عبدالرحمن بن عوف
اسلام آوردن عبدالرحمن[ویرایش]
او از اولین اسلام آورندگان بود و در هجرت به مدینه و هجرت به حبشه حضور داشت. او در جنگ بدر و دیگر جنگها حاضر بود. او فرماندهٔ سپاهی بود که محمد برای مقابله با دومه الجندل فرستاد و پس از فتح آنجا، دختر شاهزاده را مجبور به ازدواج با خود کرد. طبق روایات اهل تسنن، او جزو ۱۰ نفری است که محمد به آنها بهشت را وعده داد.
تعیین خلیفه سوم[ویرایش]
او درآمد قابل توجهی از راه تجارت کسب کرد و شخصیت بانفوذی محسوب میگردید. پس از مرگ عمر، او جزو شورای ۶ نفره تعیین خلیفه بود .خلیفه دوم علاوه بر عضو کردن عبدالرحمن در این شورا، به او این اختیار را داد که اگر این شورا در دو گروه سه نفره، نظر متفاوتی داشتند، رأی گروهی پذیرفته شود که عبدالرحمان در آن است . در نهایت عبدالرحمن از همین امتیاز خود استفاده کرده و برادر زن خود، عثمان، را خلیفه مسلمانان کرد. او در سال ۳۱ هجری (۶۵۲ میلادی) درگذشت.
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE):94,103 was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is known for being one of the Ten Promised Paradise.
His original name was Abdu Amru ("servant of Amru"). It was Muhammad who renamed him 'Abd al-Rahman ("servant of the Most Merciful").:94 It is also said that his original name was Abdul Kaaba.:94-95 His name has also been transliterated as Abdel Rahman Ibn Auf.
Conversion to Islam
Abu Bakr spoke to 'Abd al-Rahman about Islam, then invited him to meet Muhammad, who heard his declaration of faith and taught him the Islamic prayers. This was before the Muslims had entered the house of Al-Arqam; 'Abd al-Rahman was one of the first eight men to accept Islam.:115-116
From about 614 the pagan Quraysh in Mecca "showed their enmity to all those who followed the apostle; every clan which contained Muslims was attacked.":143 The usual threat to Muslim merchants was: "We will boycott your goods and reduce you to beggary.":145
'Abd al-Rahman was one of a pioneering party of fifteen Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia in 615. Other Muslims joined them later, forming a group of over a hundred. "They were safely ensconced there and grateful for the protection of the Negus; could serve Allah without fear, and the Negus had shown them every hospitality.":148 In late 619 or early 620 "they heard that the Meccans had accepted Islam." This probably refers to the Gharaniq episode. 'Abd al-Rahman was one of forty who "set out for the homeland. But when they got near Mecca they learned that the report was false, so that they entered the town under the protection of a citizen or by stealth.":167-168
Emigration to Medina
Military campaigns during Muhammad's era
Battle of Badr
'Abd al-Rahman was friends with Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a stern opponent of Islam. When 'Abd al-Rahman emigrated to Medina, the two reached a written agreement, according to which 'Abd al-Rahman was to protect Umayyah's property and family in Medina, while Umayyah would protect 'Abd al-Rahman's in Mecca. When 'Abd al-Rahman wanted to sign the document, Umayyah protested, saying "I do not know Ar-Rahman" and requested that the pre-Islamic name "Abdu Amr" should be used, to which 'Abd al-Rahman agreed.
The two met again in the Battle of Badr in March 624.
Battle of Uhud
Invasion of Dumatul-Jandal
In August 626 Muhammad directed 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf to raid the Kalb tribe in Daumatul-Jandal, instructing him: “Take it, Ibn Awf; fight everyone in the way of Allah and kill those who disbelieve in Allah. Do not be deceitful with the spoil; do not be treacherous, nor mutilate, nor kill children. This is Allah’s ordinance and the practice of His prophet among you.” Muhammad also instructed him on the correct way to wind a turban.:672 'Abd al-Rahman defeated the Kalbites and extracted from them their declaration of Islam and the payment of the jizya. He then sealed the alliance by marrying the chief's daughter Tamadur bint Al-Asbagh and bringing her back to Medina.:207-208
Role in successions to the Caliphate
In 644 the dying caliph Umar nominated a board of six members (the Council of Shura) to elect one of themselves as the next caliph. The group consisted of Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Uthman ibn Affan. Uthman was chosen as the third caliph by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf.
When 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf died, he was worth approximately 3.1 billion dinars which, at current rates of US$40 per gram, i.e. 3.1 billion x 4.25 gram X 40$ is more than US$527 billion because the dinar was the trading currency at that time. Along with dinars, he left 10,000 goats, 1,000 horses, 1,000 camels and a vast area of land.
'Abd al-Rahman was known as a business sensation in world. When he was asked about the secret of his success, he replied that he never lifted a stone unless he expected to find gold or silver under it.:96
Many stories are told of 'Abd al-Rahman's personal generosity. He once furnished Muhammad's army with 1,500 camels. He bequeathed 400 dinars to the survivors of Badr and a large legacy to the widows of Muhammad. One day he brought a caravan of 700 merchant-camels into Medina. Aisha remarked, "I have heard the Allah's Messenger say: 'I have seen 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf entering Paradise crawling.'" This was repeated to 'Abd al-Rahman, who replied: "If I could, I would certainly like to enter Paradise standing. I swear to you, yaa Ammah, that this entire caravan with all its merchandise, I will give in charity." And so he did.
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf was tall and bent-backed with a fine, light, rosy complexion and a handsome face. In old age he did not dye his hair.:101 Other descriptions refer to his curly hair; lustrous, long-lashed eyes; convex nose; somewhat protruding upper teeth; thick hair under the earlobes; long, elegant neck; and thick, masculine hands and fingers. He had a limp due to the wounds that he incurred at the Battle of Uhud.