غسل، در لغت به معنای شستن است و در اصطلاح به مجموعهای از اراده قلبی و اجرای عملی در خصوص شستن بدن گفته میشود.
غسلها بر پایهٔ حکم شرعی به دو دسته تقسیم میشود:
هفت نوع غسل واجب وجود دارد که خود به دو گروه اصلی تقسیم میشوند:
غسلهای واجب مشترک زنان و مردان[ویرایش]
غسلهای خاص زنان[ویرایش]
غسلهای مستحب بسیاری وجود دارند. از جملهٔ غسلهای مستحب میتوان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:
غسل واجب یا مستحب را (به جز غسل میت) به دو صورت میتوان انجام داد:
در غسل ارتماسی باید بدن پاک باشد ولی در غسل ترتیبی پاک بودن تمام بدن لازم نیست و اگر تمام بدن نجس باشد و هر قسمتی را پیش از غسل دادن آن قسمت آب بکشد کافی است.
تعریف غسل ترتیبی[ویرایش]
در غسل ترتیبی باید به نیت غسل، نخست سر و گردن، و سپس نیمهٔ راست بدن از گردن تا کف پا و دست راست و بعد نیمهٔ چپ بدن از گردن تا کف پا و دست چپ را بشوید. و دیگر تمام البته غسل ترتیبی از دستورات مکتب شیعه است.
تعریف غسل ارتماسی[ویرایش]
در غسل ارتماسی باید آب در یک لحظه، تمام بدن را بگیرد. پس اگر به نیت غسل ارتماسی در آب فراوانی مانند استخر فرو رود.
بگیرد و اگر آب برای وضو نیست یک تیمم بدل از وضو هم بگیرد. و در هر صورت برای نمازهای بعدی مادامی که عامل آن غسل تکرار نشدهاست (مثلاً دوباره جنب نشدهاست) و آب هم برای غسل پیدا نکردهاست یا وضو میگیرد و یا در صورت نبودن آب تیمم بدل از وضو میکند.
Ghusl (Arabic: غسل Ġusl , IPA: [ˈɣʊsl]) is an Arabic term referring to the full body washing ablution mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, orgasmic discharge (e.g. semen), or completion of the menstrual cycle.
The washing is also recommended but not required (i.e. it is mustahab) before the Friday sermon prayer and Eid prayers, before entering the ehram, in preparation for hajj, after having lost consciousness, and after formally converting to Islam. Shia Muslims also perform the ablution before Namaz-e-tawbah (Prayer of Repentance).
Ghusl is often translated as "full ablution", as opposed to the "partial ablution", of wudu وضوء, that Muslims perform after lesser impurities such as urination, defecation, breaking wind, deep sleep, light bleeding, etc.
Types of ghusl by purpose
Ghusl becomes obligatory for seven causes, and the ghusl for each of these different causes has different names:
Similar to Wudu, some water is permissible for use for ghusl whereas some water is not, as defined by the source of the water.
Ghusl is allowed with the following types of water
Ghusl is not allowed with the following types of water
The acts of Ghusl
"O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again."
The phrase for 'contact' in this verse has been interpreted by Hanafi scholars to mean sexual contact, while Shafi'i scholars interpret contact to mean both physical and sexual contact. Hence, the Hanafi school of thought does not require one to take Wudu if there is non-sexual contact with a member of the opposite sex, while the Shafi'i school of thought does require Wudu before being able to pray, and so on.
Farā'id of Ghusl
Sunnah of Ghusl
Sunni school of thought
If, after Ghusl, one recalls that a certain portion of the body is left dry, it is not necessary to repeat the Ghusl, but merely wash the dry portion. It is not sufficient to pass a wet hand over the dry place. If one has forgotten to rinse the mouth or the nostrils, these too could be rinsed when recalled after Ghusl has been performed.
The following hadith describes how ghusl should be performed by Sunni Muslims.
In another hadith, ibn Abbas stated that Maimuna said that The Messenger of Allah was given a towel (after ghusl), but he did not rub his body with it, but he did like this with water (i.e. he shook it off). In addition, ibn Abbas recorded the following hadith on the authority of his mother's sister.
Shia school of thought
There are two methods of performing ghusl. One is known as ghusl tartibi, and the other is known as ghusl irtimasi.
"Ghusl tartibi" means an ordinal bath, performed in three stages.
After washing away the najasat (e.g., semen or blood) from the body and after niyyat, the body has to be washed in three stages: First, head down to the neck; then the right side of the body from the shoulder down to the foot; and lastly, the left side of the body.
Each part should be washed thoroughly in such a way that the water reaches the skin. Special care should be taken while washing the head; the hair should be combed (e.g., with your fingers) so that water reached the hair-roots. While washing the right side of the body, some part of the left side must be washed too, and also, while washing the left side of the body, some part of the right side must be washed.
"Ghusl irtimasi" means a bath involving immersion of the whole body in the water. It is needless to say that such a ghusl can only be done in a body of water, e.g., a pool, river, lake or sea. After washing away the semen or blood from the body and after niyyat, the whole body should be completely immersed in the water all at once, not gradually. One has to make sure that the water reaches all parts of the body, including hair and the skin under it.
However, ghusl tartibi is preferred to ghusl irtimasi.
Recommendable acts of Ghusl
What has been mentioned above are the wajib acts of ghusl; there are things which are recommendable (mustahab, sunnat) during the ghusl. These recommendable acts are five:
'Ubaydullah al-Halabi narrates that someone asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) about a man who performs ghusl and then finds some (doubtful) drops (on his penis) while he had already urinated before performing the ghusl. (That is, should he consider the drops as urine or semen?) The Imam said, "He will just have to do wudu (for hi s salat). But if he had not passed urine before the ghusl, then he must repeat the ghusl."
This rule of istibra' applies only to men. Sulayman bin Khalid asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) about a man who became ritually impure because of sexual intercourse and then performed ghusl without urinating. Then some drops came out of him . The Imam said, "He must repeat the ghusl." Sulayman: "What if similar drops come out of a woman after she has performed ghusl?" The Imam said, "She does not have to repeat the ghusl . " Sulayman: "What is the difference between the two?" The Imam said, "(A woman does not have to repeat ghusl janabat) because what comes out of her is certainly from the (remnants of the) discharge of man."