اسلامی گشود. بدین ترتیب که میان ارسطو و عقاید اسلامی یک نوع هماهنگی ایجاد کرد و فلسفه ارسطو را جزو سرچشمه‌ها و اصول فلسفه اسلامی قرارداد.

موسیقی[ویرایش]

فارابی در کتاب احصاء العلوم در تعریف موسیقی می‌گوید:"علم موسیقی به‌طور کلی، از شناختن انواع الحان و آنچه الحان از آن‌ها تألیف می‌شود بحث می‌کند و روشن می‌سازد که الحان برای چه غرض‌هایی تألیف می‌شوند و چگونه باید تألیف شوند و بر چه حالی باید باشند تا تأثیر آن‌ها بیشتر و دلنشین تر گردد. کتاب موسیقی کبیر شاهکار فارابی در علم موسیقی است که با ترجمه آذرتاش آذرنوش برگردان شده‌است. به گفته دکتر عبدالامیر سلیم این کتاب عظیم‌ترین کار دوره اسلامی در زمینه موسیقی است. کارادیوو بیان می‌دارد که دراویش مولوی نغمه‌ها و نواها و آهنگ‌های باستانی را که با خواندن اشعار مولانا همواره زمزمه می‌کردند و همیشه در زهن داشته‌اند و می‌خوانند همگی منتسب به فارابی است. فارابی در این کتاب سعی کرده‌است که آرای پیشینیان در مورد موسیقی را جمع‌آوری کند. فارابی نخستین کسی است که نام خنیاگر معروف دربار خسرو پرویز را به جای باربد، به صورت درست یعنی فهلبذ ضبط کرده‌است. وی در موسیقی کبیر از دو نوع تنبور بغدادی و خراسانی نیز سخن می‌گوید. او همچنین از ساز شاه رود و شکل آن سخن می‌گوید. فارابی زمانی که شاهرود را توضیح می‌دهد از فاصله پنجم (پرده پنجم) نیز سخن گفته‌است.[۲۲]

آثار فارابی[ویرایش]

آثار فارابی از این قرار است:

۱) ما ینبغی ان تعلم قبل الفلسفه (آنچه شایسته‌است قبل از فلسفه فرا بگیری): در این کتاب، فارابی منطق، هندسه، اخلاق نیکو و کناره‌گیری از شهوات را پیش نیاز پرداختن به فلسفه ذکر می‌کند و دربارهٔ هر یک مطالبی بیان می‌نماید.

۲) السیاسه المدنیه (سیاست شهری): این کتاب دربارهٔ اقتصاد سیاسی است.

۳) الجمع بین رأی الحکیمین افلاطون الالهی و ارسطو طالیس (جمع بین آراء دو حکیم بزرگ، افلاطون الهی و ارسطو): فارابی در این کتاب می‌کوشد بین نظریات افلاطون و ارسطو هماهنگی برقرار سازد.

۴) رساله فی ماهیه العقل (رساله‌ای دربارهٔ ماهیت و چیستی عقل): در این رساله اقسام عقول را تعریف و مراتب آن‌ها را بیان می‌کند.

۵) تحصیل السعاده (به دست آوردن سعادت): در اخلاق و فلسفه نظری.

۶) اجوبه عن مسائل فلسفیه (پاسخ‌هایی به مسائل فلسفی): پاسخ‌هایی است به برخی پرسش‌ها و مسائل فلسفی.

۷) رساله فی اثبات المفارقات (رساله‌ای در اثبات وجود موجودات غیر مادی): در این رساله، فارابی دربارهٔ موجودات غیر مادی بحث می‌کند.

۸) اغراض ارسطو طالیس فی کتاب مابعد الطبیعه (اغراض ما بعدالطبیعه ارسطو) (مقاصد ارسطو در کتاب متافیزیک): این کتاب یکی از مهم‌ترین کتاب‌های فارابی است که مورد استفاده ابن سینا هم قرار گرفت.

۹) رساله فی السیاسه (رساله‌ای در سیاست): فارابی دربارهٔ سیاست صحبت می‌کند.

۱۰) فصوص الحکمه (فصوص جمع فص به معنای نگین می‌باشد: نگین‌های حکمت): این کتاب در مورد حکمت الهی و شامل ۷۴ بحث در این زمینه و مباحث نفس می‌باشد.

۱۱) کتاب موسیقی کبیر: این اثر جنبه‌های گوناگون موسیقی مانند مقامات را تعیین می‌کند.

۱۲) اندیشه‌های اهل مدینه فاضله: فارابی در این اثر آرمان شهر خود را بنا می‌کند.

  1. احصاءالعلوم
  2. فی وجوب صناعه الکیمیا (دربارهٔ ضرورت کیمیا)
  3. رساله الحروف:فارابی در این رساله مشکلات کتاب متافیزیک ارسطو را حل می‌کند. یکی از آثار مفصل فارابی است که در آن دربارهٔ کلمات عربی و فارسی و یونانی که بر عینیت و تحقق دلالت دارند و نیز از مقولات بحث می‌کند.[۲۳]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ ۱٫۴ Corbin, Henry; Hossein Nasr (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2.[نیازمند بازبینی منبع]
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Dhanani, Alnoor (2007). "Fārābī: Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Tarkhān al‐Fārābī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 356–7. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. (PDF version)
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ۳٫۲ ۳٫۳ ۳٫۴ ۳٫۵ ۳٫۶ ۳٫۷ Dimitri Gutas, "Farabi" in دانشنامه ایرانیکا، Online Edition 2005-2007; accessed 1 مارس، ۲۰۰۷. [۱]
  4. کتاب درسی فلسفه (آشنایی با فلسفهٔ اسلامی) دورهٔ پیش‌دانشگاهی رشتهٔ علوم انسانی و معارف صفحهٔ ۴۵ و ۴۶
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ Ebn Abi Osaybea, Oyun al-anba fi tabaqat at-atebba, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1299/1882. وکان ابوه قائد جیش وهو فارسی المنتسب
  6. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/farabie.pdf
  7. «Philosophers: Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۷ مارس ۲۰۱۶. دریافت‌شده در ۲ نوامبر ۲۰۰۹.
  8. Ebn Abi Osaybea, Oyun al-anba fi tabaqat at-atebba, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1299/1882. و کان ابوه قائد جیش و هو فارسی
  9. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Amin Razavi. "An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Vol. 1: From Zoroaster to Umar Khayyam" , I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2007. Pg 134: “Ibn Nadim in his al-Fihrist, which is the first work to mention Farabi considers him to be of Persian origin, as does Mohammad Shahrazuri in his Tarikh al-hukama and Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah in his Tabaqat al-atibba. In contrast, Ibn Khallikan in his '"Wafayat al-'ayan considers him to beof Turkish descent. In any case, he was born in Farab in Khurasan of that day around 257/870 in a climate of Persianate culture"
  10. Arabic: و کان من سلاله فارس in J. Mashkur, Farab and Farabi,Tehran,1972. See also لغت‌نامه دهخدا under the entry Farabi for the same exact Arabic quote.
  11. * George Fadlo Hourani, Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Suny press, 1975.
    • Kiki Kennedy-Day, Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy: The Limits of Words, Routledge, 2002, page 32.
  12. Joshua Parens (2006). An Islamic philosophy of virtuous religions: introducing Alfarabi. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. pp. 3. ISBN 0-7914-6689-2, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. excerpt: "He was a native speaker of Turkic[sic] dialect, Soghdian".
  13. Joep Lameer, "Al-Fārābī and Aristotelian syllogistics: Greek theory and Islamic practice" , E.J. Brill, 1994. ISBN 90-04-09884-4 pg 22: «..Islamic world of that time, an area whose inhabitants must have spoken Soghdian or maybe a Turkish dialect..."
  14. ۱۴٫۰ ۱۴٫۱ مشکور، محمدجواد. “فاراب و فارابی“. دوره۱۴، ش۱۶۱ (اسفند 54): 15-20-. J. Mashkur, "Farabi and Farabi" in volume 14, No. 161, pp 15-12 ,Tehran,1972. [۲] English translations of the arguments used by J. Mashkur can be found in: G. Lohraspi, "Some remarks on Farabi's background" ; a scholarly approach citing C.E. Bosworth, B. Lewis, R. Frye, D. Gutas, J. Mashkur and partial translation of J.Mashkur's arguments: PDF. ولی فارابی فیلسوف تنها متعلق به ایران نبود بلکه به عالم اسلام تعلق داشت و از برکت قرآن و دین محمد به این مقام رسید. از این جهت هه دانشمندانی که در اینجا گرد آمده‌اند او را یک دانشمند مسلمان متعلق به عالم انسانیت می‌دانند و کاری به ترکی و فارسی و عربی بودن او ندارند.
  15. .
    • P.J. King, "One Hundred Philosophers: the life and work of the world's greatest thinkers", chapter al-Fārābi, Zebra, 2006. pp 50: «Of Persian stock, al-Farabi (Alfarabius, AbuNaser) was born in Turkestan»
    • Henry Thomas, Understanding the Great Philosophers, Doubleday,Published 1962
    • T. J. Denboer, "The History of Philosophy in Islam" , BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. Excerpt page 98: «His father is said to have been a Persian General". ISBN 0-554-30253-5, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک., 9780554302539
    ت، ح، دیبور: تاریخ الفلسفة فی الإسلام. ترجمة: محمد عبد الهادی أو ریدة. مطبعة لجنة التألیف و الترجمة، القاهرة، ط۴، ۱۹۵۷، ص ۱۹۶
    • Sterling M. McMurrin, Religion, Reason, and Truth: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Religion, University of Utah Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87480-203-2, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک.. page 40.
    • edited by Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins. (2003). From Africa to Zen: an invitation to world philosophy. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 163. ISBN 0-7425-1350-5, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "al-Farabi (870-950), a Persian,»
    • Thomas F. Glick. (1995). From Muslim fortress to Christian castle: social and cultural change in medieval Spain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 170. ISBN 0-7190-3349-7, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "It was thus that al-Farabi (c. 870-950), a Persian philosopher»
    • The World's Greatest Seers and Philosophers.. Gardners Books. 2005. pp. 41. ISBN 81-223-0824-4, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "al-Farabi (also known as Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi) was born of Turkish parents in the small village of Wasij near Farab, Turkistan (now in Uzbekistan) in 870 AD. His parents were of Persian descent, but their ancestors had migrated to Turkistan.»
    • Bryan Bunch with Alexander Hellemans. (2004). The history of science and technology: a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 108. ISBN 0-618-22123-9, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "Persian scholar al-Farabi»
    • Olivier Roy, "The new Central Asia: the creation of nations" , I.B.Tauris, 2000. 1860642799. pg 167: «Kazakhistan also annexes for the purpose of bank notes Al Farabi (870-950), the Muslim philosopher who was born in the south of present-day Kazakhistan but who persumably spoke Persian, particularly because in that era there were no Kazakhs in the region»
    • Majid Khadduri; [foreword by R. K. Ramazani]. The Islamic conception of justice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, c1984.. pp. 84. ISBN 0-8018-6974-9, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "Nasr al-Farabi was born in Farab (a small town in Transoxiana) in 259/870 to a family of mixed parentage — the father, who married a Turkish woman, is said to have been of Persian and Turkish descent — but both professed the Shi'l heterodox faith. He spoke Persian and Turkish fluently and learned the Arabic language before he went to Baghdad.
    • Fākhūrī, Ḥannā. ، Tārīkh al-fikr al-falsafī ʻinda al-ʻArab, al-Duqqī, al-Jīzah: al-Sharikah al-Miṣrīyah al-ʻĀlamīyah lil-Nashr, Lūnjmān, 2002.
  16. Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Barbarian Incursions: The Coming of the Turks into the Islamic World." In Islamic Civilization, ed. by D.S. Richards. Oxford, 1973.
  17. *edited by Ted Honderich. (1995). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 269. ISBN 0-19-866132-0, en Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid شابک. "Of Turki origin, al-Farabi studied under Christian thinkers»
  18. بیست مقاله قزوینی، مقالات ادبی و تاریخی میرزا محمد خان بن عبدالوهاب قزوینی، جزو اول، به اهتمام پور داوود، از سلسله انتشارات زرتشتیان ایرانی بمبئی، بدون تاریخ صص 92-95
  19. محمدرضا فشاهی، ارسطوی بغداد، از عقل یونانی به وحی قرآنی، انتشارات کاروان، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۲۷
  20. محمدرضا فشاهی، ارسطوی بغداد، از عقل یونانی به وحی قرآنی، انتشارات کاروان، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۲۸
  21. محمدرضا فشاهی، ارسطوی بغداد، از عقل یونانی به وحی قرآنی، انتشارات کاروان، ۱۳۸۰، ص ۲۹
  22. دکتر عبدالامیر سلیم، فارابی و الموسیقی الکبیر، خرد و کوشش بهار 1354 شماره 16
  23. محمدتقی دانش‌پژوه، کتاب ماه فلسفه بهمن 1387 شماره 17

منابع[ویرایش]

  • Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works, and Influence (Great Islamic Thinkers) by Majid Fakhry, Oneworld Publications, Oneworld Publication, 2002
  • Al-Farabi and Aristotelian Syllogistics: Greek Theory and Islamic Practice (Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and

Science) by Joep Lameer, Brill Academic Publishers, 1994

  • کتاب ریاضیدانان مسلمان و سیر علوم ریاضی در شرق اسلامی بقلم: غلامرضا تاتاری

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi.jpg
TitleThe Second Teacher[1]
Personal
Bornc. 872[1]
Fārāb on the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) in modern Kazakhstan or Faryāb in Khorāsān (modern day Afghanistan)[2]
Diedc. 950[1]
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic Golden Age
Creed'aflatunia
Main interest(s)Metaphysics, Political philosophy, law, logic, music, science, ethics, mysticism,[1] epistemology
Notable work(s)kitāb al-mūsīqī al-kabīr ("The Great Book Of Music"), ārā ahl al-madīna al-fāḍila ("The Virtuous City"), kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-ʿulūm ("On The Introduction Of Knowledge"), kitāb iḥṣāʾ al-īqā'āt ("Classification Of Rhythms")[1]
Muslim leader

Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابو نصر محمد بن محمد فارابيAbū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al Fārābī;[2] known in the West as Alpharabius;[5] c. 872[1] – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951)[3] was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic. He was also a scientist, cosmologist, mathematician and music scholar.[6]

In Islamic philosophical tradition he was often called "the Second Teacher", following Aristotle who was known as "the First Teacher".[7] He is credited with preserving the original Greek texts during the Middle Ages because of his commentaries and treatises, and influencing many prominent philosophers, like Avicenna and Maimonides. Through his works, he became well-known in the West as well as the East.

Biography

The existing variations in the basic accounts of al-Farabi's origins and pedigree indicate that they were not recorded during his lifetime or soon thereafter by anyone with concrete information, but were based on hearsay or guesses (as is the case with other contemporaries of al-Farabi). Little is known about his life. Early sources include an autobiographical passage where al-Farabi traces the history of logic and philosophy up to his time, and brief mentions by Al-Masudi, Ibn al-Nadim and Ibn Hawqal. Said Al-Andalusi wrote a biography of al-Farabi. Arabic biographers of the 12th–13th centuries thus had few facts to hand, and used invented stories about his life.[2]

From incidental accounts it is known that he spent significant time (most of his life) in Baghdad with Christian scholars including the cleric Yuhanna ibn Haylan, Yahya ibn Adi, and Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Baghdadi. He later spent time in Damascus and in Egypt before returning to Damascus where he died in 950-1.[8][page needed]

His name was Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Farabi,[2] sometimes with the family surname al-Ṭarḵānī, i.e., the element Ṭarḵān appears in a nisba.[2] His grandfather was not known among his contemporaries, but a name, Awzalaḡ, suddenly appears later in the writings of Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa, and of his great-grandfather in those of Ibn Khallikan.[2]

His birthplace could have been any one of the many places in Central Asia-Khurasan that is known by that name. The name "parab/farab" is a Persian term for a locale that is irrigated by effluent springs or flows from a nearby river. Thus, there are many places that carry the name (or various evolutions of that hydrological/geological toponym) in that general area, such as Fārāb on the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) in modern Kazakhstan, Fārāb (modern Türkmenabat) on the Oxus Amu Darya in Turkmenistan, or evenFāryāb in Greater Khorasan (modern day Afghanistan). The older Persian[2] Pārāb (in Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam) or Fāryāb (also Pāryāb), is a common Persian toponym meaning "lands irrigated by diversion of river water".[9][10] By the 13th century, Fārāb on the Jaxartes was known as Otrār.[11]

Scholars largely agree that Farabi's ethnic background is not knowable.[2][12][13][14][15]

Iranian origin theory

An Iranian stamp with Al-Farabi's imagined face

Medieval Arab historian Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa (died in 1270)—al-Farabi's oldest biographer—mentions in his ʿUyūn that al-Farabi's father was of Persian descent.[2][16] Al-Shahrazūrī who lived around 1288 A.D. and has written an early biography also states that Farabi hailed from a Persian family.[17][18] According to Majid Fakhry, an Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University, Farabi's father "was an army captain of Persian extraction."[19] Dimitri Gutas notes that Farabi's works contain references and glosses in Persian, Sogdian, and even Greek, but not Turkish.[2][20] Sogdian has also been suggested as his native language[21] and the language of the inhabitants of Fārāb.[22] Muhammad Javad Mashkoor argues for an Iranian-speaking Central Asian origin.[23] A Persian origin has been stated by many other sources as well.[24]

Turkic origin theory

Al-Farabi on the currency of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The oldest known reference to a Turkic origin is given by the medieval historian Ibn Khallikān (died in 1282), who in his work Wafayāt (completed in 669/1271) states that Farabi was born in the small village of Wasij near Fārāb (in what is today Otrar, Kazakhstan) of Turkic parents. Based on this account, some modern scholars say he is of Turkic origin.[25][26][27][28][29][30] Dimitri Gutas, an American Arabist of Greek origin, criticizes this, saying that Ibn Khallikān's account is aimed at the earlier historical accounts by Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa, and serves the purpose to "prove" a Turkic origin for al-Farabi, for instance by mentioning the additional nisba (surname) "al-Turk" (arab. "the Turk")—a nisba Farabi never had.[2] However, Abu al-Fedā', who copied Ibn Ḵhallekān, corrected this and changed al-Torkī to the phrase "wa-kāna rajolan torkīyan", meaning "he was a Turkish man."[2] In this regard, Oxford professor C.E. Bosworth notes that "great figures [such] as al-Farabi, al-Biruni, and ibn Sina have been attached by over enthusiastic Turkish scholars to their race".[31]

Life and education

Al-Farabi spent almost his entire life in Baghdad. In the auto-biographical passage preserved by Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa, Farabi stated that he had studied logic, medicine and sociology with Yūḥannā bin Ḥaylān up to and including Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, i.e., according to the order of the books studied in the curriculum, Fārābī was claiming that he had studied Porphyry's Eisagoge and Aristotle's Categories, De Interpretatione, Prior and Posterior Analytics. His teacher, bin Ḥaylān, was a Nestorian cleric. This period of study was probably in Baghdad, where Al-Masudi records that Yūḥannā died during the reign of Al-Muqtadir (295-320/908-32). He was in Baghdad at least until the end of September 942, as recorded in notes in his Mabādeʾ ārāʾ ahl al-madīna al-fāżela. He finished the book in Damascus the following year (331), i.e., by September 943). He also studied in Tétouan, Morocco[32] and lived and taught for some time in Aleppo. Farabi later visited Egypt, finishing six sections summarizing the book Mabādeʾ in Egypt in 337/July 948 – June 949 when he returned to Syria, where he was supported by Sayf al-Dawla, the Hamdanid ruler. Al-Masudi, writing barely five years after the fact (955-6, the date of the composition of the Tanbīh), says that Farabi died in Damascus in Rajab 339 (between 14 December 950 and 12 January 951).[2]

Religious beliefs

Henry Corbin writes that the evidence supports the opinion common in Iran that al-Farabi was a Shia Muslim. Corbin argues that there are many similarities between what he calls Farabi's "prophetic philosophy" and the teachings of Shiite Imams.[33] Najjar Fauzi likewise argues that al-Farabi's political philosophy was influenced by Shiite sects.[34] Giving a positive account, Nadia Maftouni describes shi'ite aspects of Farabi's writings. As she put it, Farabi in his Al-Millah, Al-Sīyāsah al-Madanīyah, and Tahsil al-Sa’adah believes in a utopia governed by prophet and his successors: the Imams. [35]

Works and contributions

Farabi made contributions to the fields of logic, mathematics, music, philosophy, psychology, and education.

Alchemy

Al-Farabi wrote: The Necessity of the Art of the Elixir [36]

Logic

Though he was mainly an Aristotelian logician, he included a number of non-Aristotelian elements in his works. He discussed the topics of future contingents, the number and relation of the categories, the relation between logic and grammar, and non-Aristotelian forms of inference.[37] He is also credited with categorizing logic into two separate groups, the first being "idea" and the second being "proof".

Al-Farabi also considered the theories of conditional syllogisms and analogical inference, which were part of the Stoic tradition of logic rather than the Aristotelian.[38] Another addition al-Farabi made to the Aristotelian tradition was his introduction of the concept of poetic syllogism in a commentary on Aristotle's Poetics.[39]

Music

Drawing of a musical instrument, a shahrud, from al-Farabi's Kitāb al-mūsīqā al-kabīr

Al-Farabi wrote a book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqa (The Book of Music). In it, he presents philosophical principles about music, its cosmic qualities, and its influences.

He also wrote a treatise on the Meanings of the Intellect, which dealt with music therapy and discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul.[40]

Philosophy

Gerard of Cremona's Latin translation of Kitab ihsa' al-'ulum ("Encyclopedia of the Sciences")

As a philosopher, Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophy known as "Farabism" or "Alfarabism", though it was later overshadowed by Avicennism. Al-Farabi's school of philosophy "breaks with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle [... and ...] moves from metaphysics to methodology, a move that anticipates modernity", and "at the level of philosophy, Alfarabi unites theory and practice [... and] in the sphere of the political he liberates practice from theory". His Neoplatonic theology is also more than just metaphysics as rhetoric. In his attempt to think through the nature of a First Cause, Alfarabi discovers the limits of human knowledge".[41]

Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries,[42] and was widely considered second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher") in his time. His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna).[43]

Al-Farabi also wrote a commentary on Aristotle's work, and one of his most notable works is Al-Madina al-Fadila (اراء اهل المدينة الفاضلة و مضاداتها) where he theorized an ideal state as in Plato's The Republic.[44] Al-Farabi argued that religion rendered truth through symbols and persuasion, and, like Plato, saw it as the duty of the philosopher to provide guidance to the state. Al-Farabi incorporated the Platonic view, drawing a parallel from within the Islamic context, in that he regarded the ideal state to be ruled by the prophet-imam, instead of the philosopher-king envisaged by Plato. Al-Farabi argued that the ideal state was the city-state of Medina when it was governed by the prophet Muhammad as its head of state, as he was in direct communion with Allah whose law was revealed to him.

Physics

Al-Farabi wrote a short treatise "On Vacuum", where he thought about the nature of the existence of void.[44] He also may have carried out the first experiments concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water.[citation needed] His final conclusion was that air's volume can expand to fill available space, and he suggested that the concept of perfect vacuum was incoherent.[44]

Psychology

Wrote Social Psychology and Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Virtuous City, which were the first treatises to deal with social psychology. He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals," and that it is the "innate disposition of every man to join another human being or other men in the labor he ought to perform." He concluded that to "achieve what he can of that perfection, every man needs to stay in the neighborhood of others and associate with them."[40]

In his treatise On the Cause of Dreams, which appeared as chapter 24 of his Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Ideal City, he distinguished between dream interpretation and the nature and causes of dreams.[40]

Philosophical thought

Pages from a 17th-century manuscript of Al-Farabi's commentary on Aristotle's metaphysics

Influences

The main influence on al-Farabi's philosophy was the neo-Aristotelian tradition of Alexandria. A prolific writer, he is credited with over one hundred works.[45] Amongst these are a number of prolegomena to philosophy, commentaries on important Aristotelian works (such as the Nicomachean Ethics) as well as his own works. His ideas are marked by their coherency, despite drawing together of many different philosophical disciplines and traditions. Some other significant influences on his work were the planetary model of Ptolemy and elements of Neo-Platonism,[46] particularly metaphysics and practical (or political) philosophy (which bears more resemblance to Plato's Republic than Aristotle's Politics).[47]

Al-Farabi, Aristotle, Maimonides

In the handing down of Aristotle’s thought to the Christian west in the middle ages, al-Farabi played an essential part as appears in the translation of Farabi’s Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle’s de Interpretatione that F.W. Zimmermann published in 1981. Farabi had a great influence on Maimonides, the most important Jewish thinker of the middle ages. Maimonides wrote in Arabic a Treatise on logic, the celebrated Maqala fi sina at al-mantiq. In a wonderfully concise way, the work treats of the essentials of Aristotelian logic in the light of comments made by the Persian philosophers: Avicenna and above all al-Farabi. Rémi Brague in his book devoted to the Treatise stresses the fact that Farabi is the only thinker mentioned therein.

Al-Farabi as well as Ibn Sina and Averroes have been recognized as Peripatetics (al-Mashsha’iyun) or rationalists (Estedlaliun) among Muslims.[48][49][50] However, he tried to gather the ideas of Plato and Aristotle in his book "The gathering of the ideas of the two philosophers".[51]

According to Adamson, his work was singularly directed towards the goal of simultaneously reviving and reinventing the Alexandrian philosophical tradition, to which his Christian teacher, Yuhanna bin Haylan belonged. His success should be measured by the honorific title of "the second master" of philosophy (Aristotle being the first), by which he was known.[7][52] Adamson also says that he does not make any reference to the ideas of either al-Kindi or his contemporary, Abu Bakr al-Razi, which clearly indicates that he did not consider their approach to Philosophy as a correct or viable one.[53]

Thought

Metaphysics and cosmology

In contrast to al-Kindi, who considered the subject of metaphysics to be God, al-Farabi believed that it was concerned primarily with being qua being (that is, being in and of itself), and this is related to God only to the extent that God is a principle of absolute being. Al-Kindi's view was, however, a common misconception regarding Greek philosophy amongst Muslim intellectuals at the time, and it was for this reason that Avicenna remarked that he did not understand Aristotle's Metaphysics properly until he had read a prolegomenon written by al-Farabi.[54]

Al-Farabi's cosmology is essentially based upon three pillars: Aristotelian metaphysics of causation, highly developed Plotinian emanational cosmology and the Ptolemaic astronomy.[55] In his model, the universe is viewed as a number of concentric circles; the outermost sphere or "first heaven", the sphere of fixed stars, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and finally, the Moon. At the centre of these concentric circles is the sub-lunar realm which contains the material world.[56] Each of these circles represent the domain of the secondary intelligences (symbolized by the celestial bodies themselves), which act as causal intermediaries between the First Cause (in this case, God) and the material world. Furthermore these are said to have emanated from God, who is both their formal and efficient cause.

The process of emanation begins (metaphysically, not temporally) with the First Cause, whose principal activity is self-contemplation. And it is this intellectual activity that underlies its role in the creation of the universe. The First Cause, by thinking of itself, "overflows" and the incorporeal entity of the second intellect "emanates" from it. Like its predecessor, the second intellect also thinks about itself, and thereby brings its celestial sphere (in this case, the sphere of fixed stars) into being, but in addition to this it must also contemplate upon the First Cause, and this causes the "emanation" of the next intellect. The cascade of emanation continues until it reaches the tenth intellect, beneath which is the material world. And as each intellect must contemplate both itself and an increasing number of predecessors, each succeeding level of existence becomes more and more complex. This process is based upon necessity as opposed to will. In other words, God does not have a choice whether or not to create the universe, but by virtue of His own existence, He causes it to be. This view also suggests that the universe is eternal, and both of these points were criticized by al-Ghazzali in his attack on the philosophers[57][58]

In his discussion of the First Cause (or God), al-Farabi relies heavily on negative theology. He says that it cannot be known by intellectual means, such as dialectical division or definition, because the terms used in these processes to define a thing constitute its substance. Therefore if one was to define the First Cause, each of the terms used would actually constitute a part of its substance and therefore behave as a cause for its existence, which is impossible as the First Cause is uncaused; it exists without being caused. Equally, he says it cannot be known according to genus and differentia, as its substance and existence are different from all others, and therefore it has no category to which it belongs. If this were the case, then it would not be the First Cause, because something would be prior in existence to it, which is also impossible. This would suggest that the more philosophically simple a thing is, the more perfect it is. And based on this observation, Adamson says it is possible to see the entire hierarchy of al-Farabi's cosmology according to classification into genus and species. Each succeeding level in this structure has as its principal qualities multiplicity and deficiency, and it is this ever-increasing complexity that typifies the material world.[59]

Epistemology and eschatology

Human beings are unique in al-Farabi's vision of the universe because they stand between two worlds: the "higher", immaterial world of the celestial intellects and universal intelligibles, and the "lower", material world of generation and decay; they inhabit a physical body, and so belong to the "lower" world, but they also have a rational capacity, which connects them to the "higher" realm. Each level of existence in al-Farabi's cosmology is characterized by its movement towards perfection, which is to become like the First Cause; a perfect intellect. Human perfection (or "happiness"), then, is equated with constant intellection and contemplation.[60]

Al-Farabi divides intellect into four categories: potential, actual, acquired and the Agent. The first three are the different states of the human intellect and the fourth is the Tenth Intellect (the moon) in his emanational cosmology. The potential intellect represents the capacity to think, which is shared by all human beings, and the actual intellect is an intellect engaged in the act of thinking. By thinking, al-Farabi means abstracting universal intelligibles from the sensory forms of objects which have been apprehended and retained in the individual's imagination.[61]

This motion from potentiality to actuality requires the Agent Intellect to act upon the retained sensory forms; just as the Sun illuminates the physical world to allow us to see, the Agent Intellect illuminates the world of intelligibles to allow us to think.[62] This illumination removes all accident (such as time, place, quality) and physicality from them, converting them into primary intelligibles, which are logical principles such as "the whole is greater than the part". The human intellect, by its act of intellection, passes from potentiality to actuality, and as it gradually comprehends these intelligibles, it is identified with them (as according to Aristotle, by knowing something, the intellect becomes like it).[63] Because the Agent Intellect knows all of the intelligibles, this means that when the human intellect knows all of them, it becomes associated with the Agent Intellect's perfection and is known as the acquired Intellect.[64]

While this process seems mechanical, leaving little room for human choice or volition, Reisman says that al-Farabi is committed to human voluntarism.[63] This takes place when man, based on the knowledge he has acquired, decides whether to direct himself towards virtuous or unvirtuous activities, and thereby decides whether or not to seek true happiness. And it is by choosing what is ethical and contemplating about what constitutes the nature of ethics, that the actual intellect can become "like" the active intellect, thereby attaining perfection. It is only by this process that a human soul may survive death, and live on in the afterlife.[62][65]

According to al-Farabi, the afterlife is not the personal experience commonly conceived of by religious traditions such as Islam and Christianity. Any individual or distinguishing features of the soul are annihilated after the death of the body; only the rational faculty survives (and then, only if it has attained perfection), which becomes one with all other rational souls within the agent intellect and enters a realm of pure intelligence.[64] Henry Corbin compares this eschatology with that of the Ismaili Neo-Platonists, for whom this process initiated the next grand cycle of the universe.[66] However, Deborah Black mentions we have cause to be skeptical as to whether this was the mature and developed view of al-Farabi, as later thinkers such as Ibn Tufayl, Averroes and Ibn Bajjah would assert that he repudiated this view in his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, which has been lost to modern experts.[64]

Psychology, the soul and prophetic knowledge

In his treatment of the human soul, al-Farabi draws on a basic Aristotelian outline, which is informed by the commentaries of later Greek thinkers. He says it is composed of four faculties: The appetitive (the desire for, or aversion to an object of sense), the sensitive (the perception by the senses of corporeal substances), the imaginative (the faculty which retains images of sensible objects after they have been perceived, and then separates and combines them for a number of ends), and the rational, which is the faculty of intellection.[67] It is the last of these which is unique to human beings and distinguishes them from plants and animals. It is also the only part of the soul to survive the death of the body. Noticeably absent from these scheme are internal senses, such as common sense, which would be discussed by later philosophers such as Avicenna and Averroes.[68][69]

Special attention must be given to al-Farabi's treatment of the soul's imaginative faculty, which is essential to his interpretation of prophethood and prophetic knowledge. In addition to its ability to retain and manipulate sensible images of objects, he gives the imagination the function of imitation. By this he means the capacity to represent an object with an image other than its own. In other words, to imitate "x" is to imagine "x" by associating it with sensible qualities that do not describe its own appearance. This extends the representative ability of the imagination beyond sensible forms and to include temperaments, emotions, desires and even immaterial intelligibles or abstract universals, as happens when, for example, one associates "evil" with "darkness".[70][71] The prophet, in addition to his own intellectual capacity, has a very strong imaginative faculty, which allows him to receive an overflow of intelligibles from the agent intellect (the tenth intellect in the emanational cosmology). These intelligibles are then associated with symbols and images, which allow him to communicate abstract truths in a way that can be understood by ordinary people. Therefore what makes prophetic knowledge unique is not its content, which is also accessible to philosophers through demonstration and intellection, but rather the form that it is given by the prophet's imagination.[72][73]

Practical philosophy (ethics and politics)

The practical application of philosophy was a major concern expressed by al-Farabi in many of his works, and while the majority of his philosophical output has been influenced by Aristotelian thought, his practical philosophy was unmistakably based on that of Plato.[74] In a similar manner to Plato's Republic, al-Farabi emphasized that philosophy was both a theoretical and practical discipline; labeling those philosophers who do not apply their erudition to practical pursuits as "futile philosophers". The ideal society, he wrote, is one directed towards the realization of "true happiness" (which can be taken to mean philosophical enlightenment) and as such, the ideal philosopher must hone all the necessary arts of rhetoric and poetics to communicate abstract truths to the ordinary people, as well as having achieved enlightenment himself.[75] Al-Farabi compared the philosopher's role in relation to society with a physician in relation to the body; the body's health is affected by the "balance of its humours" just as the city is determined by the moral habits of its people. The philosopher's duty, he wrote, was to establish a "virtuous" society by healing the souls of the people, establishing justice and guiding them towards "true happiness".[76]

Of course, al-Farabi realized that such a society was rare and required a very specific set of historical circumstances to be realized, which means very few societies could ever attain this goal. He divided those "vicious" societies, which have fallen short of the ideal "virtuous" society, into three categories: ignorant, wicked and errant. Ignorant societies have, for whatever reason, failed to comprehend the purpose of human existence, and have supplanted the pursuit of happiness for another (inferior) goal, whether this be wealth, sensual gratification or power. Al-Farabi mentions "weeds" in the virtuous society: those people who try to undermine its progress towards the true human end.[77] The best known Arabic source for al-Farabi's political philosophy is his work titled, al-Madina al-fadila (The Virtuous City).

Whether or not al-Farabi actually intended to outline a political programme in his writings remains a matter of dispute amongst academics. Henry Corbin, who considers al-Farabi to be a crypto-Shi'ite, says that his ideas should be understood as a "prophetic philosophy" instead of being interpreted politically.[78] On the other hand, Charles Butterworth contends that nowhere in his work does al-Farabi speak of a prophet-legislator or revelation (even the word philosophy is scarcely mentioned), and the main discussion that takes place concerns the positions of "king" and "statesmen".[79] Occupying a middle position is David Reisman, who like Corbin believes that al-Farabi did not want to expound a political doctrine (although he does not go so far to attribute it to Islamic Gnosticism either). He argues that al-Farabi was using different types of society as examples, in the context of an ethical discussion, to show what effect correct or incorrect thinking could have.[80] Lastly, Joshua Parens argues that al-Farabi was slyly asserting that a pan-Islamic society could not be made, by using reason to show how many conditions (such as moral and deliberative virtue) would have to be met, thus leading the reader to conclude that humans are not fit for such a society.[81] Some other authors like Mykhaylo Yakubovych argue that for al-Farabi religion (milla) and philosophy (falsafa) constituted the same praxeological value (i.e. basis for amal al-fadhil—"virtuous deed"), while its epistemological level (ilm—"knowledge") was different.[82]

Legacy

The main-belt asteroid 7057 Al-Fārābī was named in his honor.[83]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Corbin, Henry; Hossein Nasr (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2.[verification needed]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gutas, Dimitri. "Farabi". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Dhanani, Alnoor (2007). "Fārābī: Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Tarkhān al‐Fārābī". In Thomas Hockey; et al. (eds.). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 356–7. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. (PDF version)
  4. ^ Brague, Rémi; Brague, Remi (1998). "Athens, Jerusalem, Mecca: Leo Strauss's "Muslim" Understanding of Greek Philosophy". Poetics Today. 19 (2): 235–259. doi:10.2307/1773441. ISSN 0333-5372. JSTOR 1773441.
  5. ^ Alternative names and translations from Arabic include: Alfarabi, Farabi, Avenassar, and Abunaser.
  6. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, pp.95–96. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615.
  7. ^ a b López-Farjeat, Luis Xavier. "Al-Farabi's Psychology and Epistemology". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  8. ^ Reisman, D.(ed.)Before and After Avicenna. Princeton, NJ. 2001
  9. ^ DANIEL BALLAND, "FĀRYĀB" in Encyclopedia Iranica [1][permanent dead link]. excerpt: "Fāryāb (also Pāryāb), common Persian toponym meaning “lands irrigated by diversion of river water"
  10. ^ Dehkhoda Dictionary under "Parab" Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine excerpt: "پاراب . (اِ مرکب ) زراعتی که به آب چشمه و کاریز ورودخانه و مانند آن کنند مَسقوی . آبی . مقابل دیم" (translation: "Lands irrigated by diversion of river water, springs and qanats.")
  11. ^ "C. E. Bosworth, "OTRĀR" in Encyclopedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. 2002-07-20. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  12. ^ "al-Farabi – Muslim philosopher".
  13. ^ Lessons with Texts by Alfarabi. "D. Gutas, "AlFarabi" in Barthaolomew's World accessed Feb 18, 2010". Bartholomew.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  14. ^ David C. Reisman, "Al-Farabi and the philosophical curriculum", in Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor, The Cambridge companion to Arabic philosophy, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 53.
  15. ^ F. Abiola Irele/Biodun Jeyifo, "Farabi", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought, Vol. 1, p. 379.
  16. ^ Ebn Abi Osaybea, Oyun al-anba fi tabaqat at-atebba, ed. A. Müller, Cairo, 1299/1882. وكان ابوه قائد جيش وهو فارسي المنتسب
  17. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Amin Razavi. "An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Vol. 1: From Zoroaster to Umar Khayyam", I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2007. Pg 134: "Ibn Nadim in his al-Fihrist, which is the first work to mention Farabi considers him to be of Persian origin, as does Muhammad Shahrazuri in his Tarikh al-hukama and Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah in his Tabaqat al-atibba. In contrast, Ibn Khallikan in his '"Wafayat al-'ayan considers him to be of Turkish descent. In any case, he was born in Farab in Khurasan of that day around 257/870 in a climate of Persianate culture"
  18. ^ Arabic: و كان من سلاله فارس in J. Mashkur, Farab and Farabi, Tehran,1972. See also Dehkhoda Dictionary under the entry Farabi for the same exact Arabic quote.
  19. ^ Majid Fakhry, Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works and Influence, Great Islamic Thinkers (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2002), 157. ISBN 9781851683024.
  20. ^
    • George Fadlo Hourani, Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Suny press, 1975.
    • Kiki Kennedy-Day, Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy: The Limits of Words, Routledge, 2002, page 32.
  21. ^ Joshua Parens (2006). An Islamic philosophy of virtuous religions : introducing Alfarabi. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. pp. 3. ISBN 0-7914-6689-2 excerpt: "He was a native speaker of Turkic [sic] dialect, Soghdian." [Note: Sogdian was an East Iranian language and not a Turkic dialect]
  22. ^ Joep Lameer, "Al-Fārābī and Aristotelian syllogistics: Greek theory and Islamic practice", E.J. Brill, 1994. ISBN 90-04-09884-4 pg 22: "..Islamic world of that time, an area whose inhabitants must have spoken Soghdian or maybe a Turkish dialect..."
  23. ^ مشكور، محمدجواد. “فاراب و فارابي“. دوره14، ش161 (اسفند 54): 15-20- . J. Mashkur, "Farabi and Farabi" in volume 14, No. 161, pp 15–12, Tehran,1972. [2] English translations of the arguments used by J. Mashkur can be found in: G. Lohraspi, "Some remarks on Farabi's background"; a scholarly approach citing C.E. Bosworth, B. Lewis, R. Frye, D. Gutas, J. Mashkur and partial translation of J.Mashkur's arguments: PDF. ولي فارابي فيلسوف تنها متعلق به ايران نبود بلكه به عالم اسلام تعلق داشت و از بركت قرآن و دين محمد به اين مقام رسيد. از اينجهت هه دانشمنداني كه در اينجا گرد آمده‌اند او را يك دانشمند مسلمان متعلق به عالم انسانيت مي‌دانند و كاري به تركي و فارسي و عربي بودن او ندارند.
  24. ^
    • P.J. King, "One Hundred Philosophers: the life and work of the world's greatest thinkers", chapter al-Fārābi, Zebra, 2006. pp 50: "Of Persian stock, al-Farabi (Alfarabius, AbuNaser) was born in Turkestan"
    • Henry Thomas, Understanding the Great Philosophers, Doubleday, Published 1962
    • T. J. De Boer, "The History of Philosophy in Islam", Forgotten Books, 2008. Excerpt page 98: "His father is said to have been a Persian General". ISBN 1-60506-697-4
    • Sterling M. McMurrin, Religion, Reason, and Truth: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Religion, University of Utah Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87480-203-2. page 40.
    • edited by Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins. (2003). From Africa to Zen : an invitation to world philosophy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 163. ISBN 0-7425-1350-5 "al-Farabi (870–950), a Persian,"
    • Thomas F. Glick. (1995). From Muslim fortress to Christian castle : social and cultural change in medieval Spain. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 170. ISBN 0-7190-3349-7 "It was thus that al-Farabi (c. 870–950), a Persian philosopher"
    • The World's Greatest Seers and Philosophers.. Gardners Books. 2005. pp. 41. ISBN 81-223-0824-4 "al-Farabi (also known as Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi) was born of Turkish parents in the small village of Wasij near Farab, Turkistan (now in Uzbekistan) in 870 AD. His parents were of Persian descent, but their ancestors had migrated to Turkistan."
    • Bryan Bunch with Alexander Hellemans. (2004). The history of science and technology : a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 108. ISBN 0-618-22123-9 "Persian scholar al-Farabi"
    • Olivier Roy, "The new Central Asia: the creation of nations ", I.B.Tauris, 2000. 1860642799. pg 167: "Kazakhistan also annexes for the purpose of bank notes Al Farabi (870–950), the Muslim philosopher who was born in the south of present-day Kazakhistan but who presumably spoke Persian, particularly because in that era there were no Kazakhs in the region"
    • Majid Khadduri; [foreword by R. K. Ramazani]. The Islamic conception of justice. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, c1984.. pp. 84. ISBN 0-8018-6974-9 "Nasr al-Farabi was born in Farab (a small town in Transoxiana) in 259/870 to a family of mixed parentage — the father, who married a Turkish woman, is said to have been of Persian and Turkish descent — but both professed the Shi'l heterodox faith. He spoke Persian and Turkish fluently and learned the Arabic language before he went to Baghdad.
    • Ḥannā Fākhūrī, Tārīkh al-fikr al-falsafī ʻinda al-ʻArab, al-Duqqī, al-Jīzah : al-Sharikah al-Miṣrīyah al-ʻĀlamīyah lil-Nashr, Lūnjmān, 2002.
    • ’Ammar al-Talbi, al-Farabi, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, vol. XXIII, no. 1/2, Paris, 1993, p. 353-372
    • David Deming,"Science and Technology in World History: The Ancient World and Classical Civilization", McFarland, 2010. pg 94: "Al-Farabi, known in Medieval Europe as Abunaser, was a Persian philosopher who sought to harmonize.."
    • Philosophers: Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, Trinity College, 1995–2000
  25. ^ B.G. Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, (Shipra Publications, 2005), 124; "Abu Nasr Farabi hailed from around ancient Farabi which was situated on the bank of Syr Daria and was the son of a Turk military commander".
  26. ^ Will Durant, The Age of Faith, (Simon and Schuster, 1950), 253.
  27. ^ Nicholas Rescher, Al-Farabi's Short Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, University of Pittsburgh Pre, 1963, p.11, Online Edition.
  28. ^ Antony Black, The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present, Routledge, p. 61, Online Edition
  29. ^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Kessinger Publishing, Vol. 10, p.757, Online Edition
  30. ^ * edited by Ted Honderich. (1995). The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 269. ISBN 0-19-866132-0 "Of Turki origin, al-Farabi studied under Christian thinkers"
  31. ^ C. Edmund Bosworth (15 May 2017). The Turks in the Early Islamic World. Taylor & Francis. p. 381. ISBN 978-1-351-88087-9.
  32. ^ Sadler, Anthony; Skarlatos, Alek; Stone, Spencer; Stern, Jeffrey E. (2016). The 15:17 to Paris: The True Story of a Terrorist, a Train, and Three American Heroes. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-61039-734-6.
  33. ^ Corbin, Henry (23 June 2014). History Of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 9781135198893 – via Google Books.
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    Long, A. A.; D. N. Sedley (1987). The Hellenistic Philosophers. Vol 1: Translations of the principal sources with philosophical commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27556-3.
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  42. ^ Glick, Thomas F., Steven Livesey and Faith Wallis (2014). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 978-0415969307.
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  46. ^ Motahhari, Mortaza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p:162
  47. ^ Reisman, D. Al-Farabi and the Philosophical Curriculum In Adamson, P & Taylor, R. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p52
  48. ^ Motahhari, Morteza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.166 اگر بخواهيم كلمهای را به كار بريم كه مفيد مفهوم روش فلسفی مشائين باشد بايد كلمه ( استدلالی ) را به كار بريم .
  49. ^ "Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms". Muslimphilosophy.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  50. ^ "Aristotelianism in Islamic philosophy". Muslimphilosophy.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  51. ^ Motahhari, Mortaza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.167 فارابی كتاب كوچك معروفی دارد به نام ( الجمع بين رأيی الحكيمين ) در اين كتاب مسائل اختلافی اين دو فيلسوف طرح شده و كوشش شده كه به نحوی اختلافات ميان اين دو حكيم از بين برود .
  52. ^ Mahdi, Muhsin (1962). Alfarabi: Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0801487161. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
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Primary Sources (Fārābī) in translation

English
  • Al-Farabi's Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle's De interpretatione, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.
  • Short Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963.
  • Al-Farabi on the Perfect State, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.
  • Alfarabi, the Political Writings. Selected Aphorisms and Other Texts, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
  • Alfarabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, translated and with an introduction by Muhsin Mahdi, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
  • Fusul al-Madani: Aphorisms of the Statesman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961.
  • "Al-Farabi's Long Commentary on Aristotle's Categoriae in Hebrew and Arabic", In Studies in Arabic and Islamic Culture, Vol. II, edited by Abrahamov, Binyamin. Ramat: Bar-Ilan University Press, 2006.
  • Texts translated by D. M. Dunlop:
    • "The Existence and Definition of Philosophy. From an Arabic text ascribed to al-Farabi", Iraq, 1951, pp. 76–93).
    • "Al-Farabi's Aphorisms of the Statesman", Iraq, 1952, pp. 93–117.
    • "Al-Farabi's Introductory Sections on Logic", The Islamic Quarterly, 1955, pp. 264–282.
    • "Al-Farabi's Eisagoge", The Islamic Quarterly, 1956, pp. 117–138.
    • "Al-Farabi's Introductory Risalah on Logic", The Islamic Quarterly, 1956, pp. 224–235.
    • "Al-Farabi's Paraphrase of the Categories of Aristotle [Part 1]", The Islamic Quarterly, 1957, pp. 168–197.
    • "Al-Farabi's Paraphrase of the Categories of Aristotle [Part 2]", The Islamic Quarterly, 1959, pp. 21–54.
French
  • Idées des habitants de la cité vertueuse. Translated by Karam, J. Chlala, A. Jaussen. 1949.
  • Traité des opinions des habitants de la cité idéale. Tranlated by Tahani Sabri. Paris: J. Vrin, 1990.
  • Le Livre du régime politique, introduction, traduction et commentaire de Philippe Vallat, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2012.
Spanish
  • Catálogo De Las Ciencias, Madrid: Imp. de Estanislao Maestre, 1932.
  • La ciudad ideal. Translated by Manuel Alonso. Madrid: Tecnos, 1995.
  • "Al-Farabi: Epístola sobre los sentidos del término intelecto", Revista Española de filosofía medieval, 2002, pp. 215–223.
  • El camino de la felicidad, trad. R. Ramón Guerrero, Madrid: Ed. Trotta, 2002
  • Obras filosóficas y políticas, trad. R. Ramón Guerrero, Madrid: Ed. Trotta, 2008.
  • Las filosofías de Platón y Aristóteles. Con un Apéndice: Sumario de las Leyes de Platón. Prólogo y Tratado primero, traducción, introducción y notas de Rafael Ramón Guerrero, Madrid, Ápeiron Ediciones, 2017.

Portuguese

  • A cidade excelente. Translated by Miguel Attie Filho. São Paulo: Attie, 2019.

German

  • Der Musterstaat. Translated by Friedrich Dieterici. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1895.

Secondary Sources

  • Deborah Black (2001). Al-Farabi in Oliver Leaman and Hossein Nasr. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge.
  • Deborah Black (2005). Psychology: Soul and Intellect in P. Adamson and R. Taylor (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy,[page needed]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Charles Butterworth (2005). "Ethical and Political Philosophy". In P. Adamson and R. Taylor, The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy,[page needed]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Henry Corbin; Hossein Nasr; Utman Yahya (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy. Keagan Paul International. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2.
  • Majid Fakhry (2002). Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works, and Influence, Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-302-X. Spanish translation, as: Alfarabi y la fundación de la filosofía política islámica, translated by R. Ramón Guerrero. Barcelona: Herder, 2003.
  • Miriam Galston (2003). Politics and Excellence: the Political Philosophy of Alfarabi. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rafael Ramón Guerrero (2003). “Apuntes biográficos de al-Fârâbî según sus vidas árabes". In Anaquel de Estudios Árabes 14:231–238.
  • Christoph Marcinkowski (2002). "A Biographical Note on Ibn Bajjah (Avempace) and an English Translation of his Annotations to Al-Farabi's Isagoge". Iqbal Review vol. 43, no 2 (April), pp 83–99.
  • Monteil Jean-François (2004). “La transmission d’Aristote par les Arabes à la chrétienté occidentale: une trouvaille relative au De Interpretatione”. Revista Española de Filosofia Medieval 11: 181–195.
  • Nicholas Rescher (1964). Al-Kindí; An Annotated Bibliography. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • David Reisman (2005). Al-Farabi and the Philosophical Curriculum In P. Adamson and & R. Taylor. The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy,[page needed]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Habib Hassan Touma (1996). The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 978-0-931340-88-8

External links