طراحی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
طراحی در یک اثر مستقل، عنوان اثر: نان!، طراح: کته کُلویتس، ۱۹۲۴، محل نگهداری: بریتیش میوزیم، لندن.

طراحی به دانش ایجاد یک طرح از تصویری ذهنی، خیالی یا واقعی گفته می‌شود. طراحی در معنای تخصصی، مفاهیم و کاربردهای متنوعی را دربر می‌گیرد، از این رو مانند واژهٔ هنر با یک تعریف مشخص نمی‌توان تمام جنبه‌های آن را بیان کرد.

در هنرهای تجسمی، طراحی یا به‌صورت یک اثر مستقل؛ یا به عنوان پیش‌طرحی برای یک اثر هنری انجام می‌گیرد که در این صورت طرح مقدماتی[۱] نیز خوانده می‌شود. طراحی در دو حوزهٔ کلی مطرح می‌شود: یکی drawing است که شامل برداشت‌های شخصی، احساسات فی‌البداهه و تجربه‌های آزاد طراح از موضوعات گوناگون با بیان مستقل و به روش‌های متنوع می‌باشد؛ و دیگری design است که شامل مراحل ترکیب عناصر بصری و فضا بر پایهٔ اصول طرح، برای مخاطبی معین است و جنبهٔ کاربردی دارد، مانند رشته‌های طراحی صنعتی، طراحی معماری، طراحی گرافیک و طراحی لباس.[۲]

تاریخچه[ویرایش]

سابقه اولین طراحی‌ها بسیار کهن است.شاید بتوان گفت قدیمی‌ترین طرح‌ها مربوط به دورانی است که بشر درون غارها زندگی می‌کرده‌است.نقش‌های درون غار لاسکو و آلتامیرا در فرانسه نمونه‌هایی از این قبیل هستند. طراحی مردمان غارنشین با آئین ویژه و به دست افراد معدودی انجام میگرفت.اینطور حدس زده شده که هدف از این نقوش جنبه جادویی برای جلوگیری از سوانح طبیعی و افزایش قدرت در طبیعت بکار میرفته‌است.ابزار طراحی بشر اولیه بسیار ابتدایی بود و از سوخته چوب همراه با چربی و پیه حیوانات استفاده می‌کردند.[۳]

دیوارنگاره‌ای در غار دوشه واقع در لرستان، حدود هشت هزار سال پیش از میلاد

بین سده شانزدهم تا سده نوزدهم اهمیت طراحی در مقایسه با اهمیت رنگ‌پردازی بحث اصلی هنرمندان غربی بود و بر این مبنا هنر فلورانسی نیکولا پوسن و انگر از هنر ونیزی روبنس و دلاکروا متمایز شد. در شرق دور از گذشته تاکنون مرزی میان نقاشی و طراحی وجود نداشت و قلمو وسیله اصلی هر دو شاخه محسوب میشده‌است. در ایران پس از اسلام طراحی به عنوان نقشه‌ای برای نگارگری به حساب می‌آمد و ابتدا طرح را با خطوط بیرنگ بروی کاغذ میکشیدند و سپس به رنگ‌پردازی می‌پرداختند.در اواخر سده دهم هجری/شانزدهم میلادی طراحی از نگارگری مستقل شد و هنرمندانی مانند رضا عباسی، محمدی و شیخ محمد آن را به کمال رساندند.[۴]

ابزارهای طراحی[ویرایش]

امروزه، اجرای طراحی، محدود به استفاده از ابزارهای سنتی (مداد، زغال و غیره) نیست بلکه روش‌های متنوع ترکیب مواد، چسباندن وسایل، استفاده از مواد و ابزار تازه و غیرمتعارف نیز رواج یافته‌است. علاوه بر این، رایانه، دورنگار، ویدئو و انواع وسایل پیشرفتهٔ دیگر نیز امکانات تازه‌ای در این زمینه به وجود آورده‌اند.[۵] با این همه، آموزش طراحی از مسیر همان ابزارهای سنتی عبور می‌کند و از این طریق است که طراح قادر به استفادهٔ ماهرانه و خلاقانه از ابزارهای تازه می‌گردد.

طراحی خطی[ویرایش]

طرحی که فقط با خط رسم شود و سایه‌روشن یا لکه‌های رنگی نداشته باشد، طرح خطی[۱] نامیده می‌شود. مهم‌ترین تمرکز در طرح‌های خطی، بر خطوط پیرامونی اشیاء است.[۶] خطوط در طراحی، نشان‌دهندهٔ حالات عاطفی و روحی، نظم و تفکر هستند.

طراحی نور و سایه[ویرایش]

سایه‌روشن معمولاً به تغییر درجهٔ سایه‌ها از روشن به تیره در آثار هنری گفته می‌شود و مهارت هنرمند در استفاده از روش، باعث نمایش صحیح حجم و حالت مدل می‌شود.[۷]

سایه‌روشن به منظور به تصویر کشیدن شکل و فرم در رابطه با منبع نور در آثار هنری تمدن‌های گوناگونی به کار رفته است. اگرچه این روش در تمدن‌های اولیه مثل مصر باستان ناشناخته است اما از هنر غرب به ویژه ایتالیا در سدهٔ شانزدهم میلادی سر برآورده است. عوامل بسیار زیادی مانند نسبت بین خود اجزا (نور و سایه)، ارتباط با رنگ‌ها، روش توزیع عناصر نور و سایه که ترکیب‌بندی و کیفیت گویای نقاشی را مشخص می‌کند و همچنین دیدگاه‌های اجتماعی و فلسفی بر سایه‌روشن‌های کاربردی تأثیر می‌گذارد. ما می‌توانیم شاهد انواع سایه‌روشن‌ها در آثار هنرمندان برجسته و مشهور باشیم. نور فروزان و تاریکی عمیق در حکاکی‌های رامبرانت، عناصر را به تصویر می‌کشد. در سایه‌روشن‌های جوتو دی بوندونه و میکل‌آنژ، نور بر تیرگی غلبه دارد. طرحِ هاله‌ای از تیرگی‌ها در اطراف مدل در آثار لئوناردو دا وینچی؛ و سایه‌روشنی که نسبت تیرگی و روشنایی به میزان جذب نور توسط رنگ‌ها بستگی دارد در آثار تیسین و جورجونه مشاهده می‌شود. سایه‌روشنِ براق، کنتراست بین بخش‌های روشن و فضاهای تیره و سایه‌خوردهٔ شدید را می‌توان در آثار غیرمتداول و شدید کاراواجو مشاهده کرد.

بازیِ نور و سایه شامل هر گونه سوژه‌ای است که می‌تواند به تصویر کشیده شود که این نه‌تنها در نمایش صحنه‌های واقعی و طبیعی کاربرد دارد بلکه برای نمایش و انتقال احساسات، حالات، رویاها، آرزوها و تجارب، امروزه از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است.[۸]

حرفه‌های طراحی[ویرایش]

(به ترتیب الفبا)

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ به فرانسوی: Lineaire
  2. شاپوریان، فریبا (۱۳۸۱). طراحی ۱. تهران: شرکت چاپ و نشر کتابهای درسی ایران. ص. ۲۱-۱۴. شابک ۹۶۴-۰۵-۰۹۰۰-۰. از پارامتر ناشناخته |نوبت چاپ= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)
  3. شیوه طراحی 1، محسن وزیری مقدم، چاپ دوازدهم، انتشارات سروش
  4. دائرةالمعارف هنر، رویین پاکباز، چاپ سوم،انتشارات فرهنگ معاصر، ص 348
  5. همان، ۲۲.
  6. پارامون، خوزه (۱۳۷۲). نقاشی با مداد رنگی. ترجمهٔ قاسم روبین. تهران: نشر نی. ص. ۱۰۸. شابک ۹۶۴-۰۵-۰۹۰۰-۰. از پارامتر ناشناخته |نوبت چاپ= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)
  7. سیواردی، جیووانی (۱۳۸۸). راهنمای کامل طراحی. ترجمهٔ ایرج شیرنژاد و الهام‌السادات رضایی. تهران: برگ‌نگار. ص. ۳۷۶. شابک ۹۷۸-۹۶۴-۷۳۵۲-۲۰-۸. از پارامتر ناشناخته |نوبت چاپ= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)
  8. همان.
  • وزیری‌مقدم، محسن (۱۳۸۱). شیوۀ طراحی ۲. تهران: سروش. ص. ۱۱۵. شابک ۹۶۴-۴۳۵-۱۹۱-۶. از پارامتر ناشناخته |نوبت چاپ= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)
  • "Bread!". Work. WIKIART, Visual Art Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
Various examples of design sketches

A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. The verb to design expresses the process of developing a design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan (such as in craftwork, some engineering, coding, and graphic design) may also be considered to be a design activity. The design usually has to satisfy certain goals and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, functional, economic, or socio-political considerations, and is expected to interact with a certain environment. Major examples of designs include architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns.[1]

The person who produces a design is called a designer, which is a term generally used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas - usually specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a textile designer, fashion designer, product designer, concept designer, web designer (website designer) or interior designer), but also others such as architects and engineers. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process, possibly using design methods. The process of creating a design can be brief (a quick sketch) or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, negotiation, reflection, modeling, interactive adjustment and re-design.

Design as a process

Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways",[2] both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model",[3] "technical problem solving"[4] and "the reason-centric perspective".[5] The alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action",[4] "co-evolution",[6] and "the action-centric perspective".[5]

The rational model

The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon,[7][8] an American scientist, and Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists.[9] It posits that:

  1. Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives.
  2. The design process is plan-driven.
  3. The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.

The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy[3] and underlies the waterfall model,[10] systems development life cycle,[11] and much of the engineering design literature.[12] According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner.

Example sequence of stages

Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following:

Each stage has many associated best practices.[14]

Criticism of the rational model

The rational model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds:

  1. Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests.[4][5][15]
  2. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change.[3][16]

The action-centric model

The action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model.[5] It posits that:

  1. Designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates.
  2. The design process is improvised.
  3. No universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked.[5]

The action-centric perspective is based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the agile approach[17] and amethodical development.[18] Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers.[15] Like the rational model, the action-centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the rational model.

Descriptions of design activities

At least two views of design activity are consistent with the action-centric perspective. Both involve three basic activities.

In the reflection-in-action paradigm, designers alternate between "framing", "making moves", and "evaluating moves". "Framing" refers to conceptualizing the problem, i.e., defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision. The evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design.[4]

In the sensemaking–coevolution–implementation framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities. Sensemaking includes both framing and evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent simultaneously refines its mental picture of the design object based on its mental picture of the context, and vice versa".[5]

The concept of the design cycle is understood as a circular time structure,[19] which may start with the thinking of an idea, then expressing it by the use of visual or verbal means of communication (design tools), the sharing and perceiving of the expressed idea, and finally starting a new cycle with the critical rethinking of the perceived idea. Anderson points out that this concept emphasizes the importance of the means of expression, which at the same time are means of perception of any design ideas.[20]

Design disciplines

Philosophies and studies of design

There are countless philosophies for guiding design as design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought[which?] and among practicing designers.[21] Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element, to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals. John Heskett, a 20th-century British writer on design claimed, "Design, stripped to its essence, can be defined as the human nature to shape and make our environment in ways without precedent in nature, to serve our needs and give meaning to our lives."[22]

Philosophies for guiding design

Design philosophies are fundamental guiding principles that dictate how a designer approaches his/her practice. Reflections on material culture and environmental concerns (sustainable design) can guide a design philosophy. One example is the First Things First manifesto which was launched within the graphic design community and states "We propose a reversal of priorities in favor of more useful, lasting and democratic forms of communication – a mindshift away from product marketing and toward the exploration and production of a new kind of meaning. The scope of debate is shrinking; it must expand. Consumerism is running uncontested; it must be challenged by other perspectives expressed, in part, through the visual languages and resources of design."[23]

In The Sciences of the Artificial by polymath Herbert A. Simon, the author asserts design to be a meta-discipline of all professions. "Engineers are not the only professional designers. Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. The intellectual activity that produces material artifacts is no different fundamentally from the one that prescribes remedies for a sick patient or the one that devises a new sales plan for a company or a social welfare policy for a state. Design, so construed, is the core of all professional training; it is the principal mark that distinguishes the professions from the sciences. Schools of engineering, as well as schools of architecture, business, education, law, and medicine, are all centrally concerned with the process of design."[8]

Approaches to design

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict.

Some popular approaches include:

  • Sociotechnical system design, a philosophy and tools for participative designing of work arrangements and supporting processes – for organizational purpose, quality, safety, economics and customer requirements in core work processes, the quality of peoples experience at work and the needs of society
  • KISS principle, (Keep it Simple Stupid), which strives to eliminate unnecessary complications.
  • There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI), a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the same thing.
  • Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user.
  • User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.
  • Critical design uses designed artifacts as an embodied critique or commentary on existing values, morals, and practices in a culture.
  • Service design designing or organizing the experience around a product and the service associated with a product's use.
  • Transgenerational design, the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living.
  • Speculative design, the speculative design process doesn't necessarily define a specific problem to solve, but establishes a provocative starting point from which a design process emerges. The result is an evolution of fluctuating iteration and reflection using designed objects to provoke questions and stimulate discussion in academic and research settings.
  • Participatory Design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is the practice of collective creativity to design, attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable. Participatory design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style[24]

Methods of designing

Design methods is a broad area that focuses on:

  • Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories (see also Brainstorming)
  • Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
  • Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time
  • Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation
  • Trendspotting: understanding the trend process.

Types

Design can broadly be applied to various fields such as art, engineering and production.

The new terminal at Barajas airport in Madrid, Spain

Design and art

Today, the term design is generally used for what was formerly called the applied arts. The new term, for a very old thing, was perhaps initiated by Raymond Loewy and teachings at the Bauhaus and Ulm School of Design (HfG Ulm) in Germany during the 20th century.

The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to a range of applications both for the term 'art' and the term 'design'. Applied arts can include industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, and the decorative arts which traditionally includes craft objects. In graphic arts (2D image making that ranges from photography to illustration), the distinction is often made between fine art and commercial art, based on the context within which the work is produced and how it is traded.

To a degree, some methods for creating work, such as employing intuition, are shared across the disciplines within the applied arts and fine art. Mark Getlein, writer, suggests the principles of design are "almost instinctive", "built-in", "natural", and part of "our sense of 'rightness'."[25] However, the intended application and context of the resulting works will vary greatly.

A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to design, with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.

Design and engineering

In engineering, design is a component of the engineering process. Many overlapping methods and processes can be seen when comparing Product design, Industrial design and Engineering. The American Heritage Dictionary defines design as: "To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent," and "To formulate a plan", and defines engineering as: "The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems.".[26][27] Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the importance of more new "human-centered" fields of design.[28] How much science is applied in a design is a question of what is considered "science". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is social science versus natural science. Scientists at Xerox PARC made the distinction of design versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving atoms" (probably in contradiction to the origin of term "engineering – engineer" from Latin "in genio" in meaning of a "genius" what assumes existence of a "mind" not of an "atom").

Jonathan Ive has received several awards for his design of Apple Inc. products like this MacBook. In some design fields, personal computers are also used for both design and production

Design and production

The relationship between design and production is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Design involves problem-solving and creativity. In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering processes although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary or impractical to expect a designer with a broad multidisciplinary knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed specialized knowledge of how to produce the product.

Design and production are intertwined in many creative professional careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper, requires separating (design) architecture from (production) construction. A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, a few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher.

This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor that design always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a design may task a production position (e.g. production artist, construction worker) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process. Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer.

An example of a business workflow process using Business Process Model and Notation.

Process design

"Process design" (in contrast to "design process" mentioned above) is to the planning of routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of chemical processes. With the increasing complexities of the information age, consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dictionary meanings in the Cambridge Dictionary of American English, at Dictionary.com (esp. meanings 1–5 and 7–8) and at AskOxford (especially verbs).
  2. ^ Dorst, Kees; Dijkhuis, Judith (1995). "Comparing paradigms for describing design activity". Design Studies. 16 (2): 261–274. doi:10.1016/0142-694X(94)00012-3.
  3. ^ a b c Brooks, F.P. (2010) The design of design: Essays from a computer scientist, Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-36298-8.
  4. ^ a b c d Schön, D.A. (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action, Basic Books, USA.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ralph, P. (2010) "Comparing two software design process theories". International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2010), Springer, St. Gallen, Switzerland, pp. 139–153. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13335-0_10.
  6. ^ Dorst, Kees; Cross, Nigel (2001). "Creativity in the design process: Co-evolution of problem–solution" (PDF). Design Studies. 22 (5): 425–437. doi:10.1016/S0142-694X(01)00009-6.
  7. ^ Newell, A., and Simon, H. (1972) Human problem solving, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  8. ^ a b Simon, H.A. (1996) The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. p. 111. ISBN 0-262-69191-4.
  9. ^ Pahl, G., and Beitz, W. (1996) Engineering design: A systematic approach, Springer-Verlag, London. ISBN 3-540-19917-9.
  10. ^ Royce, W.W. (1970) "Managing the development of large software systems: Concepts and techniques," Proceedings of Wescon.
  11. ^ Bourque, P., and Dupuis, R. (eds.) (2004) Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge (SWEBOK). IEEE Computer Society Press, ISBN 0-7695-2330-7.
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Bibliography