عید فطر

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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فارسیEnglish
عید فطر
Eid celebration.jpg
نام رسمیعید الفطر
برپایی توسطمسلمان
اهمیتگرامیداشت پایان ماه رمضان و یک ماه روزه‌داری
جشن‌ها
مراسم
تاریخ۱ شوال
مرتبط بهرمضان در اسلام

عید فطر روز اول ماه شوال و در پایان ماه رمضان است. عید فطر از مهم‌ترین جشن‌ها و اعیاد مسلمانان است. در کشورهای اسلامی، عید فطر از جمله اعیاد بسیار مهم محسوب می‌شود و معمولاً با تعطیلی رسمی همراه است. در این روز، روزه حرام است و مسلمانان نماز عید برگزار می‌کنند. [۱] پرداخت زکات فطره در این روز بر مسلمانان واجب است. در این روز اهمیت پیوندهای اجتماعی بیش از پیش نمایان می‌گردد و جامعه در جهت عاری شدن از فضای دو قطبی فقیر و غنی پیشروی می‌کند به گونه‌ای که اساس توزیع ثروت بر پایه عدل و انصاف خواهد بود پرداخت زکات فطره به نوعی توجه دین به پیوند عبادت با روابط اجتماعی را نشان می‌دهد.[۱] در ایران از سال ۱۳۹۰ با تصویب مجلس شورای اسلامی و تأیید شورای نگهبان[۲] عید فطر دو روز (روز عید و روز بعد) تعطیل است.

قنوت نماز[ویرایش]

اَللّهُمَّ اَهْلَ الْکِبْرِیاَّءِ وَالْعَظَمَةِ وَاَهْلَ الْجُودِ وَالْجَبَرُوتِ وَاَهْلَ الْعَفْوِ


خدایا اى اهل بزرگى و عظمت و اى شایسته بخشش و قدرت و سلطنت و اى شایسته عفو


وَالرَّحْمَةِ وَاَهْلَ التَّقْوى وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ اَسْئَلُکَ بِحَقِّ هذَا الْیَومِ الَّذى

و رحمت و اى شایسته تقوى و آمرزش از تو خواهم به حق این روزى که


جَعَلْتَهُ لِلْمُسْلِمینَ عیداً وَلِمُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ الِهِ ذُخْراً [وَشَرَفاً]

قرارش دادى براى مسلمانان عید و براى محمد صلى الله علیه و آله ذخیره و شرف


وَ کرامتا وَمَزِیْداً اَنْ تُصَلِّىَ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ الِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَاَنْ تُدْخِلَنى فى کُلِّ خَیْرٍ

و فزونى مقام که درود فرستى بر محمد و آل محمد و درآورى مرا در هر خیرى که


اَدْخَلْتَ فیهِ مُحَمَّداً وَ الَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَاَنْ تُخْرِجَنى مِنْ کُلِّ سُوَّءٍ اَخْرَجْتَ

در آوردى در آن خیر محمد و آل محمد را و برونم آرى از هر بدى و شرى که برون آوردى


مِنْهُ مُحَمَّداً وَ الَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَواتُکَ عَلَیْهِ وَعَلَیْهِمْ اَللّهُمَّ اِنّى اَسْئَلُکَ

از آن محمد و آل محمد را - که درودهاى تو بر او و بر ایشان باد - خدایا از تو خواهم


خَیْرَ ما سَئَلَکَ مِنْهُ عِبادُکَ الصّالِحُونَ وَاَعُوذُ بِکَ مِمَّا اسْتَعاذَ مِنْه ُعِبادُکَ الْصّالِحُونَ

بهترین چیزى را که درخواست کردند از تو بندگان شایسته ات و پناه برم به تو از آنچه پناه بردند از آن بندگان شایسته ات.

تعیین روز عید فطر[ویرایش]

رصد هلال ماه شوال

از آن‌جایی که شرط اعلام ماه شوال با رویت هلال ماه به وقوع می‌پیوندد. همواره در کشورهای مسلمان، بر حسب موقعیت مکانی آن کشور، رویت هلال ماه اول ماه شوال و روز عید فطر متغیر است به صورتی که ممکن است به‌طور مثال در عربستان سعودی روز دوشنبه روز عید اعلام شود اما در ایران روز سه شنبه روز عید فطر اعلام شود.

در فقه شیعه[ویرایش]

در فقه شیعه ماه نو و تعیین عید فطر از جهت مصداقی جنبه تقلیدی صرف ندارد. از طریق رویت توسط خود شخص یا دو نفر عادل یا به دلیل شیاع یا سی روزه شدن ماه رمضان ثابت می‌شود. بیشتر مراجع حکم حاکم شرع را نیز در این زمینه ملاک می‌دانند مگر اینکه فرد مطمئن باشد که حاکم شرع اشتباه کرده‌است. بیشتر مراجع اثبات ماه نو برای شهرهای هم افق نیز سرایت می‌دهند. بعضی مراجع رویت هلال را تنها از طریق چشم غیرمسلح ملاک می‌دانند نه با دوربین و تلسکوپ و بعضی دیگر خیر.

بعضی از مراجع تقلید و علمای شیعه معتقدند تعیین عید فطر بر عهده حاکم شرع است و پیروی از آن [۲] بر تمام شیعیان حتی مراجعی که نسبت به آن علم ندارند (رؤیت ماه جدید برای آن‌ها ثابت نشده) لازم است. هر چند اگر فردی مطمئن شود که آن روز آخر ماه رمضان یا دوم ماه شوال است شرعاً نمی‌توان او را از عمل به علم خود بازداشت.[۳]

در ایران[ویرایش]

گفتنی است در ایران به‌طور عمده تعیین عید فطر بر عهده حاکم شرع آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای است و پیروی از آن طبق نظر بعضی مراجع تقلید[۳] و علمای شیعه، بر تمام شیعیان حتی مراجعی که نسبت به آن علم ندارند لازم است. مراجع تقلید هم که نظرشان متفاوت است که اخبار لازم و فوری را به اطلاع مقلدان خود می‌رسانند.[۴] هر چند اگر فردی مطمئن شود که آن روز آخر ماه رمضان یا دوم ماه شوال است از دیدگاه شرعی نمی‌توان او را از عمل به علم خود بازداشت.[۵]

در فقه سنی[ویرایش]

در کشور عربستان سعودی به عنوان مهم‌ترین کشور سنی مذهب، این وظیفه را شورای عالی قضایی عربستان سعودی که مهم‌ترین مرجع اسلامی و تصمیم‌گیری است بر عهده دارد. معمولاً سایر کشورهای عربی و اسلامی منطقه نیز با پیروی از روز خاصی که توسط شورای عالی قضایی عربستان سعودی تعیین شده، آن روز را به عنوان روز عید فطر اعلام می‌کنند. در تمامی کشورهای اسلامی گذشته از نوع حکومت مشخص کردن عید فطر بر مبنای شروع ماه شوال و از همه مهمتر رویت هلال شوال معین می‌شود.[۶]

آداب و سنن عید فطر[ویرایش]

تکبیر[ویرایش]

از سنت‌های مسلمانان در روز عید فطر، تکبیر است. تکبیر در روز عید فطر، برگرفته از آیه‌ای از قرآن است[۷] و پیش از نماز عید فطر و شروع خطبه، در خانه‌ها و کوچه و بازار خوانده می‌شود.

الله أکبر الله أکبر الله أکبر
لا إله إلا الله
الله أکبر الله أکبر
ولله الحمد
الله أکبر کبیراً
والحمد لله کثیراً
الله بزرگ‌ترین است، الله بزرگ‌ترین است، الله بزرگ‌ترین است.
خداوندی نیست مگر الله
الله بزرگ‌ترین است. الله بزرگ‌ترین است.
و ستایش همه از آن الله است.
الله به راستی بزرگترین است.
و ستایش بسیار از آن الله است

غسل[ویرایش]

در متون اسلامی، توصیه شده‌است که مسلمانان در روز عید فطر و عید قربان، تن خود را در آب بشویند و غسل کنند. غسل عید، از سنت‌های مسلمانان در روز عید است و در آن فرقی بین مردان، زنان و کودکان نیست. برخلاف غسل جمعه، غسل عید می‌تواند قبل از اذان صبح انجام گیرد. علاوه بر غسل، عطر زدن و مسواک کردن نیز از سنت‌های روز عید فطر است.

نماز[ویرایش]

مهم‌ترین عمل در روز عید فطر، نماز عید فطر است. نماز عید

زمان برگزاری نماز بعد از طلوع آفتاب تا ظهر روز عید است.

این نماز باید به جماعت خوانده شود و به عقیده شیعه در زمان غیبت مستحب است خواندنش.

کیفیت برگزاری نماز هم مانند نماز عید قربان به این صورت است که: در رکعت اوّل بعد از خواندن حمد و سوره باید پنج تکبیر گفت و بعد از هر تکبیر یک قنوت خواند و بعد از قنوت پنجم تکبیر دیگری بگوید و به رکوع رود، بعد دو سجده به جا آورد و برخیزد.

رکعت دوم:در رکعت دوّم بعد از خواندن حمد و سوره چهار تکبیر گفته می‌شود و بعد از هر تکبیر قنوت خوانده می‌شود و بعد از تکبیر پنجم به رکوع رفته و بعد از رکوع دو سجده به جا آورد و تشهّد و سلام گفته می‌شود.

عید فطر در کشورها و فرهنگ‌های گوناگون[ویرایش]

مراسم عید فطر در لندن، سال ۲۰۱۰

در مالزی[ویرایش]

در مالزی، عید فطر بیشتر به نام‌های هری رایا یا عیدالفطری خوانده می‌شود. هری رایا در لغت به معنی «روز جشن» است؛ و برای اشاره به عیدهای اسلامی چون عید فطر و عید قربان به کار می‌رود.

معمولاً در شب پیش از عید فطر، خانواده‌های مالایی، به ویژه زنان خانه‌دار به تهیه غذاها و شیرینی‌های سنتی مخصوص این عید می‌پردازند. از مهم‌ترین این غذاها، رندانگ است که از گوشت گاو و مرغ پخته شده در شیر نارگیل درست می‌شود. دیگر غذای سنتی مخصوص عید فطر، کتوفات است که از برنج پیچیده شده در برگ خرما تهیه می‌شود.

در فرهنگ مالزی، شب بیست و هفتم ماه رمضان توجوه لیکور خوانده می‌شود که به معنی عدد بیست و هفت است. در طی این شب‌ها، مردم مالزی با روشن کردن شمع‌ها و چراغ‌های نفتی (که پلیته نامیده می‌شود) در جلوی خانه‌ها و آذین بندی و چراغانی کردن خیابان‌ها به استقبال عید فطر می‌روند. این سنت از این باور سنتی مالایی‌ها سرچشمه می‌گرفت که در شب قدر، فرشتگان و روح القدس در خانه‌هایی که در آن نور وجود دارد، فرو می‌آیند؛ البته امروزه چنین باوری وجود ندارد و روشن کردن چراغ‌های نفتی صرفاً جنبه تزیینی دارد.

در طول عید فطر، مرسوم است که مالایی‌ها لباس‌های سنتی و محلی را می‌پوشند؛ لباس سنتی مردان باجوملایو و لباس سنتی زنان باجوکورونگ یا باجوکبایا خوانده می‌شود. همچنین در بین مردان و زنان مسلمان مالزی مرسوم است که شال‌های سنتی موسوم به سونگت را در روزهای عید فطر بر شانه‌های خود بیندازند.

مسلمانان مالزی عموماً در روز و پس از طلوع آفتاب، در نماز عید فطر شرکت می‌جویند؛ پس از نماز زیارت اهل قبور مرسوم است. در زمان زیارت قبور، سوره یس از قرآن را می‌خوانند و برای آرامش روح مردگان دعا می‌کنند.

در باقی روز، مالایی‌ها به دیدار آشنایان و خویشاوندانشان می‌روند؛ به بچه‌ها در روز عید فطر مقداری پول داده می‌شود که دویترایا نام دارد.

در ایام عید فطر، دانشگاه‌ها و مدارس مالزی یک هفته تعطیل است، هرچند ادارات و موسسات دولتی تنها دو روز تعطیل هستند. سابقاً تعطیلی عید فطر، دو هفته بود؛ که به دلیل بعضی مخالفت‌ها به یک هفته کاهش داده شد.

نخست‌وزیر مالزی هم در روز اول عید فطر معمولاً بارعام می‌گیرد و مردم می‌توانند برای عرض تبریک به خانه او بروند؛ این مراسم در شهر پوتراجایا برگزار می‌شود.

آتشبازی در شب‌های عید فطر مرسوم است؛ البته برای آتش بازی محدودیت‌های قانونی وجود دارد، اما مواد آتش بازی به‌طور غیرقانونی از بازار سیاه خریده می‌شود؛ با وجود ممنوعیت آتشبازی، این مراسم به ویژه در بین بچه‌های مالایی از محبوبیت برخوردار است. آتشبازی از روزهای آخر ماه رمضان شروع شده و تا یک هفته پس از پایان ماه رمضان نیز ادامه دارد.

عید فطر در مالزی، تنها یک عید مذهبی و دینی نیست؛ بلکه عید ملی است [نیازمند منبع]و تمام چینی‌های مقیم مالزی و پیروان دیگر ادیان نیز در این جشن شرکت می‌جویند.[نیازمند منبع]

رسم ترکمن‌ها[ویرایش]

ترکمن‌ها دو روز مانده به اتمام ماه رمضان را کر می‌نامند. در این روز زنان خانواده به همراه دختران به امر نظافت خانه مشغول می‌شوند و به این صورت از عید فطر استقبال می‌کنند. آن‌ها روز قبل از ماه رمضان را قوقن می‌نامند و در این روز نان روغنی محلی به نام چافاتی را می‌پزند و بین همسایگان تقسیم می‌کنند آن‌ها پس از عید فطر به دید و بازدید اقوام می‌پردازند و عید را به یکدیگر تبریک می‌گویند.[۸]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. «جلوه‌ای از اسرار الهی و انسانی عید فطر». ایران آنلاین. ۳ تیر ۱۳۹۶.
  2. درگاه شورای نگهبان
  3. «نسخه آرشیو شده». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۳ نوامبر ۲۰۰۶. دریافت‌شده در ۲۳ اکتبر ۲۰۰۶.
  4. در پی التهابات در قم، مدیرمسئول کیهان صریحاً از مراجع تقلید عذرخواهی کرد. بایگانی‌شده در ۴ اوت ۲۰۱۳ توسط Wayback Machine وبگاه ادوار نیوز
  5. دیدار ماه نو ملاک‌های فقهی رؤیت هلال
  6. BBCPersian.com
  7. قرآن بقره:185
  8. «آیین عیدفطر به روایت ترکمنی». روزنامه ایران, 15 نیر 1396. 

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]


Eid al-Fitr
Official nameArabic: عيد الفطر‎, romanized‘Īd al-Fiṭr
Observed byMuslims
TypeIslamic
SignificanceMarks the end of Ramadan fasting
CelebrationsEid prayers, charity, social gatherings, festive meals, gift-giving
ObservancesEid prayers, charity-giving
Date1 Shawwal[1]
2019 date4 June[1] (Saudi Arabia and some other countries)[2] 5 June (Pakistan and some other countries)
2020 date24 May (expected[1][3] – may differ 1 day dependent on sighting of lunar crescent)
Related toRamadan, Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Fitr (/d əl ˈfɪtər/ eed əl FIT-ər; Arabic: عيد الفطرʻĪd al-Fiṭr, IPA: [ʕiːd al fitˤr]),[4] also called the "Festival of Breaking the Fast", is a religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (ṣawm).[5] This religious Eid (Muslim religious festival) is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal. The date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on when the new moon is sighted by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality.

Eid al-Fitr has a particular salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two rakats (units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall. It may be performed only in congregation (jamāʿat) and has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "Allāhu ʾAkbar" which means "God is the greatest"), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before rukūʿ in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam.[6] Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, and five at the beginning of the second raka'ah. According to Shia Islam, it has 6 Takbirs in the first Rakat at the end of qira'a, before rukūʿ, and 5 in the second.[7] This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, farḍ فرض (obligatory), mustaḥabb مستحب (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandūb مندوب (preferable).

Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan[8] and pay the Zakat al-Fitr before offering the Eid prayers.

History

Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is observed on the first day of the Islamic month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting.[9]

According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas, a well-known companion of the Prophet, narrated, when the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation. At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days [of festivity] instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha[10]

General rituals

Traditionally, it is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the crescent moon shortly after sunset. If the moon is not observed immediately after the 29th day of the previous lunar month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then it is the following day.[11] Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for one, two or three days. The number of vacation days is different by country.[12] It is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid. Also, a specific prayer is nominated for this day.[13] As an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and the needy (Arabic: Zakat-ul-fitr) before performing the ‘Eid prayer.[14][better source needed]

As another rituals for Sunni Muslim, they are praising Allah in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation ceases when they get to the place of Eid or once the Imam commences activities.[15]

Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia

Eid prayer and eidgah

The Eid prayer is performed in congregation in open areas like fields, community centres, or mosques.[12] No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, and it consists of only two units of prayer with an additional six Takbirs. The Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and then a supplication asking for Allah's forgiveness, mercy, peace and blessings for all living beings across the world. The sermon also instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat.[16] Listening to the sermon at Eid is not required and is optional, a Sunnah i.e. while the sermon is being delivered.[citation needed] After the prayers, Muslims visit their relatives, friends and acquaintances or hold large communal celebrations in homes, community centres or rented halls.[12]

Performing Eid prayer

Eid al-Fitr prayer (Salat al-Eid) or Eid al-Fitr Namaz is performed on the occasion of Eid. The Prayer of Eid al-Fitr is performed in two different ways by Sunni and Shia Islam.

Sunni Procedure

There are two Rak'ah (Rakaat) performed in the Eid al-Fitr prayer.[17] The prayer of Eid al-Fitr starts by doing "Niyyat" for the prayer and then Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) is said by the Imam and all the followers. The next is to recite "Takbeer-e-Tehreema" in first Rakaat. Then the congregation says Allahu Akbar three times, every time raising hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when hands are folded. Then the Imam reads the Surah-e-Fatiha and other Surah. Then the congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. This completes the first Rak’ah. Then the congregation rises up from the first Rak'ah and folds hands for the second Rak’ah. In the next step the Imam recites Surah Fatiha and another Surah and after this 3 Takbirs are called out just before the Ruku; each time raising hands to the ears and dropping them.Then for the fourth time the congregation says Allah o Akbar and goes into the Ruku. The rest of the prayer is completed in the regular manner. This completes the Eid prayer. After the prayer there is a khutbah.[18]

Eid Fetr, in Iran (1984)

Shia procedure

Shia also performs two Rak’ah in the Eid al-Fitr prayer. Prayer starts with the Niyyat followed by the five "Takbeers". During every "Takbeer" of the first Rak’ah, a special Dua is recited. Then the Imam recites Sūrat al-Fātiḥah and Surat Al-'A`lá and the congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. In the second Rak’ah again the same above steps (five Takbeers, Sūrat al-Fātiḥah and Surat Al-'A`lá, Ruku and Sujud) are repeated. After the prayer, Khutbah starts.[19]

Islamic tradition

Many Muslims often bring prayer rugs to the Mosque on Eid al-Fitr.

Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. This has to do with the communal aspects of the fast, which expresses many of the basic values of the Muslim community; e.g., empathy for the poor, charity, worship, steadfastness, patience etc. Fasting is also believed by some scholars to extol fundamental distinctions, lauding the power of the spiritual realm, while acknowledging the subordination of the physical realm. It also teaches a Muslim to stay away from worldly desires and to focus entirely on the Lord and thank Him for his blessings. It is a rejuvenation of the religion and it creates a stronger bond between the Muslim and his Lord.[20]

Practices by country

Middle East

Saudi Arabia

Saudis decorate their homes and prepare sumptuous meals for family and friends. They prepare new clothes and shoes for the festival. Eid festivities in Saudi Arabia may vary culturally depending on the region, but one common thread in all celebrations is of generosity and hospitality. it is a common Saudi tradition for families to gather at the patriarchal home after the Eid prayers. Before the special Eid meal is served, young children will line up in front of each adult family member, who dispense money as gifts to the children.[21] In the major cities of Saudi Arabia, every night there are huge fireworks shows.[22]

Iran

Aerial view from wherever Eid al-Fitr prayer held outside the Iranian city of Bandar Torkaman on June 26, 2017.

In Iran, at the last days of the month of Ramadan, several groups of experts representating the office of Ayatollah Khamenei go to the different zones of the country. They determine that Eid al-Fitr is to begin by the new moon's crescent, as sign of the starting of each lunar month in the Islamic calendar is seen and confirmed by these groups.[23] Iranian Muslims celebrate the first day of the month of Shawwal as the Eid al-Fitr, signifying that the fasting month has ended. They take part in the Eid al-Fitr special prayer that generally takes place in an open field or a large hall with a congregation in attendance, and pay the Zakat al-Fitr.[24] The Eid al-Fitr prayer has been led by Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran at Tehran's Imam Khomeini Grand Prayer Grounds (Mossalla) and he delivers the sermon after the prayer.[25][26] Also in Iran, there are usually one or two days as a national holiday marking the celebration.[27]

Turkey

Traditional Bayram wishes from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, stating "Let us love, Let us be loved", in the form of mahya lights stretched across the minarets of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul

In Turkey, nationwide celebrated holidays are referred to as bayram, and Eid al-Fitr is referred to as both Şeker Bayramı ("Bayram of Sweets") and Ramazan Bayramı ("Ramadan Bayram"). It is a time for people to attend prayer services, put on their best clothes (referred to as bayramlık, often purchased just for the occasion), visit all their loved ones (such as relatives, neighbours, and friends), and pay their respects to the deceased with organised visits to cemeteries. It is also customary for young children to go around their neighbourhood, door to door, and wish everyone a "Happy Bayram", for which they are awarded candy, chocolates, traditional sweets such as baklava and Turkish Delight, or a small amount of money at every door.[28]

Africa

Egypt

Egyptians spend the first day of Eid al-Fitr to gather all family members and celebrate the Eid at public gardens. It is customary for children to also receive a Eidi from their adult relatives. This is a small sum of money that the children receive and is used to spend on all their activities throughout the Eid.[29] Egyptians like to celebrate with others so the streets are always crowded during the days and nights of Eid.[30]

Heightened incidence of sexual assault during Eid al-Fitr

There are several accounts of a heightened number of sexual assaults and rapes taking place during the festival in 2006 in Egypt, some noting as well the precautions being taken to prevent a recurrence of such problems.[31][32][33][34] Subsequent reports indicate that this phenomenon continues to cause concern,[35][36][37][38] one Egyptian journalist writes, 'The Eid al-Fitr holiday following this year's Ramadan brought its usual share of sexual harassment'.[39] Operation Anti Sexual Harassment, an Egyptian organisation founded to protect against sexual assaults, described Eid al-Fitr as a "season for harassment",[40] and the prevalence of such attacks 'a trend that has become associated with Eid al-Fitr celebrations in recent years'.[37] In 2013 allegations also surfaced in Cairo and Tanta.[41][42][43] Public discussion has been reported to be difficult.[44] 2014 saw lower rates of attempted harassment, and activists reported more confidence since amendment of the penal code.[45] 141 police reports for harassment were filed in Cairo in 2015, though it was claimed many reports were withdrawn.[46] 2016 saw a reduction to 120 complaints and 35 arrests for harassment,[47] many women however felt it necessary to take precautions.[48] 2018 showed some evidence of significant reduction.[49]

Edward Lane also alludes to a problem with 'intrigues' with females around Eid al Fitr, in the early 19th century.[50]

Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Morocco

Tunisia

Since 2012, Tunisia sees three days of celebration, with only 2 days as a national holiday (1st Eid and second Eid), with preparations starting several days earlier. Special biscuits are made to give to friends and relatives on the day, including Baklawa and several kinds of "ka'ak".[51]

Somalia

Eid al-Fitr prayers in Somalia

In Somalia and other Islamic parts of the Horn region, Eid al-Fitr is observed by the Muslim communities. Celebrations marking the event are typically accompanied by elaborate banquets, where special dishes such as xalwo (halwo) and buskut (buskuit) are served.[52]

South Africa

Muslims in Durban celebrating Eid al-Fitr

In Cape Town, hundreds of Muslims will gather at Green Point in the evening of the last day of Ramadan each year for the sighting of the moon. The gathering brings together people from all walks of life, and everyone comes with something to share with others at the time of breaking the fast. The Maghrib (sunset) prayer is then performed in congregation and the formal moon-sighting results are announced thereafter.[53]

Sudan

In Sudan, where 97% of the population is Muslim,[54] preparations for Eid begin the last couple of days in Ramadan. For days, ka'ak (sugar powdered cookies), bettifour (dry baked goods including dainty biscuits, baked meringues and macaroons – whose name are derived from the French petit four) and popcorn are baked in large batches to serve to guests and to give to family and friends; dressy Eid clothes are either shopped for or sewn; girls and women decorate their hands and feet with henna; and parts of the house may even be painted. The night before Eid, the whole household partakes in cleaning the house and yard and setting out the finest bedsheets, table cloths, and decorations. On the day of Eid, men and boys (and occasionally women and girls) will attend the Eid prayer. For the next 3 days, families will then partake in visiting each other, extended family, neighbours, and close friends. In these short visits, the baked goods, chocolates and sweets are served, and often large lunches are prepared for the visiting well-wishers. Children are given gifts, either in the form of toys or money.[55]

South Asia

Afghanistan

In the predominantly Sunni Muslim culture of Afghanistan, Eid al-Fitr holds significant importance and is celebrated widely for three days. The most common greeting is Kochnai Akhtar (Blessed Eid) in the Pashto-speaking community. Afghans start preparing for the Eid al-Fitr festival up to ten days prior by cleaning up their homes which are called Khana Takani in Dari. Afghans visit their local bazaars to buy new clothes, sweets and snacks. Special treats served to guests during the festivities during Eid are: Jelabi (Jalebi), Shor-Nakhod (made with chickpeas), and Cake wa Kolcha (a simple cake, similar to pound cake). On the day of Eid al-Fitr, Afghans will first offer their Eid prayers and then gather in their homes with their families, greeting one another by saying "Eid Mubarak" and usually adding "Eidet Mobarak Roza wa Namazet Qabool Dakhel Hajiha wa Ghaziha," which means "Happy Eid to you; may your fasting and prayers be accepted by Allah, and may you be counted among those who will go to the Hajj-pilgrimage." Family elders will give money and gifts to children. It is also common practice to visit families and friends, which may be difficult to do at other times of the year. Children walk from home to home saying "Khala Eidet Mubarak" ("aunt happy Eid"), and they receive cookies or Pala. At night multiple campfires will be set around houses, some to the point that entire valleys may initially appear to be engulfed in flame. Celebratory fire with automatic rifles, particularly tracer rounds, can also be expected in high density.[56]

Pakistan

A panorama in 12 folds showing an imperial Eid al-Fitr procession by Bahadur Shah II

In Pakistan, Eid al-Fitr is also referred to as both Meethi Eid میٹھی عید ("Sweet Eid") and Choti Eid چھوٹی عید ("Small Eid"). People are supposed to give obligatory charity on behalf of each of their family member to the needy or poor before Eid day or at least before Eid prayer. This will allow everybody to share the joy of Eid and not feel depressed. For Eid prayer, people gather at large open areas like sports grounds, parks or large open area. At home family members enjoy special Eid breakfast with various types of sweets and desserts, including traditional dessert sheer khurma, which is made of vermicelli, milk, butter, dry fruits and dates, etc. Eid is mainly enjoyed by the kids, as they mostly receive money in cash called "Eidi" as gift from their relatives.[57]

India

Mehndi is the application of henna as a temporary form of skin decoration, commonly applied during Eid al-Fitr.

Special celebratory dishes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh include Lachcha or sivayyan, a dish of fine, toasted sweet vermicelli noodles with milk and dried fruit (see Sheer khurma).[58]

Indonesia

Eid is known in Indonesia as Hari Raya Idul Fitri or more popularly as Lebaran, and is a national holiday.[59] People return to their home town or city (an exodus known as mudik) to celebrate with their families and to ask forgiveness from parents, in-laws, and other elders.[60]

Festivities start the night before with chanting the takbir and lighting lamps and fireworks. On the day itself, after Eid prayer in the morning, zakat alms for the poor are distributed in the mosques. People will gather with family and neighbours in traditional clothing and have a special Lebaran meal. Children are given money in colourful envelopes.[61] Later, it is common for Muslims in Indonesia to visit the graves of relatives to ritually clean the grave. Muslims also visit the living in a special ritual called Halal bi-Halal some time during or several days after Idul Fitri.[62]

Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand

Rows of Pelita (oil lamps) which is used to illuminate homes and the streets during the season. Seen here in Muar, Johor, Malaysia

In Malaysia, children are given token sums of money, also known as "duit raya", from their parents or elders.[63][64]

Myanmar

During Ramadan, in the small towns and big villages with significant Muslim populations, Burmese Muslim youth organise singing teams called Jago (in Urdu and Hindi), which means "wake up". Jago teams usually do not use musical instruments apart from the occasional use of harmonica mouth organs.[65]The roving groups of singers will take the tunes of popular Hindi movie songs, replaced with Burmese lyrics and invocations about fasting, the do's and don'ts of Islam and about the benefits of Salaat.[66]

China

In the People's Republic of China, out of 56 officially recognised ethnic groups, Eid al-Fitr is celebrated by at least 10 ethnic groups that are predominantly Muslim. These groups are said to total 18 million according to official statistics, but some observers say the actual number may be much higher. It is also a public holiday in China in certain regions, including two Province Prefecture Level regions, Ningxia and Xinjiang. All residents in these areas, regardless of religion, are entitled to either a one-day or three-day official holiday. Outside the Muslim-majority regions, only Muslims are entitled to a one-day holiday. In Xinjiang province, Eid al-Fitr is even celebrated by Han Chinese population during which holiday supplies of mutton, lamb and beef are distributed to households as part of welfare programme funded by government agencies, public and private institutions, and businesses.In Yunnan, Muslim populations are spread throughout the region. On Eid al-Fitr, however, some devotees may travel to Sayyid 'Ajjal's grave after their communal prayers. There, they will conduct readings from the Quran and clean the tomb, reminiscent of the historic annual Chinese Qingming festival, in which people go to their ancestors' graves, sweep and clean the area and make food offerings.[citation needed]

Finally the accomplishments of the Sayyid 'Ajall will be related in story form, concluded by a special prayer service to honour the hundreds of thousands of Muslims killed during the Panthay Rebellion, and the hundreds killed during the Cultural Revolution.[67]

Greece

Eid al-Fitr (i.e. Seker Bayram, Sugar Feast) is celebrated in Greece mainly in the Western Thrace region from the local Muslim minority (Turks, Pomaks and Roma), along with the other two major celebrations, Kurban Bayram (Sacrifice Feast) and Hıdırellez. On the day of the Bayram, family gathers together, wears its best clothes, and celebrate with a common meal, after having attend the morning prayer. The women prepare and offer sweets to family and visitors, while small children go around and pay their respects to the elderly, by kissing their hands, and they in turn reward them with caddies, sweets, and small amount of money.[68][69] Local Muslim shopkeepers close their shops this day, while Muslim minority schools have a 5-day holiday for the feast.[69] Some entertainment venues and clubs hold special events for the night of the Bayram.[70]

United States

In New York City alternate side parking (street cleaning) regulations are suspended. Beginning in 2016, New York City Public Schools will also remain closed on Eid.[71] In Houston, Texas, the annual prayers are offered at the George R. Brown Convention Center in downtown Houston, organised by the Islamic Society of Greater Houston (ISGH).

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has issued several Eid postage stamps, across several years – starting in 2001 – honoring "two of the most important festivals in the Islamic calendar: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha." Eid stamps were released in 2001–2002, 2006–2009, and a Forever® stamp in 2011.[72][73][74][75]

Muslims after Eid Prayer at Valley Stream Park, Long Island, New York, United States of America

United Kingdom

Although Eid al-Fitr is not a recognised public holiday in the United Kingdom, many schools, businesses and organisations allow for at least a day's leave to be taken for religious celebrations.As in Egypt, there have been a small number of reports of sexual assaults associated with the Eid in the UK.[76][77][78]

In the Gregorian calendar

Although the date of Eid al-Fitr is always the same in the Islamic calendar, the date in the Gregorian calendar falls approximately 11 days earlier each successive year, since the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Gregorian calendar is solar. Hence if the Eid falls in the first ten days of a Gregorian calendar year, there will be a second Eid in the last ten days of the same Gregorian calendar year, as happened in 2000 CE. The Gregorian date may vary between countries depending on the local sightability of the new moon. Some expatriate Muslim communities follow the dates as determined for their home country, while others follow the local dates of their country of residence.

The following table shows predicted dates and announced dates based on new moon sightings for Saudi Arabia.[1][79]

Recent dates of Eid al-Fitr in Saudi Arabia
Islamic year Umm al-Qura predicted High Judiciary Council of
Saudi Arabia announced
1438 25 June 2017 25 June 2017
1439 15 June 2018 15 June 2018[80]
1440 4 June 2019 4 June 2019[81]
1441 24 May 2020
1442 13 May 2021

Gallery

See also

Notes

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External links