عاشورا، دهمین روز از ماه محرم در گاهشماری هجری قمری، روز مقدس مسلمانان (و عزای شیعیان) است. شهرت این روز نزد شیعیان به دلیل وقایع عاشورای سال ۶۱ هجری قمری است که در این روز حسین بن علی- امام سوم شیعیان - و یاران وی در رویداد کربلا در جنگ با لشکر عمر سعد کشته شدند. شیعیان در این روز سوگواری میکنند. اهل سنت روز عاشورا را سالگرد روزی میدانند که موسی دریای سرخ را شکافت و خودش و پیروانش از آن عبور کردند و این روز را گرامی و روزه گرفتن در این روز را سنت میدانند.
نوشتار وابسته: عاشورای شمسی
عاشورای سال ۶۱ هجری قمری طبق بعضی محاسبات نجومی با توجه به گاهشماری هجری قمری هلالی با سه شنبه، ۲۰ مهر سال ۵۹ هجری خورشیدی (۹ اکتبر ۶۸۰ میلادی) برابر است. اما براساس محاسبات جدولی گاهشماری هجری قمری قراردادی این روز با چهارشنبه، ۲۱ مهرماه خورشیدی (۱۰ اکتبر میلادی) همان سال تطبیق داده میشود.
در دهم محرم ۶۱ هجری قمری نبردی میان سپاه حسین بن علی و سپاه اعزامی از سوی یزید بن معاویه در نزدیکی محلی به نام کربلا (در عراق کنونی) درگرفت. گفته میشود دلیل یزید بن معاویه برای جنگ، بیعت نکردن حسین بن علی با او بود؛ از طرفی حسین بن علی نیز حکومت و زمامداری یزید بن معاویه را غیرشرعی و غیرقانونی میدانست.
در پایان این نبرد حسین بن علی به همراه ۷۲ تن از همراهانش کشته شدند، پساز آن شیعیان هرساله در روز دهم محرم به عزادارای برای این کشتهشدگان میپردازند.
شیخ عباس قمی در مفاتیح الجنان میگوید: «روز دهم ماه محرم روز شهادت امام حسین است، روز مصیبت و حزن ائمه اطهار و شیعیان آنان است و شایستهاست که شیعیان در این روز مشغول کارهای دنیوی نگردند و مشغول گریه و نوحه باشند و زیارت عاشورا بخوانند.»
پیشینه تاریخی سوگواری برای حسین
سابقهٔ سوگواری و برپایی عزاداری برای حسین بن علی به اولین روزهای بعد از عاشورا، در محرم سال ۶۱ هجری میرسد. اولین مراسم سوگواری را زینب خواهر حسین در زندان برگزار کرد. همچنین دختر سه سالهٔ حسین، رقیه، در زندان اغلب برای پدرش گریه میکرد تا اینکه دستور دادند سر بریدهٔ پدر را به حضورش ببرند که این عمل باعث مرگ دختر شد. مرگ رقیه باعث بلوایی در شام شد که عاقبت یزید مصلحت دید اسرای کربلا را آزاد کرده آنها را به مدینه بفرستد.
همچنین از سجاد روایت شده که تا بیست سال پس از مرگ پدرش هر وقت میخواست اب بنوشد به گریه میافتاد. نقل شدهاست که روزی خدمتکاری از او پرسید "ای پسر رسول خدا! آیا وقت آن نرسیدهاست که اندوهتان به پایان برسد؟" سجاد پاسخ داد: "وای بر تو! یعقوب پیامبر دوازده پسر داشت و خداوند یکی از آنها را از چشمش پنهان کرد. از گریهٔ زیاد چشمانش کم سو و از غصه سرش سفید شد و پشتش خمیده گشت. (قرآن: ۱۲:۸۴) اگر چه پسرش زنده بود، اما من با چشم خود دیدم که پدر و برادر و عمو و هفده تن از اعضای خانوادهام در اطرافم قربانی شدند. چگونه اندوهم به پایان رسد؟"
از مراسم سنتی عزاداری برای حسین بن علی و دیگر امامان شیعه، که همراه نوحه خوانی و با آهنگی خاص بر سر و سینه میزنند، گاهی هم سینه خود را لختکرده، بر آن میزنند. اصل این سنت، به ویژه در میان عربها رواج داشتهاست. بعدها به صورت موجود درآمده که با انتخاب نوحههای سنگین، حرکات دست بر سینه میخورد. به فردی هم کهبر سینه خود زده، عزاداری میکند، «سینه زن» میگویند. اینگونه نوحهگری، ابتدا به صورت فردی بوده، اما با مرور زمان به شکل گروهی و دستهجات سوگواری درآمدهاست.
«دسته گردانی و سینه زنی و نوحه خوانی که در زمان صفویه رایج شده و توسعه پیدا کرده بود، در عصر قاجاریه با توسعه و تجمل بیشتر در پایتخت رواج داشت… دسته گردانی در عصر قاجار، به ویژه در زمان ناصر الدین شاه با آداب و تشریفات و تجمل بسیار برگزار میشد. دستههای روز با نقاره و موزیک جدید و علم و بیرق و کتل، و دستههای شب با طبقهای چراغ زنبوری و حجله و مشعل به راه میافتاد و در فواصل دسته سینهزنها با آهنگ موزون سینه میزدند. نوحهخوانی و سینهزنی حتی در اندرونی شاهان قاجار، بین زنان اندرون نیز متداول بود…»
همچنین شعر معروف محتشم کاشانی (سدهٔ ۱۰ قمری) در رثای واقعه کربلا که اینگونه آغاز میشود:
سوگواری در میان غیر مسلمانان
نگرش مذاهب دیگر
در مورد واقعه عاشورای سال ۶۱ اغلب تاریخ نگاران اهل سنت از جمله محمد بن جریر طبری، بلاذری، عمر بن سعد، ابن قتیبه دینوری، احمد بن داوود دینوری و عزالدین بن اثیر واقعه کربلا را به تفصیل و بر اساس روایت ابومخنف بیان کردهاند. [نیازمند منبع] این درحالی است که شیعیان معتقد هستند که بعد از واقعه عاشورا، بنی امیه به جعل منابع اسلامی پرداخت و به بهانه کشتن امام سوم شیعیان آن را روز مبارک و عید، روزه، توبه آدم، نجات یونس از شکم ماهی، استقرار سفینه نوح در کوه جودی، روز شکافته شدن دریا برای موسی، خاموش شدن آتش برای ابراهیم و… اعلام نمود.
صحیح بخاری این روز را معادل یومکیپور شمردهاست. در این روایت ذکر شدهاست که زمانی که محمد به مدینه رسید مشاهده کرد که یهودیان برای یوم کیپور روزه میگیرند. او از آنان پرسید دلیل روزه گرفتن چیست. آنها پاسخ دادند که خداوند در این روز قوم موسی را از دست فرعون نجات داد. او گفت ما از شما به موسی نزدیکتریم و دستور داد که پیروانش روزه بگیرند.
بر اساس نظر بعضی محققان نیز عاشورا بر روی یوم کیپور بنا نهاده شدهاست. از این رو بعضی اعتقاد دارند که تا زمان کمی قبل از فوت محمد که تغییر در تقویم در آیه نسیء منع شد دو روز عاشورا و یوم کیپور در انتهای تابستان بر روی یکروز قرار داشتند. بعد از نازل شدن آیه نسیء و ممنوع شدن سالهای سیزدهماهه دو تقویم عبری و عربی از یکدیگر جدا شدند و عاشورا از یوم کیپور جدا گشت. مراسم یوم کیپور در یهودیت نیازمند انجام قربانی به عنوان کفاره گناهان است که در آن خون قربانی در معبد ریخته میشد. همچنین در زبان عبری لغت دهم عاشارا یا عاسارا (عبری: עשרה) و دارای ریشه سامی ع-ش-ر به معنی ده است.
عاشورا در مناطق زیر تعطیل عمومی و رسمی است.
تصاویر سوگواری روز عاشورا
پیوند به بیرون
Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء, romanized: ʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage in Shia Islam, as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam. Ashura shares origins with Yom Kippur from Judaism.
Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain and Pakistan Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending. The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims.
The Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I. Immediately after succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance (Bay'ah). Husayn, however, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad. He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca.
On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation and that if he found them supportive as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal severely with Ibn Aqeel.
In Mecca, Husayn learned assassins had been sent by Yazid to kill him in the holy city in the midst of Hajj. Husayn, to preserve the sanctity of the city and specifically that of the Kaaba, abandoned his Hajj and encouraged others around him to follow him to Kufa without knowing the situation there had taken an adverse turn.
On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the vanguard of the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that had limited access to water.
Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates. On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order.
The Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH). Husayn's small group of companions and family members (in total around 72 men and the women and children)[note 1] fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river (Euphrates), from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī states:
Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus when she was imprisoned and after a year eventually was allowed to return to Medina.
Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali
History of the commemoration by Shia
According to Ignác Goldziher,
The first assembly (majlis) of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's three-year-old daughter, Ruqaiyah bint Hussain, died in captivity. She would often cry in prison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she saw her father's mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid, fearing a potential uprising, freed the captives.
Imam Zayn Al Abidin said the following:
Husayn's grave became a pilgrimage site among Shia Muslims only a few years after his death. A tradition quickly developed of pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs, known as Ziarat ashura. The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites. The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850–851 and Shia pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najaf were built by the Buwayhid emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979–80.
Public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom developed from the early pilgrimages. Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad. These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz. With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.
Azadari (mourning) rituals
The words Azadari (Persian: عزاداری) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used in connection with the remembrance ceremonies for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for.
These religious customs show solidarity with Husayn and his family. Through them, people mourn Husayn's death and express regret for the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family.
After almost 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around the battle of Karbala. These rituals include the memorial services (majalis al-ta'ziya), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashura and ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya) or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play (the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir). Some Shia Muslims believe that taking part in Ashura washes away their sins. A popular Shia saying has it that "a single tear shed for Husayn washes away a hundred sins".
For Shia Muslims, the commemoration of Ashura is not a festival but rather a sad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God gave to Moses. For Shia Muslims, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners congregate at a mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya, and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain". Also, Ulamas give sermons with themes of Husayn's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow his listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Husayn and his family and they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, passion plays known as Ta'zieh are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. In the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica Ashura, known locally as 'Hussay' or Hosay is commemorated for the grandson of Muhammad, but its celebration has adopted influence from other religions including Roman Catholic, Hindu, and Baptists, making it a mixture of different cultures and religion. The event is attended by both Muslims and non-Muslims depicting an environment of mutual respect and tolerance. For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (Nazri or Votive Food) on certain nights of the month to all people.
Certain traditional flagellation rituals such as Talwar zani (talwar ka matam or sometimes tatbir) use a sword. Other rituals such as zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam involve the use of a zanjeer (a chain with blades). This is not without controversy however as some Shia clerics have denounced the practice saying "it creates a backward and negative image of their community." Believers are instead encouraged to donate blood to those in need. On Ashura, very few Shia Muslims observe mourning with a blood donation, which is called "Qame Zani", and flailing. This mourning is considered to be a shameless[clarification needed] way for most Shia Muslims and most of them are against this kind of mourning. In some areas, such as in the Shia suburb of Beirut, Shia communities organize blood donation drives with organizations like the Red Cross or the Red Crescent on Ashura as a replacement for self-flagellation rituals like tatbir and qame zani.
Significance among religions
On the 10th of the month of Muharrem – the Ashure Day – Huseyn bin Ali was murdered at Karbala Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks, and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire.
This day is of particular significance to Twelver Shia and Alawites, who consider Husayn (the grandson of Muhammad) Ahl al-Bayt, the third Imam to be the rightful successor of Muhammad.
According to Kamran Scot Aghaie, "The symbols and rituals of Ashura have evolved over time and have meant different things to different people. However, at the core of the symbolism of Ashura is the moral dichotomy between worldly injustice and corruption on the one hand and God-centered justice, piety, sacrifice and perseverance on the other. Also, Shiite Muslims consider the remembrance of the tragic events of Ashura to be an important way of worshipping God in a spiritual or mystical way."
Shia Muslims make pilgrimages on Ashura, as they do forty days later on Arba'een, to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq, that is traditionally held to be Husayn's tomb. On this day Shia is in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from listening to or playing music since Arabic culture generally considers music impolite during death rituals. It is a time for sorrow and for showing respect for the person's passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection when one commits oneself completely to the mourning of Husayn. Shia Muslims do not plan weddings and parties on this date. They mourn by crying and listening to recollections of the tragedy and sermons on how Husayn and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Husayn's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Husayn's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shia Muslims a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression. Shia Muslims believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil, with Husayn representing good and Yazid representing evil.
Shia imams strongly insist that the day of Ashura should not be celebrated as a day of joy and festivity. The day of Ashura, according to Eighth Shia Imam Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of rest, sorrow, and total disregard of worldly matters.
Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast. According to hadith record in Sahih Bukhari, Ashura was already known as a commemorative day during which some Makkah residents used to observe customary fasting. Muhammad fasted on the day of Ashura, 10th Muharram, in Makkah. When fasting during the month of Ramadan became obligatory, the fast of Ashura was made non-compulsory.
According to Muslim tradition, the Jews also fasted on the tenth day. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, "What is this?" They said, "This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day." He said, "We have more claim over Musa than you." So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast. This tenth in question is believed to be the tenth of the Jewish month of Tishri, which is Yom Kippur in Judaism. The Torah designates the tenth day of the seventh month as holy and a fast (Lev. 16, Lev. 23, Num. 29). The word "tenth" in Hebrew is Asarah or Asharah (עשרה), which is from the same Semitic root A-SH-R. According to this tradition, Muhammad continued to observe the veneration of Ashura modeled on its Jewish prototype in late September until shortly before his death, which the verse of Nasi' was revealed and the Jewish-type calendar adjustments of the Muslims became prohibited. From then on, Ashura became distinct from its Jewish predecessor of Yom Kippur.
Commemoration of Ashura has great socio-political value for the Shia, who have been a minority throughout their history. According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli military presence and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the Ashura commemorations associate the memory of Al-Husayn's martyrdom with the conditions of Islam and Muslims in reference to Husayn's famous quote on the day of Ashura: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala".
From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905–1911) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam Husayn's enemies, the umayyads.
The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978–79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam Husayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq are buried.
On the other hand, some governments have banned this commemoration. In the 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities.
Terrorist attacks during Ashura
Terrorist attacks against Shia Muslims have occurred in several countries, on the day of Ashura. The repeated experience of violence at Ashura has produced an "interesting" feedback effect in Shia history.
In the Gregorian calendar
While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the appearance of the crescent moon that is used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country due to the different geographic locations.