عقیل بن ابی‌طالب

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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عقیل بن ابی‌طالب در سال ۵۹۰ میلادی در مکه زاده شد. عقیل دومین فرزند ابوطالب بود. وقتی محمّد نبی و عبّاس به نزد ابوطالب رفتند تا تربیت فرزندانش را به عهده بگیرند، محمّد تربیت علی و عبّاس تربیت جعفر را بر عهده گرفت. عقیل صاحب پنج پسر به نام‌های مسلم بن عقیل، محمّد بن عقیل، یزید بن عقیل، عیسی بن عقیل، حسن بن عقیل و یک دختر به نام رمله بنت عقیل بود. عقیل پس از صلح حدیبیه اسلام آورد و در جنگ موته شرکت جست. عقیل بیست سال از علی بن ابی طالب بزرگ‌تر بود و او به محمد بن عبدالله پیشنهاد کرد که با ام‌حبیبه ازدواج کند.

بر اساس روایت بحارالانوار، یک بار عقیل از برادرش علی که خلیفه بود خواست سهم بیشتری از بیت المال به او بدهد. علی آتشی را گرفت و به او نزدیک کرد و گفت: «عقیل، تو تاب این آتش اندک نداری، من آتش دوزخ چگونه تاب بیاورم؟»

عقیل بن ابی طالب، فرزند ابوطالب و فاطمه بنت اسد و از تبار بنی‌هاشم به‌شمار می‌آید. ابوطالب دارای چهار پسر به ترتیب به نام‌های طالب، عقیل، جعفر و علی بود که فاصله سنی هر یک ده سال بود؛ بنابراین عقیل بیست سال از علی بزرگ‌تر بوده‌است. گویند عقیل در نزد ابوطالب بسیار محبوب بود و از این رو محمد نیز به وی علاقه داشت.

عقیل و عباس بن عبدالمطلب با اکراه و اجبار قریش در جنگ بدر شرکت کردند و هر دو به دست مسلمانان اسیر شدند و چون خود چیزی نداشت، با فدیه عباس بن عبدالمطلب آزاد شد و به مکه بازگشت. عقیل قبل از صلح حدیبیه با میل خود به مدینه هجرت کرد و در جنگ موته و حنین شرکت کرد و از خود استقامت فوق‌العاده نشان داد.

وی آگاهی گسترده‌ای از قبایل عرب و تاریخ و وقایع گذشته آنان داشت و به علم انساب مسلط بود. به هنگام اقامت علی در کوفه به آن شهر سفر کرد؛ ولی به علت کهولت سن در هیچ‌یک از جنگ‌های جمل، صفین و نهروان شرکت نکرد. گویند عقیل در اواخر عمر نابینا شد و در سال پنجاه هجری در مدینه درگذشت و در داخل خانه خود، که در کنار بقیع قرار داشت به خاک سپرده شد.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

دو قبر سمت چپ عقیل بن ابی‌طالب (پایین) و عبدالله بن جعفر

منابع[ویرایش]

  • قاموس الرجال، ج ۷، ص ۲۲۶؛
  • بحارالانوار، ج ۴۲، ص ۱۲۱؛
  • اسدالغابه، ج ۴، ص ۶۳؛
  • شرح نهج البلاغه ابن ابی الحدید
  • ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی
  • تاریخ صحابه، مهدی اخوانی، چاپ سوم، مشهد، ۱۳۳۹
  • بحارالانوار، محمد باقر مجلسی، طبع تهران، ۱۳۱۲
Grave Abdullah bin Jafar (left) and Aqeel bin Abi Talib (right), Jannat al-Baqi', Medina
Location of grave of Aqeel (left most square amongst three together) and others at J.Baqi,Medina

Aqeel ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: عَقِيل ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب‎, ʿAqīl ibn ʾAbī Ṭālib) was a companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was known by the kunyas Abu Aqeel[citation needed] and Abu Yazid.[1]

Early life

He was born c. 581 CE, the second son of Abu Talib and Fatimah bint Asad; hence he was a brother of Ali. He was said to be an expert in genealogy.[2]

He married Fatima bint Al-Walid from the Abdshams clan of the Quraysh.[3] He had seven sons: Muhammad, Muslim, Ja'far, Musa, Abdul Rahman, Abdullah and Abu Saeed; and a daughter, Ramla.[citation needed]

At Badr

After Muhammad departed from Mecca, Aqeel sold the houses of his Muslim relatives among the inhabitants of the city.[4]

He fought on the side of the polytheists at the Battle of Badr, where he was taken prisoner.[5] Muhammad is reported to have told his companions on the Day of Badr: "Indeed I am aware that men from Banu Hashim, and others also, have been brought out under compulsion with no wish to fight us. If any of you encounters one from Banu Hashim then do not kill him" [6] Umar said that he should be handed over to Ali to have his head cut off; but Muhammad approved of Abu Bakr's opinion that he should be released on ransom.[7] Since Aqeel had no money, he had to be redeemed by his uncle Abbas for 500 dinars or 40 ounces of gold.[8][9] When Muhammad told him that Abu Jahl had been killed, Aqeel conceded that nobody would now challenge Muhammad's authority: "Either people will be affected by your words, or you will dominate them by force."[10]

Conversion to Islam

Aqeel emigrated to Medina in mid-629, a year after Khaybar.[11] Aqeel and his children, due to their close relationship with Muhammad, were forbidden to receive anything from the alms tax.[12]

He fought in the Battle of Mu'tah.[11] It is said that soon after this, he fell ill and "was not mentioned at" the conquest of Mecca, the ambush at Hunayn or the siege of Ta'if.[13] However, an alternative tradition indicates that he did in fact fight at Hunayn. When his wife asked him what plunder he had brought back from this battle, he replied: "This needle. You can sew your garments with it," and he gave her his bloodstained sword. Later Muhammad ordered anyone who had taken anything from the plunder to return it. Aqeel told Fatima, "By Allah, I think your needle is gone!" and threw his sword into the plunder.[14]

After Muhammad

Later Aqeel married a woman from the Jusham clan. When he was wished the traditional Arab wedding congratulation, "May you live in harmony and have many sons," he responded, "Say rather what Allah's Messenger said: 'May Allah bless you and bestow blessings upon you.'"[15][16]

Aqeel donated a carpet to the mosque in Medina. On Fridays it was spread out up the west wall. When the shadow of the wall covered the whole carpet, Umar knew it was time to come out for the midday prayer.[17]

Aqeel was the fourth husband of Fatima, a sister of Hind bint Utbah. She was a wealthy woman who paid Aqeel to manage her property as Aqeel was a wealthy and successful merchant. she often asked him about her father and uncle,[18] who had been killed by the Muslim army.[19] Aqeel once told her that they were in Hell, and their quarrel was so severe that Uthman assigned Muawiyah and Abd Allah ibn Abbas to mediate between them.[20]

Aqeel was the man who found Umm ul-Banin to marry Ali.[citation needed]

In old age he became blind. He died in the caliphate of Muawiyah I,[21] at the age of 96.[citation needed]

Legacy

Descendants of Aqeel are numerous and spread out across Yemen, parts of Oman and Somalia. The shrine of Imam Saad bin Aqil' who is a descendant is located in Tal Afar, Iraq.

See also

References

  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1967). Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Volume I Parts I & II, p. 135. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
  2. ^ Ibn Saad/Haq p. 135.
  3. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, p. 450. London & New York: Routledge.
  4. ^ Waqidi/Faizer p. 408.
  5. ^ Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 338. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ ibn Hisham, "Sirat ibn Hisham", vol.2, p. 271. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi (1990)
  7. ^ Muslim 19:4360.
  8. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume pp. 312-313.
  9. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, p. 60. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  10. ^ Tabari/Landau-Tasseron p. 60.
  11. ^ a b Tabari/Landau Tasseron p. 60.
  12. ^ Muslim 31:5920.
  13. ^ Tabari/Landau Tasseron pp. 60-61.
  14. ^ Waqidi/Faizer p. 450.
  15. ^ Nasa'i 4:26:3373.
  16. ^ Ibn Maja 3:9:1906.
  17. ^ Malik ibn Anas. Al-Muwatta 1:13.
  18. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 168. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  19. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 337.
  20. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley p. 168.
  21. ^ Tabari/Landau Tasseron p. 61.

External links