عید غدیر خم

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

این مقاله دربارهٔ «عید غدیر» است نه حجةالوداع یا حدیث غدیر خم

عید غدیر
Ghadir Khumm.jpg
پوستری برای عید غدیر
برپایی توسطشیعیان
اهمیتگرامیداشت انتساب علی بن ابی‌طالب به عنوان وصی محمد بن عبدالله
جشن‌ها
  • برپایی جشن
  • هدیه دادن
مراسم
تاریخ۱۸ ذی الحجه
مرتبط بهجانشینی محمد

عیدِ غدیر ۱۸ ذوالحجه در تقویم قمری می‌باشد که توسط مسلمانان شیعه برای جانشینی صریح علی بن ابی طالب در مقام امامت پس از محمد پیامبر مسلمانان جشن گرفته می‌شود. به اعتقاد شیعیان بر طبق خطبه محمد در غدیر خم علی را بعد از خود با حدیث (عربی: مَن کُنتُ مولاه فَهذا علیّ مولاه أللهم والِ من والاه و عادِ من عاداه) جانشینی ایشان را برای تمامی مسلمانان اعلام و تمام کرد. به اعتقاد شیعیان آیه سوم سوره مائده در روز عید غدیر نازل شده‌است که آمده الْیَوْمَ أَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دِینَکُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَیْکُمْ نِعْمَتِی[۱][۲][۳] شیعیان نیز بر طبق یک سنت دیرینه، عید غدیر خم را در مساجد، تکایا و هیئت‌های مذهبی همانند عید فطر، عید قربان و دیگر اعیاد مسلمانان جشن می‌گیرند. در مقابل مسلمانان سنی، عید غدیر خم را جشن نمی‌گیرند و اعتقاد شیعیان مبنی بر جانشینی بعد از محمد را نمی‌پذیرند. البته شیعیان عید غدیر را بزرگترین عید مسلمانان می دانند. عید غدیر به نام عیدالله الاکبر نیز معروف است.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. http://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/incident.htm
  2. Article: Eid Al-Ghadeer
  3. «Eid-ul-Ghadeer». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۲۱ ژوئیه ۲۰۱۱. دریافت‌شده در ۱۳ اکتبر ۲۰۱۳.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Eid al-Ghadir
Mosque at Johfa.JPG
Mosque at Johfah near Rabigh, the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia. The event is reported to have occurred somewhere here.
Also calledEid Al-Ghadeer
Observed byMuslims, mostly Shi'ites
TypeIslam
SignificanceAppointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad; completion of the message of Islam
ObservancesPrayers, gift-giving, festive meals, as well as reciting the Du'a Nudba
Date18 Dhu al-Hijjah
2018 date30 August[1]
2019 date19 August[2]
Eid (celebration) Ghadir-Khum

Eid al-Ghadir (Arabic: عید الغدیر) is a Shia feast, and is considered to be among the "significant" feasts of Shia Islam. The Eid is held on 18 Dhu Al-Hijjah at the time when the Islamic prophet Muhammad (following instruction from Allah) was said to have appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. According to hadiths, this Eid has been named "Eid-Allah al-Akbar" (i.e. the greatest divine Eid),[5] "Eid Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad"[6][7] and Ashraf al-A'yaad (i.e. the supreme Eid).[8][9]

Religious background

Ten years after the migration (Hijrah), the Islamic prophet Muhammad ordered his followers to call upon people everywhere to join him in his last pilgrimage. Islamic scholars believe more than seventy thousand people followed Muhammad on his way to Mecca, where, on the fourth day of the month of Dhu'l-Hijjah, there were more than one hundred thousand Muslims present for his entry into the city.[10][11] While returning from this pilgrimage, on 18 Dhu'l-Hijjah 10 AH (March 632 CE) at an area known as Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad delivered a well-known sermon during which he called up his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib and declared, "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla". While the meaning of the word Mawla can be interpreted in several ways, including as "friend" or "master", Shi'ites view it as being the latter and thus see the sermon as being the official designation of Ali as Muhammad's successor.[12] As a result, the date of the sermon is considered to be one of the foundational events of Shia Islam, with the anniversary becoming one of its most important annual celebrations as "Eid al-Ghadir".[13][14]

Celebration

Shia Muslims throughout the world celebrate this event annually with diverse customs.[15][16] It is held in different countries, including Iran,[17][18][19] India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan,[20] Iraq,[21][22] UAE, Yemen, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Syria. Shia Muslims also celebrate Eid Ghadir in Europe and the Americas, including the U.S., UK, Germany, France.[23][24][25][26]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Iran Public Holidays 2018". Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Islamic Calendar 2018 - 2019 - Hijri 1440 and Gregorian Calendar 2019". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  3. ^ "Special security measures in Najaf ahead of Eid Al-Ghadir". 17 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Iran Public Holidays 2016 and 2017". Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  5. ^ Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shīʿa, V.8, P.89
  6. ^ The celebration of Ghaidr mashreghnews.ir Retrieved 15 Sep 2018
  7. ^ Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Iqbal al-A'mal, V.2, P.261
  8. ^ Eid Ghadir (Ghadeer) yjc.ir
  9. ^ Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Kitab al-Kafi, V.4, P.148
  10. ^ Ghadir Khum al-islam.org
  11. ^ Event of Ghadir Khumm Irfan.ir
  12. ^ Vaglieri, Laura Veccia (2012). "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  13. ^ Lindsay, James E. (1957). Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. Greenwood Press. p. 163.
  14. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 257–58.
  15. ^ The celebration of the event of Ghadir Khum irna.ir
  16. ^ Eid (feast) Ghadir-Khum afkarnews.com
  17. ^ Ghadir Khum (Eid) farsnews.com
  18. ^ Ghadir celebration, Ahwaz, Iran aparat.com
  19. ^ Ghadir celebration irinn.ir Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  20. ^ Islamic countries, Eid Ghadir Khum hawzah.net
  21. ^ Iraq, Eid Ghadir-Khum alalam.ir Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  22. ^ Eid Ghadir Khum, Iraq shia-news.com Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  23. ^ Ghadir Khum, celebration alkawthartv.com
  24. ^ Eid Ghadir-Khum, in Georgia iribnews.ir
  25. ^ The celebration of Ghadir, in Saudi Arabia shia-news.com
  26. ^ Ghadir celebration in various countries of the world iqna.ir

External links