عبدالله بن عباس

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
عبدالله ابن عباس
عربی: عبدالله ابن‌عباس
عبد الله بن عباس.png
دیناسلام
اطلاعات شخصی
تولدعبدالله ابن عباس
۶۱۹ میلادی
مکه، حجاز[۱]
مرگ۶۸۷ میلادی
طائف، شبه‌جزیره عربستان
جایگاه
عنوانحبر الأمه
فعالیت دینی
حرفهمتخصص در تفسیر با تمرکز بر قرآن و سنت، حدیث و تفسیر[۱] در طول دوران طلایی اسلام

عبدالله بن عباس (مختصراً ابن‌عباس) ملقب به ابوالعباس، حبر الامة (دانشمند امت) یا بحر (اشاره به علم زیادش از حدیث) از بزرگترین محققان نسل اول امت اسلامی است. او پدر علم تفسیر قرآنی است. با پیدا شدن ضرورت نوشتن قرآن و تغییر و دگرگونی در ساختار امت اسلامی، یکی از مهمترین و متخصص‌ترین کاتبان قرآن بود که مأمور به انجام این کار شد.[۲]

دوران کودکی و جوانی[ویرایش]

عبدالله فرزند عباس بن عبدالمطلب عموی ناتنی محمد و لبابه بنت حارث، سه سال قبل از هجرت و زمانی که خاندان هاشمی در شعب ابوطالب بودند به دنیا آمد و همانند مادرش که قبل از هجرت مسلمان شده بود، مسلمان شده بود.[۲]

از دورانی جوانی، عبدالله به علم به ویژه علوم قرآنی، علاقه‌ای وافر نشان داد و به این فکر افتاد که با سؤال کردن از صحابه محمد، در مورد محمد اطلاعات جمع‌آوری کند. با وجودی که خیلی جوان بود و خیلی‌ها در آن دوره مشتاق فراگیری این علم بودند، در این زمینه به درجه استادی رسید. او بر مبنای علمش که تنها به حافظه متکی نبود بلکه بر کتب فراوانی استوار بود، سخنرانی‌ها و کلاسهایی به‌طور منظم در روزهای هفته تشکیل می‌داد. این جلسات موضوعات مختلفی داشت، مانند تفسیر قرآن، پرسشهای شرعی، غزوات محمد، تاریخ قبل از اسلام و ادبیات باستانی عرب مطرح می‌شد. عادت داشت که از ادبیات باستانی عرب جملاتی در توضیح و تبیین آیات قرآن بیان کند و از این رو در بین محققان عرب بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌است. او در بین اعراب اعتبار علمی زیادی داشت و از او درخواست می‌شد که در مورد مسائل شرعی فتوا دهد. مثلاً او صیغه متعه را جایز می‌شمرد و از آن دفاع می‌کرد. تفسیرهای قرآنی ابن‌عباس توسط شاگردان بدون واسطه‌اش به صورت مدون درآمد. فتواهای وی نیز جمع‌آوری شده‌است. امروزه بسیاری نسخه‌های خطی در مورد تفسیر منسوب به او، موجود است که البته نمی‌توان در مورد صحت و سقم این انتساب نظری داد، چون هنوز این موضوع مورد تحقیق قرار نگرفته‌است.[۲] ابن‌عباس علاوه بر علوم قرآنی برعلوم ریاضی، ادبیات، شعر، تاریخ، جغرافی و انساب نیز تسلط کامل داشت.

دوران خلفای راشدین[ویرایش]

دانشنامه اسلام دربارهٔ ابن‌عباس می‌نویسد میزان تأثیرگذاری ابن‌عباس در سیاست و لشکر کشی‌های نظامی توسط برخی تاریخ نگاران مسلمان مورد بزرگ نمایی و اغراق قرار گرفته و دلیل این مطلب این است که وی جد خلفای عباسی بوده‌است. با این حال او در لشکرکشی‌های متعددی حضور داشته‌است، لشگرکشی به مصر بین سالهای ۱۸ تا ۲۱ هجری، لشگرکشی به آفریقا در سال ۲۷ هجری، لشگرکشی به گرگان و طبرستان در سال ۳۰ هجری، فرماندهی یکی از جناحین سپاه علی در جنگ‌های جمل (۳۶ هجری) و صفین (۳۷ هجری) و در دوران معاویه در سال ۴۹ هجری، لشگرکشی به قسطنطنیه به فرمان یزید و به همراه افرادی چون عبدالله بن عمر. فعالیت‌های مشاوره‌ای و دیوانی نیز از او در تاریخ ذکر شده‌است. ابوبکر و عمر از مشاوره‌های او بسیار استقبال می‌کردند حال آنکه علی و حسن این چنین عمل نمی‌کردند. با این وجود تا پیش از خلافت علی بن ابی طالب، ابن‌عباس چندان وارد سیاست نشد و حداکثر سه یا چهار سال فعالیت سیاسی داشت. تنها مأموریت رسمی‌ای که تا این دوران داشته، انتساب به سالاری حج از سوی عثمان بود، که در همان سال عثمان در مدینه تحت محاصره شورشیان قرار گرفت؛ بنابراین ابن‌عباس نمی‌توانسته در دوران قتل عثمان در مدینه بوده باشد. چند روز پس از قتل عثمان به مدینه بازگشت و با علی بیعت نمود. از آن پس عهده‌دار مأموریت‌های مهمی از سوی علی گردید و پس از فتح بصره پس از جنگ جمل در سال ۳۶ هجری، والی آنجا شد. وی پس از جنگ صفین در ۳۷ هجری، یکی از امضا کنندگان پیمان حکمیت مبنی بر حل و فصل اختلاف بین علی و معاویه به دست حکمین بود و هنگام تجمع اعتراض‌آمیز خوارج در حرورا، تضمین کرد که کمک کند تا حکمیت بر مبنای شرع باشد.[۲]

تیره شدن روابط علی و عبدالله بن عباس[ویرایش]

طبق برخی نقل‌ها، هم‌زمان با روی گردانیدن بسیاری از طرفداران امیرالمؤمنین علی از وی و مدتی پس از سقوط مصر، روابط ابن‌عباس والی بصره نیز با وی تیره می‌شود. مادلونگ این موضوع را به اختلاف میان زیاد بن ابیه عامل خراج وی و ابوالاسود دؤلی نسبت می‌دهد. ابن‌عباس جانب زیاد را می‌گیرد و ابوالاسود به علی شکایت می‌کند. در پی آن علی از ابن‌عباس درخواست می‌کند گزارشی از وضعیت اموال عمومی تحت کنترلش شامل خراج و جزیه و مخارج بدهد. اما ابن‌عباس برخورد علی را توهین‌آمیز قلمداد می‌کند و به اعتراض منصب ولایت بصره را رها می‌کند. وی اموالی از بیت المال را به عنوان سهم خود می‌برد، لذا علی او را در قبال دست اندازی به بیت المال بشدت مؤاخذه و تهدید می‌کند. مادلونگ دلیل تصاحب بیت المال را، نه صرفاً اعتراض وی به علی، بلکه مخالفتش با سیاست تقسیم مساوی فیء می‌داند.[۳] ولیری می‌نویسد، ابن‌عباس منصب فرمانداری بصره را ترک می‌کند و بخشی از بیت المال آن را برای خود برداشته و به حجاز می‌رود. دلیل این عمل ابن‌عباس در برخی منابع به این صورت آمده که ابن‌عباس به خاطر مواخذه‌ای که علی از وی به اتهام اختلاس مالیات بصره ترتیب داده بود رنجیده شد و اختلاس را رد کرد و بیان داشت که تنها وظیفه دولتی اش را انجام داده‌است. اما ولیری بر این باور است که این امر به دلایلی دیگر رخ داده‌است مانند کشتار خوارج در نهروان که بر طبق روایات معتبر، ابن‌عباس این کار را نادرست شمرده بود و اعتقاد وی مبنی بر «موضع گیریهای نادرست علی» و اصرارش برماندن به عنوان خلیفه، با اینکه در قضیه حکمیت رای بر این نهاده شده بود که علی دیگر خلیفه نیست.[۲] اما مادلونگ ضمن بررسی موضع ابن‌عباس در خصوص کشتار نهروان، این احتمال را که علت اختلاف بین وی و علی این نبرد بوده باشد رد می‌کند.[۴]

سال وقوع این واقعه در منابع به سالهای ۳۸، ۳۹ یا ۴۰ هجری گزارش داده شده که ولیری به دلیل که بعد از سال ۳۸، ابن‌عباس را فاقد فعالیت سیاسی مهمی می‌داند، این سال را به عنوان سال وقوع حادثه می‌پذیرد. وی روایاتی که در آن‌ها ابن‌عباس تا زمان کشته شدن علی به حکومتش وفادار مانده را رد می‌کند.[۵] ولیری می‌نویسد پس از این دوران عملی از سوی ابن‌عباس روایت شده که ممکن است قضاوت بسیار بدی از وی را به دنبال داشته باشد و جزئیات این واقعه هنوز معلوم نیست. او مدتی پس از رفتنش به مکه دوباره به بصره بازگشت و اموال مالیاتی بصره را با خود برد. این غصب کردن اموال از سوی وی جای بحث و بررسی دارد؛ ولیری بر این باور است که می‌توان برای این عمل توجیهی منطقی آورد و دیدگاه کسانی که این عمل را کم‌کننده از شان ابن‌عباس در بین امت نمی‌بینند، را منطقی می‌داند.[۲]

در مقابل مادلونگ تصریحا دیدگاه کائتانی و ولیری دربارهٔ رابطه ابن‌عباس و علی را رد می‌کند می‌گوید هرچند ابن‌عباس اموالی را از بیت المال بصره به عنوان سهم خود با خود برد، اما بعداً مجدداً روابط حسنه وی با علی برقرار شد و احتمالاً بخشی از اموال را نیز برگرداند. همچنین علی کسی را به جایش بر مسند زمامداری بصره منصوب نکرد و وی بعد از مدتی به عنوان والی به بصره بازگشت.[۶]

دوران پس از کشته شدن علی[ویرایش]

فعالیتهایی که پس از کشته‌شدن علی ابن ابی طالب از ابن‌عباس سر زده دقیقاً مشخص نیست. حسن مجتبی از او دعوت کرد که فرمانده سپاهش شود، اما او با معاویه رابطه برقرار کرد. به دعوت حسن یا میل خود ابن‌عباس، ممکن است خود او یکی از بانیان صلح بین حسن و معاویه بوده باشد. ابن‌عباس بیان کرد که معاویه به علت قدردانی از کارهای او، حقش در غصب اموال مالیات بصره (که بخشی از خزانه بصره بود) را به رسمیت می‌شناسد. دانشنامه اسلام بر این باور است که روایاتی که این تدبیر و حیلت ابن‌عباس را بیان می‌کنند، با شان ابن‌عباس در تناقض است. به همین علت این ماجرا آشکارا به اشتباه به گردن برادرش عبیدالله بن عباس انداخته شد. در زمان خلافت معاویه، ابن‌عباس در حجاز زندگی می‌کرد و مکرراً برای دفاع از حقوق بنی هاشم (که شامل حقوق خودش نیز می‌شد) به شام می‌رفت.[۲]

وقایع سخت و بد دوران پس از مرگ معاویه و یزید، باعث شد که ابن‌عباس شاید علی‌رغم میل باطنی اش دوباره پایش به سیاست کشیده شود. گرچه دانسته‌های ما از این دوران ناقص است، اما آنچه بر می‌آید این است که عبدالله بن زبیر که در مکه قیامی راه انداخته بود و خود را خلیفه نامید ولی ابن‌عباس و محمد حنفیه وی را به عنوان خلیفه به رسمیت نمی‌شناختند که با برخورد شدید ابن زبیر مواجه شدند و از مکه بیرون رانده شدند. پس از محاصره این شهر در سال ۶۴ هجری، این دو دوباره به مکه بازگشتند اما باز هم با ابن زبیر مخالف بودند که این بار ابن زبیر این دو را زندانی کرد. مختار ثقفی از وضعیت این دو مطلع شد و سپاهی به مکه فرستاد که لشکریان عبدالله بن زبیر را غافل گیر کردند و این دو را نجات دادند اما ابن‌عباس با تدبیرش مانع از خون ریزی در شهر مکه شد. تحت مراقبت سپاه مختار، ابن‌عباس و محمد حنفیه به منا و طائف رفتند و ابن‌عباس چندی بعد در سال ۶۸ هجری/۸–۶۸۶ میلادی در آنجا درگذشت.[۲]

دانشنامه اسلام بر این باور است که گرچه قضاوتهایی که کائتانی و لامنز در مورد ابن‌عباس می‌کنند، با جایگاه و شانش در امت اسلامی در تناقض است، اما از دیدگاه منطق هم می‌توان دیدگاه این دو را رد نمود (بین تاریخ اسلامی- مسیحی و روایات منسوب به محمد که حدیث نامیده می‌شوند، تفاوت وجود دارد) و همین اشکالات را می‌توان به دیدکاه لامنز نیز گرفت.[۲]

پانویس[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  • Veccia Vaglieri, L (1986). "ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās". Encyclopaedia of Islam. ۱ (second ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. ۴۰–۱. ISBN 90-04-08114-3.
Abdullah ibn al-Abbas
Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس
عبد الله بن عباس.png
′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas's name in Arabic calligraphy
TitleHibr-ul-Ummah
Other namesAl-Hibr, (The Doctor); Al-Bahr, (The Sea)
Personal
Born
Abdullah ibn al-Abbas

c. 619 CE
Diedc. 687 CE
ReligionIslam
EthnicityArab
Notable idea(s)interpretation of the Qur'an
Other namesAl-Hibr, (The Doctor); Al-Bahr, (The Sea)
OccupationExpert in Tafsir, with interests in the Qur'an and Sunnah, Hadith and Tafsir[1] during the Islamic golden age
Influences
Muslim leader
Disciple ofMuhammad
Spouse(s)Zahra bint Mishrah and a concubine
ChildrenSons: Al-Abbas, Ali ibn Abdullah, Muhammad, Ubaydullah, Al-Fadl and Saad Daughters: Lubaba and Asma (the latter's mother was the concubine)
Parents

Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس‎) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea)[7] was born c. 619 CE. He was the son of Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a nephew of the Maymunah bint al-Harith, who later became Muhammad's wife. He was one of Muhammad's cousins and one of the early Qur'an scholars.[7][8]

During the early struggles for the caliphate he supported Ali, and was made governor of Basra. He withdrew to Mecca shortly afterwards. During the reign of Muawiyah I he lived in Hejaz and travelled to Damascus often. After Muawiyah I died he fled to at-Ta'if, where he died in around 687 CE.[7][9]

'Abd Allah ibn Abbas was known for his knowledge of traditions and his critical interpretation of the Qur'an. From early on, he gathered information from other companions of Muhammad and gave classes and wrote commentaries.[7]

Biography

Family

He was the second son of a wealthy merchant, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, thus he was called Ibn Abbas (the son of Abbas). His mother was Umm al-Fadl Lubaba, who prided herself in being the second woman who converted to Islam, on the same day as her close friend Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Muhammad's wife.[10]

The father of Ibn Abbas and the father of Muhammad were both sons of Shaiba ibn Hashim, better known as ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib. Shaiba bin Hashim's father was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.[citation needed]

619–632: Muhammad's era

Ibn Abbas was born in 3 BH (619–620 CE) and his mother took him to Muhammad before he had begun to suckle and that was the beginning of the close relationship between them.[1]

As he grew up, he was by Muhammad's side doing different services like fetching water for ablution (Arabic: wudu‎). He would pray (Arabic: salat‎) with Muhammad and follow him on his assemblies, journeys and expeditions. It is said that Muhammad would often draw him close, pat him on the shoulder and pray, "O God! Teach him (the knowledge of) the Book (Qur'an) ".[11] Muhammad had also supplicated for him to attain discernment in religion.[12] Ibn Abbas kept following Muhammad, memorizing and learning his teaching.[1]

Muhammad's statement

In AH 10 (631/632), Muhammad fell into his last illness. During this period, the Hadith of the pen and paper was reported, with Ibn Abbas as the first-level narrator, at that time about twelve years old.[13] Days after that, Abbas and Ali supported Muhammad's weight on their shoulder, as Muhammad was too weak to walk unaided.[14]

632–634: Abu Bakr's era

Inheritance from Muhammad

Ibn 'Abbas was thirteen years old when Muhammad died. After Abu Bakr came to power, Ibn Abbas and his father were among those who unsuccessfully requested part of Muhammad's inheritance.[citation needed] Abu Bakr said that he had heard Muhammad say that prophets do not leave inheritance behind as a divine rule.[citation needed]

Continued education

After Muhammad's era, he continued to collect and learn Muhammad's teaching from Muhammad's companions (Arabic: Sahaba‎), especially those who knew him the longest. He would consult multiple Sahaba to confirm narrations, and would go to as many as thirty Companions to verify a single matter.[1] Once he heard that a Sahaba knew a hadith unknown to him. A hadith attributed to Abd Allah ibn Abbas reports:[citation needed]

...I went to him during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). If I wished I could have sought his permission to enter and he would certainly have given me permission. But I preferred to wait on him so that he could be completely refreshed. Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said, 'O cousin of the Prophet! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.' 'I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it does not just come,' I said. I asked him about the hadith and learnt from him.[1]


In addition to his own scholarship, Ibn Abbas was a teacher; his house became the equivalent of a university, where he taught.[1]

One of his companions described a typical scene in front of his house:

I saw people converging on the roads leading to his house until there was hardly any room in front of his house. I went in and told him about the crowds of people at his door and he said: 'Get me water for wudu.'

He performed wudu and, seating himself, said: 'Go out and say to them: Whoever wants to ask about the Qur'an and its letters (pronunciation) let him enter.'

This I did and people entered until the house was filled. Whatever he was asked, Abdullah was able to elucidate and even provide additional information to what was asked. Then (to his students) he said: 'Make way for your brothers.'

Then to me he said: 'Go out and say: Who wants to ask about the Quran and its interpretation, let him enter'.

Again the house was filled and Abdullah elucidated and provided more information than what was requested.[1]

He held classes on one single subject each day, classes on issues such as tafsir, fiqh, halal and Haraam, ghazawa, poetry, Arab history before Islam, inheritance laws, Arabic language and etymology.[1]

634–644: Umar's era

Advising Umar

Umar often sought the advice of Ibn Abbas on important matters of state and described him as a "young man of maturity":[1]

A hadith attributed to Abd Allah ibn Abbas Sahih reports:[citation needed]

Umar used to make me sit with the elderly men who had fought in the battle of Badr. Some of them (Abd-al-Rahman ibn Awf [15]) felt it (did not like that) and said to Umar: "Why do you bring in this boy to sit with us, while we have sons like him?"

Umar replied "Because of what you know of his position" (i.e. his religious knowledge).

One day Umar called me and made me sit in the gathering of those people, and I think that he called me just to show them (my religious knowledge). 'Umar then asked them in my presence: 'What do you say about the interpretation of the statement of Allah'.

When comes help of God, and the conquest...

Some of them said: "We are ordered to praise God and ask for His forgiveness, when God's help and the conquest comes to us". Some others kept quiet and did not say anything. On that Umar asked me: "Do you say the same, O Ibn Abbas?" I replied: "No". He said: "What do you say then?" I replied: "That is the sign of the death of Prophet Muhammad, which God informed him of. God said:

(O Muhammad) when comes the help of God (to you against your enemies) and the conquest (which is the sign of your death) – you should celebrate the praises of your Lord and ask for His forgiveness, and He is the One who accepts the repentance and forgives". On that Umar said: "I do not know anything about it other than what you have said".


The Sahaba Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas said:

I have never seen someone who was quicker in understanding, who had more knowledge and greater wisdom than Ibn Abbas. I have seen Umar summon him to discuss difficult problems in the presence of veterans of Badr from among the Muhajirin and Ansar. Ibn Abbas would speak and Umar would not disregard what he had to say.[1]

656–661: Ali's era

Battle of Siffin

Ibn Abbas remained a staunch supporter of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, during Ali's war with Muawiyah, including at the Battle of Siffin. He had also been given the position of governor of Basra during Ali's reign as Caliph.[citation needed]

A large group of Ali's army were discontented with the conclusion of that arbitration, and broke off into a separate group that became known as the Khawarij or Kharijites. Ibn Abbas played a key role in convincing a large number of them to return to Ali; 20,000 of 24,000 according to some sources. He did so using his knowledge of Muhammad's biography, in particular, the events of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.[1]

680–683: Yazid's era

Sunnis believe that ibn Abbas was in favour of the unity of the Muslims and hence did not revolt against rulers. He advised Husayn ibn Ali against his proposed expedition to Kufa that ended at Karbala.

Wives and children

By a Yemenite princess named Zahra bint Mishrah, Ibn Abbas had seven children.

  1. Al-Abbas, the first born, who was childless.
  2. Ali ibn Abdullah (died 736), who was the grandfather of the first two Abbasid caliphs, who replaced the Umayyads in 750.
  3. Muhammad, who was childless.
  4. Ubaydullah, who was childless.
  5. Al-Fadl, who was childless. (Riverine Sudanese trace their ancestry to al-Fadl through a son named Saeed, whose mother is said to be from the Ansar).
  6. Saad had two children
  7. Lubaba, who married Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Jaafar and had descendants.

He had another daughter, Asma, by a concubine; she married her cousin Abdullah ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abbas and had two sons.[16]

Hadith transmitted by him

Ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad said, "Two favours are treated unjustly by most people: health and free time." from Sahih Bukhari, at-Tirmidhi, ibn Majah and Al-Nasa'i[citation needed]

Ibn Abbas reported: Muhammad said, "He who does not memorize any part from the Qur'an, he is like the ruined house. from Tirmidhi.[citation needed]

On the authority of Ibn Abbas, who said, "One day I was behind (i.e. riding behind him on the same mount) the Prophet and he said to me: 'Young man, I shall teach you some words (of advice). Be mindful of Allah, and Allah will protect you. Be mindful of Allah, and you will find Him in front of you. If you ask, ask of Allah; if you seek help, seek help of Allah. Know that if the nation were to gather together to benefit you with anything, it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you, and if they gather together to harm you with anything, they would harm you only with something Allah had already prescribed for you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried. from Tirmidhi

Al Hakim records on the authority of ibn Abbas that Muhammad advanced, carrying upon his back Hassan ibn Ali, and a man met him and said, 'an excellent steed thou ridest, lad!'. Muhammad replied, 'and he is an excellent rider.'[citation needed]

Ali ibn Husam Adin (commonly known as al-Mutaki al-Hindi) records that ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad said the following about his deceased aunt Fatima, the mother of Ali: "I (Muhammad) put on her my shirt that she may wear the clothes of heaven, and I lay in her grave that I may lessen the pressure of the grave. She was the best of Allah’s creatures to me after Abu Talib".[citation needed]

Legacy

As ʿAbd-Allah's knowledge grew, he grew in stature. Masruq ibn al Ajda said of him:

Whenever I saw Ibn Abbas, I would say: He is the most handsome of men. When he spoke, I would say: He is the most eloquent of men. And when he held a conversation, I would say: He is the most knowledgeable of men."[1]

Ibn Abbas is highly respected by both Shia and Sunnis.[citation needed]

His descendants



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quraysh tribe
(detailed tree)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Waqida bint Amr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ātikah bint Murrah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nawfal ibn Abd Manaf
 
 
‘Abd Shams
 
Barra
 
Hala
 
Muṭṭalib ibn Abd Manaf
 
Hashim
 
Salma bint Amr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Umayya ibn Abd Shams
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harb
 
 
 
Abū al-ʿĀs
 
 
 
 
 
ʿĀminah
 
ʿAbdallāh
 
Hamza
 
Abī Ṭālib
 
Az-Zubayr
 
al-ʿAbbās
 
Abū Lahab
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ʾAbī Sufyān ibn Harb
 
al-Ḥakam
 
ʿUthmān
 
ʿAffān
 
MUHAMMAD
(Family tree)
 
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
 
 
 
ʿAlī
(Family tree)
 
Khawlah bint Ja'far
 
ʿAbd Allāh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muʿāwiyah I
 
Marwān I
 
 
 
 
 
ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān
 
Ruqayyah
 
Fatimah
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
 
 
 
ʿAli ibn ʿAbdallāh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sufyanids
 
Marwanids
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
al-Ḥasan
 
al-Ḥusayn
(Family tree)
 
Abu Hashim
(Imām of al-Mukhtār and Hashimiyya)
 
 
 
Muhammad
"al-Imām"

(Abbasids)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibrāhim "al-Imām"
 
al-Saffāḥ
 
al-Mansur
 

Views

Ibn Abbas viewed that Tafsir can be divided in four categories:[17]

  • The category the Arabs knew because of its language
  • Those of ignorance, of which no one will be excused
  • Those the scholars know
  • Those no one knows except Allah (Arabic: اللهAllāh)

Sunni view

Sunni view him as the most knowledgeable of the Companions in tafsir. A book entitled Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas is tafsir, all explanations of which may go back to Ibn Abbas.[1] Of all narrations transmitted by Ibn Abbas, 1660 were considered authentic (Arabic: Sahih‎) by the authors of the two Sahihs.[1][18][page needed]

Regarding Ibn Abbas giving verdicts (Arabic: fatwa‎) in favor of Nikah Mut'ah, most Sunnis view that Ali corrected him on the matter, while other view that "Ibn Abbas position on the permissibility of Mut'ah until his last day is proven" per the Hadith of Ibn al-Zubayr and Mut'ah.[19]

Sunnis describe thus:

... the courageous Abdullah showed that he preferred peace above war, and logic against force and violence. However, he was not only known for his courage, his perceptive thought and his vast knowledge. He was also known for his great generosity and hospitality. Some of his contemporaries said of his household: "We have not seen a house with more food or drink or fruit or knowledge than the house of Ibn Abbas."

He had a genuine and abiding concern for people. He was thoughtful and caring. He once said: "When I realize the importance of a verse of God's Book, I would wish that all people should know what I know.

"When I hear of a Muslim ruler who deals equitably and rules justly, I am happy on his account and I pray for him...

"When I hear of rains that fall on the land of Muslims, that fills me with happiness..."

Abdullah ibn Abbas was constant in his devotions. He kept voluntary fasts regularly and often stayed up at night in Prayer. He would weep while praying and reading the Quran. And when reciting verses dealing with death, resurrection and the life hereafter his voice would be heavy from deep sobbing.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q biography Archived 2009-05-28 at Archive.today on the MSA West Compendium of Muslim Texts
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-09-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia [1]
  4. ^ Media Monitors Network, A Few Comments on Tafsir of the Quran, Habib Siddiqui October 2004
  5. ^ Mashahir, 99-Too; Ghaya, 1. 283; Abu Nuʿaym, II. 105-19; Kashif, I. 235; Ibn Marthad 41-3
  6. ^ usulgloss2 Archived November 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b c d "'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  8. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.134. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615.
  9. ^ There is uncertainty as to the actual year of his death. Some sources state either 687 or 688.
  10. ^ Marriage to a 'past': Parents should not reject a proposal without a good reason – and being a revert with a past is not an acceptable one
  11. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:92:375
  12. ^ Sahih Muslim (#6523)
  13. ^ Regarding Omar's Refusal to Give the Prophet a Pen to Write his Will!!![permanent dead link]
  14. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:4:197, 1:11:634, 3:47:761,5:59:727
  15. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:821
  16. ^ Tabari, vol. 39, pp. 54-55.
  17. ^ Interpreting The Text
  18. ^ Reliance of the Traveller by Ahmad al-Misr, (A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law), translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, published by Amana publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA 1991
  19. ^ Fatih al-Qadir by Muhammad ash-Shawkani, Sharh Hidaya Volume 3 p. 51

External links