خداستیزی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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خداستیزی یا آنتی‌تئیسم، نوعی جهان‌بینی است که به نفی ادعای وجود خدا می‌پردازد، و فعّالانه، با استدلال به مخرّب بودن خداباوری، با باور به خدا، مقابله می‌کند.[۱][۲] این اصطلاح معانی گسترده‌ای را شامل می‌گردد. در ادبیّات سکولار، به مخالفت مستقیم با هرگونه اعتقاد به پرستش، ضدّ خدایی اطلاق می‌گردد. از ضدّ خدایان معروف می‌توان به کریستوفر هیچنز و ریچارد داوکینز اشاره کرد.

مخالفت با دیدگاه‌های دینی و مذهبی[ویرایش]

فرهنگ لغت آکسفورد واژهٔ آنتی‌تئیست را به این صورت تعریف می‌نماید: «شخصی که با باور به وجود خدا مخالف است». تعریف پیشین از این واژه مربوط به سال ۱۸۳۳ می‌باشد. مطابق آن تعریف آنتی‌تئیسم به افرادی اطلاق می‌گردد که دیدگاه‌های دینی و مذهبی یا همان تئیسم را به عنوان یک نوع رفتار خطرناک، مخرّب و مضر می‌دانستند.

مخالفت با اعتقاد به خدا[ویرایش]

تعریفهای دیگری از واژهٔ آنتی‌ته‌ایسم وجود دارد. به عنوان مثال:

  • تعریف فیلسوف کاتولیک فرانسوی ژاک ماریتن (۱۹۵۳): «یک مبارزهٔ فعال در برابر هر چیزی که خدا را به ما یادآوری می‌کند.»
  • تعریف رابرت فلینت استاد الهیات دانشگاه ادینبرو در سخنرانی بیرد با عنوان تئوری‌های خداستیزانه، در سال ۱۸۷۷:[۳] «او واژهٔ آنتی‌تی ایسم را برای مواردی برای افکارو ایدئولوژی‌هایی به کار می‌برد که در برابر دیدگاه‌های مذهبی نگرشی بی‌طرفانه و ندانم گرایانه اتخاذ می‌نمایند.»

کاربردهای دیگر[ویرایش]

استفادهٔ دیگر از اصطلاح آنتی‌ته‌ایسم توسط کریستوفر نیو توسط انجام یک آزمایش به چاپ رسیده در سال ۱۹۹۳ متداول گردید. در این مقاله، او فرض وجود یک خدای شرور را به تصویر کشید: «خداستیزان، همانند خداباوران به وجود یک قادر و دانای مطلق و همچنین خالق جاودان معتقد هستند، با این حال در حقیقت خداباروان معتقد هستند که خداوند متعال بی‌نهایت خوب و خیرخواه است و خداستیزان معتقدند که اون بی‌نهایت شرور و بد می‌باشد.»[۴]

لغت‌شناسی[ویرایش]

کلمهٔ آنتی‌تی‌ایسم (و یا آنتی‌ته-ایسم) از سال ۱۷۸۸ در زبان انگلیسی وارد شده‌است. ریشه‌های لغت‌شناسی این کلمه موید ریشه یونانی آن هستند (آنتی+تئوس).[۵]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Austin Cline. "Atheism and Anti-Theism: What's the Difference? What is Anti-Theism?". About.com.
  2. "antitheism". The Free Dictionary.
  3. Flint, Robert (1894). Anti-Theistic Theories: Being the Baird Lecture for 1877 (5 ed.). London: William Blackwood and Sons.
  4. New, Christopher (June 1993). "Antitheism – A Reflection". Ratio. 6 (1): 36–43. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9329.1993.tb00051.x.. See also: Daniels, Charles B. (1997). "God, demon, good, evil", The Journal of Value Inquiry, Vol. 31 (2), June, pp.177–181.
  5. "antitheism". Online Etymology Dictionary.

Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is the opposition to theism.[1][2] The term has had a range of applications. In secular contexts, it typically refers to direct opposition to the belief in any deity.

Etymology

The word antitheism (or hyphenated anti-theism) has been recorded in English since 1788.[3] The etymological roots of the word are the Greek anti and theos.

Opposition to theism

The Oxford English Dictionary defines antitheist as "One opposed to belief in the existence of a god". The earliest citation given for this meaning dates from 1833.[4] Antitheism has been adopted as a label by those who regard theism as dangerous, destructive, or encouraging of harmful behavior. Christopher Hitchens offers an example of this approach in Letters to a Young Contrarian (2001), in which he writes: "I'm not even an atheist so much as I am an antitheist; I not only maintain that all religions are versions of the same untruth, but I hold that the influence of churches, and the effect of religious belief, is positively harmful."[5]

Opposition to the idea of God

Other definitions of antitheism include that of the French Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain (1953), for whom it is "an active struggle against everything that reminds us of God" (p. 104), and that of Robert Flint (1877), Professor of Divinity at the University of Edinburgh. Flint's Baird Lecture for 1877 was entitled Anti-Theistic Theories.[6] He used it as a very general umbrella term for all opposition to his own form of theism, which he defined as the "belief that the heavens and the earth and all that they contain owe their existence and continuance to the wisdom and will of a supreme, self-existent, omnipotent, omniscient, righteous, and benevolent Being, who is distinct from, and independent of, what He has created."[7] He wrote:

In dealing with theories which have nothing in common except that they are antagonistic to theism, it is necessary to have a general term to designate them. Anti-theism appears to be the appropriate word. It is, of course, much more comprehensive in meaning than the term atheism. It applies to all systems which are opposed to theism. It includes, therefore, atheism, but short of atheism, there are anti-theistic theories. Polytheism is not atheism, for it does not deny that there is a deity; but it is anti-theistic since it denies that there is only one. Pantheism is not atheism, for it asserts that there is a god; but it is anti-theism, for it denies that God is a being distinct from creation and possessed of such attributes as wisdom, and holiness, and love. Every theory which refuses to ascribe to a god an attribute which is essential to a worthy conception of its character is anti-theistic. Only those theories which refuse to acknowledge that there is evidence even for the existence of a god are atheistic.[8]

However, Flint also acknowledges that antitheism is typically understood differently from how he defines it. In particular, he notes that it has been used as a subdivision of atheism, descriptive of the view that theism has been disproven, rather than as the more general term that Flint prefers. He rejects non-theistic as an alternative, "not merely because of its hybrid origin and character, but also because it is far too comprehensive. Theories of physical and mental science are non-theistic, even when in no degree, directly or indirectly, antagonistic to theism."[9]

Opposition to the existence of a god or gods is frequently referred to as dystheism, which would actually mean "belief in a deity that is not benevolent", or misotheism – strictly speaking, this means "hatred of God". Examples of belief systems founded on the principle of opposition to the existence of a god or gods include some forms of Atheistic Satanism and maltheism.

Other uses

Another use of the term antitheism was coined by Christopher New in a thought experiment published in 1993. In his article, he imagines what arguments for the existence of an evil god would look like: "Antitheists, like theists, would have believed in an omnipotent, omniscient, eternal creator; but whereas theists in fact believe that the supreme being is also perfectly good, antitheists would have believed that he was perfectly evil."[10] New's usage has reappeared in the work of Wallace A. Murphree.[11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Austin Cline. "Atheism and Anti-Theism: What's the Difference? What is Anti-Theism?". About.com.
  2. ^ "antitheism". The Free Dictionary.
  3. ^ "antitheism". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. ^ The Shorter OED (1970 reprint) page 78
  5. ^ "Christopher Hitchens – Book Excerpt". Archived from the original on 2009-09-15.
  6. ^ Flint, Robert (1894). Anti-Theistic Theories: Being the Baird Lecture for 1877 (5 ed.). London: William Blackwood and Sons.
  7. ^ Flint, p. 1
  8. ^ Flint, p. 23
  9. ^ Flint, p. 444–445
  10. ^ New, Christopher (June 1993). "Antitheism – A Reflection". Ratio. 6 (1): 36–43. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9329.1993.tb00051.x.. See also: Daniels, Charles B. (1997). "God, demon, good, evil", The Journal of Value Inquiry, Vol. 31 (2), June, pp.177–181.
  11. ^ Murphree, Wallace A. (1997). "Natural Theology: theism or antitheism", Sophia, Vol.36 (1), March, pp.75–83

References