صنعت سکس

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فارسیEnglish
woman with long, blond hair in a red, one-piece lingerie lounging on a small bed in a small room
یک زن تن‌فروش در آلمان. در بیش‌تر کشورها و میان فرهنگ‌های گوناگون، رنگ سرخ به عشق و سکس نسبت داده می‌شود و از همین رو، بیش‌تر کنش‌گران این تجارت از رنگ سرخ برای تبلیغ کالا یا خدماتشان بهره می‌گیرند.

صنعت سکس یا تجارت سکس متشکل است از هر گونه کسب‌وکار که یا مستقیم یا نامستقیم با روابط جنسی یا سکس در ارتباط باشد. از آن جمله می‌توان به تن‌فروشی، پورنوگرافی، مجله‌های سکسی، فیلم‌های سکسی، اسباب‌بازی جنسی، سکس شاپ، کاباره لختی و به‌طور کل هرچه با سکس در ارتباط باشد اشاره کرد.

تن‌فروشی[ویرایش]

تن‌فروشی مهم‌ترین بخش از تجارت سکس است که محل کسب آن روسپی‌خانه، محل زندگی شخص تن‌فروش، هتل، اتوموبیل یا حتی خیابان است. اغلب بازاریاب این شغل قواد یا جاکش نام دارد که گاه از راه یک شرکت (به اصطلاح انگلیسی اسکورت) یا به صورت شخصی فعالیت می‌کند. تن‌فروشی شامل فرد تن‌فروش یا کارگر جنسی می‌شود که خدمات جنسی مستقیم به مشتری ارائه می‌کند. در بیشتر موارد تن‌فروشان حق گزینش نحوه انجام عمل جنسی را دارند اما در مواردی همچون تن‌فروشی اجباری و بردگی جنسی فرد ارائه‌کننده این خدمات حق گزینشی ندارد.

قوانین تن‌فروشی و موارد مرتبط با آن همچون امور مربوط به فاحشه‌خانه‌ها در کشورهای دنیا با هم متفاوت هستند. در برخی کشورها که این کار غیرقانونی است، دیده می‌شود که این تجارت رشد زیادی دارد چرا که میزان تقاضا در آن همیشه بالاست و سود حاصل از آن نیز همین‌طور.[۱]

روسپی‌خانه محلی است که افراد در آن مشغول به انجام آمیزش جنسی با یک تن‌فروش می‌شوند.[۲] با وجود آنکه هر کجا که تن‌فروشی صورت گیرد می‌تواند به عنوان روسپی‌خانه قلمداد شود، اما این عمل در سالن‌های ماساژ، بارها و کاباره‌های لختی نیز ممکن است صورت گیرد. کار کردن تن‌فروشان در روسپی‌خانه‌ها برایشان امن‌تر از سکس در خیابان است.[۳]

تن‌فروشی و راه‌اندازی روسپی‌خانه در برخی کشورها قانونی است و در برخی غیرقانونی. حتی در کشورهایی که قانونی است، این روسپی‌خانه‌ها ممکن است با محدودیت‌های فراوانی روبه‌رو باشند. تن‌فروشی اجباری و سکس با خردسالان در هر صورتی ممنوع است. در برخی کشورها روسپی‌خانه‌ها حق فعالیت تنها در محله‌های ویژه‌ای همچون مناطق سرخ را دارا هستند. در برخی کشورها بهره‌گیری از الکل در روسپی‌خانه‌ها غیرمجاز است.

چنانچه شخصی از کشور محل اقامتش به سبب دریافت خدمات جنسی به کشور دیگری مسافرت کند به آن گردشگری جنسی گفته می‌شود.[نیازمند منبع] گردشگری جنسی مردانه سبب ایجاد زیرساخت‌های صنعت سکس در کشور پذیرنده می‌شود در حالی که گردشگری جنسی زنانه سبب می‌شود مشتریان از زیرساخت‌های فعلی بهره نبرند.[نیازمند منبع]گردشگری جنسی هم همچون دیگر گونه‌های گردشگری سبب رونق اقتصادی شهرها و کشورهای پذیرنده می‌شود. گردشگری جنسی عموماً به سبب قوانین دست و پاگیر در کشورهای مبدأ، ایجاد می‌شود حال آنکه این صنعت برای کشورهای پذیرنده یا مقصد ممکن است تبعات اجتماعی ناخوشایندی داشته باشد.

مکان[ویرایش]

شغل‌های مربوط به صنعت سکس عموماً حول مراکز نظامی شکل می‌گیرند. در بریتانیا نیروی دریایی پورتسموث صاحب یک صنعت سکس رو به گسترش در قرن نوزدهم میلادی بود و تا پایان دهه ۱۹۹۰ مناطق سرخ فراوانی نزدیک پایگاه‌های نظامی آمریکا در فیلیپین ایجاد شد. منطقه سرخمونتو در دوبلین که یکی از بزرگترین‌ها در اروپا به حساب می‌آمد، به وسیله سربازان بریتانیایی ایجاد شده بود که پس از ورود سربازان ایرلندی به این مناطق از بین رفت. در بانکوک و در سواحل پاتایا روسپی‌خانه‌هایی برای سربازان آمریکایی شکل گرفته بود که در جنگ ویتنام در سال‌های ۱۹۷۰ بسیار به کار ارتش ایالات متحده آمد. تجارت سکس در شهرهای دانشگاهی کوچک اما رو به رشد است.

دیگر بهره‌مندان[ویرایش]

صدها تن هر روزه در این صنعت مشغول کارند که از آن جمله می‌توان به تن‌فروشان یا کارگران جنسی اشاره کرد. کارگران جنسی شامل دختران تلفنی، بازیگران هرزه‌نگاری، دست‌اندرکاران پورنوگرافی، رقصنده‌های شهوانی، رقصنده‌های برهنه و تن‌فروشان تلفنی و... می‌شوند.

به علاوه افراد دیگری نیز در صنعت سکس مشغول کارند که شاید کارشان به‌طور مستقیم با رابطه جنسی در ارتباط نباشد اما سود زیادی از کار در این صنعت نصیبشان می‌گردد همچون مدیران، نویسندگان، فیلم‌برداران، عکاسان، وب‌مسترها و... .

معمولاً مدیران شاغل در این صنعت هیچ‌گاه رابطه مستقیمی با کارگران جنسی ندارند.

هرزه‌نگاری[ویرایش]

پورنوگرافی به نمایش بی‌پرده آمیزش جنسی به سبب رسیدن به برانگیختگی جنسی و اوج لذت جنسی به هر نحو همچون فیلم، داستان، عکس و ... گفته می‌شود. یک پورنوگراف کسی است که عمل جنسی را خلق می‌کند تا به نمایش در آورد. یک بازیگر پورنوگرافی یا ستاره پورن نیز کسی است که در فیلم‌های مربوطه بازی می‌کند یا نمایش می‌دهد. چنانچه فردی که عمل جنسی را به نمایش می‌گذارد از هنر نمایش بی‌بهره باشد آنگاه او را تنها یک مدل پورنو خطاب می‌کنند. از جمله راه‌هایی که پورن به دست مصرف‌کننده می‌رسد می‌توان به کتاب‌های محرک، مجله‌ها، کارت‌های پستی سکسی، عکس، مجسمه، ترسیم، نقاشی، پویانمایی، ضبط و نشر آواها، فیلم داستانی، ویدئو یا حتی بازی ویدئویی اشاره کرد. با این حال اگر عمل جنسی در مقابل تماشاچیان و به صورت زنده انجام گیرد، دیگر به آن پورنوگرافی نمی‌گویند؛ چراکه پورنوگرافی به معنای به نمایش گذاردن عمل جنسی است و نه اجرای نمایش آن. بنابراین کارهایی نظیر نمایش‌های جنسی یا رقص برهنه در حیطه پورنوگرافی نیستند.

در دهه‌های ۱۹۸۰ و ۱۹۹۰ با آمدن نخستین رایانه‌های خانگی که قادر بودند به شبکه‌های رایانه‌ای متصل شوند سرگرمی بزرگ‌سالان پا به عرصه اینترنت و فضای مجازی گذاشت. نخستین روزهای آمدن شبکه وب جهان‌گستر، حباب دات-کام همچون گلوله برفی که روی برف بغلطد و گسترش یابد، شروع به بزرگ شدن کرد و مصرف پورنو و اروتیکا رو به فزونی نهاد. در سال ۲۰۰۹ درآمد ۱۰–۱۵ میلیاردی پورن در آمریکا به تنهایی بیش از صنایع موسیقی و ورزشی با هم و نیز به تقریب نزدیک به درآمد گیشه فیلم‌های هالیوودی بود.[۴][۵]

بهره‌کشی از کودکان[ویرایش]

در حالی که صنعت سکس و سرگرمی بزرگ‌سالان در برخی کشورها ممنوع است یا با محدودیت روبه‌روست، اما بهره‌کشی از کودکان در این صنعت به تقریب در همه جای دنیا ممنوع است.

بهره‌کشی جنسی از کودکان (CSEC) به "استفاده جنسی از کودکان در برابر دریافت پول" اطلاق می‌شود که در این فعالیت کودک به عنوان شیء جنسی در نظر گرفته می‌شود".[۶]

بهره‌کشی جنسی از کودکان شامل تن‌فروشی کودکان، پورنوگرافی کودکان، گردشگری جنسی کودکان و دیگر گونه‌های رابطه جنسی می‌شود که در آن کودکان مجبورند به سبب فراهم آوردن نیازهای اولیه زندگی همچون خوراک، پناه‌گاه یا تحصیل تن به رابطه جنسی بدهند. گاهی حتی خانواده این کودکان از آنان می‌خواهند که از طریق سکس برایشان درآمدزایی کنند. بهره‌کشی جنسی کودکان در آسیا (بیش‌تر در تایلند، کامبوج و هند) و برخی نقاط آمریکای لاتین صورت می‌گیرد که در این میان کامبوج، هند، برزیل و مکزیک بیش‌ترین آمار تن‌فروشی کودکان را دارا هستند.[۷]

سرگرمی بزرگ‌سالان[ویرایش]

سرگرمی بزرگ‌سالان گونه‌ای سرگرمی است که تنها مناسب بزرگ‌سالان است و نه حتی خانواده‌ها. از جمله این سرگرمی‌ها می‌توان به کانال‌های سکسی تلویزیون، نمایش‌های سکسی، سکس شاپ، کاباره لختی، مجله‌های مردان، فیلم داستانی پورن، اسباب‌بازی جنسی، یادگار سکسی و بی‌دی‌اس‌ام اشاره کرد.

مخالفت‌ها[ویرایش]

صنعت سکس بسیار مناقشه‌برانگیز است و سازمان‌ها، افراد و دولت‌های متعددی بر آن ایرادهای اخلاقی وارد می‌کنند. از همین روی فعالیت‌هایی همچون هرزه‌نگاری به هر نحو، لختی‌گری و تن‌فروشی در برخی کشورها ممنوع هستند.

مخالفان هرزه‌نگاری بیان می‌کنند که این صنعت ضررهای فراوانی برای جامعه به ارمغان می‌آورد که از آن میان می‌توان به افزایش قاچاق انسان، قبح‌زدایی، کودک‌آزاری جنسی، کاهش ارج و اهمیت انسانی، تباهی، ناکارآمدی جنسی و عدم توانایی افراد در برقراری رابطه جنسی صحیح اشاره کرد.

اعتراض‌های جامعه‌شناسان[ویرایش]

دالف زیلمن معتقد است که بهره‌گیری بیش از حد از هرزه نگاری می‌تواند سبب ایجاد مشکلات عدیده جامعه‌شناختی شود که او آن‌ها را ناخوشایند قلمداد می‌کند. از آن جمله می‌توان به کاهش بسیار ازدواج‌های تک‌همسری و روابط بلندمدت اشاره کرد که این خود سبب کاهش شدید تولید نسل در جوامع می‌شود.[۸] او بر این باور است که پورنوگرافی می‌تواند "ارزش‌های سنتی جامعه همچون نهاد خانواده و ازدواج و فرزندآوری" را از بین ببرد و رابطه جنسی را طوری به نمایش بگذارد که هیچ ارتباطی با "همبستگی‌های عاطفی، مهربانی و مسئولیت‌پذیری در زندگی واقعی" نداشته باشد.[۹]

به علاوه برخی جامعه‌شناسان نیز معتقدند که هرزه‌نگاری سبب افزایش جرائم جنسی در جامعه می‌شود.[۸][۱۰] پژوهشی تحت عنوان "تاثیرات هرزه‌نگاری:یک بینش میان‌کشوری" نیز در همین رابطه صورت گرفته‌است.[۱۱] با این حال پژوهش‌هایی نیز رابطه همبستگی میان کاهش جرائم جنسی و پورنوگرافی یافته‌اند.[۱۲][۱۳][۱۴]

اعتراض‌های زن‌گرایان[ویرایش]

کارول پِیتمن، نظریه‌پرداز سیاسی و زن‌گرا، شیءانگاری جنسی زنان و به‌کارگیری آنان در صنعت سکس را محکوم کرده‌است.

برخی زن‌گرایان با اظهار اینکه صنعت سکس موجب تباهی زنان است با آن مخالفت دارند. آنان می‌گویند صنعت سکس با شیء انگاری جنسی مرد محور زنان مرتبط است[۱۵] و سبب افزایش خشونت جنسی علیه زنان و کودکان شده و برابری جنسیتی را به خطر می‌اندازد، به‌طوری که در این صنعت زنان را به آلت جنسی زنانه تقلیل می‌دهند.[۱۶] آنان با بیان اینکه تن‌فروشی عملی به نفع مردان است معتقدند خشونت علیه زنان در این صنعت فراوان است و در واقع جزئی جداناشدنی از صنعت سکس است.[نیازمند منبع]. آنان می‌گویند بیشتر زنانی که تن به تن‌فروشی می‌دهند از روی اجبار از طرف صاحبان روسپی‌خانه‌ها، فقر، نبود دارو، اعتیاد، بی‌خانمانی و تجاوز جنسی در کودکی رو به این کار آورده‌اند[نیازمند منبع]. بر این پایه سوئد، نروژ و ایسلند خرید و فروش خدمات جنسی را جرم محسوب کرده‌اند.[نیازمند منبع]. (در این کشورها مشتری‌ها و صاحابان روسپی‌خانه‌ها و نه افراد تن‌فروش مورد پیگرد قانونی قرار می‌گیرند). این قوانین سبب کاهش چشم‌گیر قاچاق انسان و تن‌فروشی در این کشورها شده‌است.[۱۷]

برخی دیگر از زن‌گرایان همچون گیل داینز با پورنوگرافی به سبب خشونتی که علیه زنان ایجاد می‌کند مخالفند. او معتقد است که این صنعت، تجاوز جنسی و آزار جنسی را در مردان نهادینه می‌کند که این خود سبب ایجاد یک جامعه مرد محور و جنسیت‌زده می‌شود. گروه دیگری از زن‌گرایان نیز هستند که با هرگونه سانسور رابطه جنسی و قوانین محدود‌کننده یا قوانین علیه پورنوگرافی در کشور ایالات متحده آمریکا مخالفند که از میان آنان می‌توان به بتی فریدان، کیت میلت، کارن دکرو، وندی کمینر و جامیکا کینکیداشاره کرد.[۱۸]

دیگر مخالفت‌ها[ویرایش]

تجارت سکس همواره به سبب ارتباط گسترده آن با قاچاق انسان، مهاجرت غیرقانونی، سوء مصرف مواد و تباهی کودکان (پورنوگرافی کودکان و تن‌فروشی کودکان) مورد انتقاد بوده‌است. همچنین تجارت سکس موجب افزایش بیماری‌های آمیزشی شده که نگران‌کننده است.

از پورنوگرافی به عنوان یکی از عوامل شیوع قاچاق جنسی، خشونت جنسی، تجاوز جنسی و کودک آزاری یاد می‌کنند.[۱۹][۲۰][۲۱][۲۲] بر اساس تحقیقات پورنوگرافی عامل رواج نفرت علیه زنان، خشونت خانگی و بی احترامی است.[۲۳] واشینگتن پست پورنوگرافی را "مخرب‌ترین و رایج‌ترین معمولِ زمان ما" می‌داند.[۲۴]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

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  2. [۱] Definitions of brothel on the Web
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  11. «The effects of Pornography: An International Perspective». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۱۵ ژانویه ۲۰۰۸. دریافت‌شده در ۱۹ فوریه ۲۰۱۶.
  12. "Pornography, rape and the internet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
  13. D'Amato, Anthony (2006-06-23). "Porn Up, Rape Down". Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  14. The Effects of Pornography: An International Perspective بایگانی‌شده در ۳ فوریه ۲۰۱۲ توسط Wayback Machine University of Hawaii Porn 101: Eroticism, Pornography, and the First Amendment: Milton Diamond Ph.D.
  15. Objectification”, “prostitution”, ”Pornography” in Villanueva Gardner, Catherine,Historical Dictionary of Feminist Philosophy, The Scarecrow Press, 2006
  16. http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/pornography_is_what_the_end_of_the_world_looks_like_20150215
  17. Why the Game's Up for Sweden's Sex Trade http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/why-the-games-up-for-swedens-sex-trade-8548854.html
  18. "The Harm of Porn". Fiawol.demon.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  19. «Science backs up destructive effects of pornography». ژوئیه ۲۱, ۲۰۱۵.
  20. «Pornography Addiction in the Brain: Its Destructive Nature and How To Overcome It». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۲ اوت ۲۰۱۷. دریافت‌شده در ۲۰۱۷-۰۷-۳۱.
  21. http://www.drsyrasderksen.com/blog/effects-of-pornography
  22. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/resources/life-and-family/pornography/the-harmful-effects-of-pornography/
  23. «Science backs up destructive effects of pornography».
  24. «HAGELIN: Addiction to porn is real, destructive». ژوئن ۲۰, ۲۰۱۰.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

woman with long, blond hair in a red, one-piece lingerie lounging on a small bed in a small room
A prostitute in Germany; red is the sex industry's preferred color in many cultures, due to being strongly associated with passion, love and sexuality.[1]

The sex industry (also called the sex trade) consists of businesses that either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment. The industry includes activities involving direct provision of sex-related services, such as prostitution, strip clubs, host and hostess clubs and sex-related pastimes, such as pornography, sex-oriented men's magazines, sex movies, sex toys and fetish and BDSM paraphernalia. Sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for video on demand, are part of the sex industry, as are adult movie theaters, sex shops, peep shows, and strip clubs.

Etymology

The origins of the term sex industry are uncertain, but it appears to have arisen in the 1970s. A 1977 report by the Ontario Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry (LaMarsh Commission) quoted author Peter McCabe as writing in Argosy: "Ten years ago the sex industry did not exist. When people talked of commercial sex they meant Playboy."[2] A 1976 article in The New York Times by columnist Russell Baker claimed that "[M]ost of the problems created by New York City's booming sex industry result from the city's reluctance to treat it as an industry", arguing why sex shops constituted an "industry", and should be treated as such by concentrating them in a single neighborhood,[3] suggesting the "sex industry" was not yet commonly recognized as such.

Prostitution

Prostitution is a main component of the sex industry and may take place in a brothel, at a facility provided by the prostitute, at a client's hotel room, in a parked car, or on the street. Often this is arranged through a pimp or an escort agency. Prostitution involves a prostitute or sex worker providing commercial sexual services to a client.[4] In some cases, the prostitute is at liberty to determine whether she or he will engage in a particular type of sexual activity, but forced prostitution and sexual slavery does exist in some places around the world.[5] Reasons as to why an individual may enter into prostitution are varied. Socialist and radical feminists have cited poverty, oppressive capitalistic processes, and patriarchal societies that marginalizes people based on race and class as reasons for the continued presence of prostitution, as these aspects all work together to maintain oppression.[6] Other reasons include displacement due to conflict and war.[7][6][8][9][10] Institutionalized racism in the United States has been cited as a reason for the prevalence of sex workers who are Black or other people of color, as this leads to inequality and a lack of access to resources.[6]

The legality of prostitution and associated activities (soliciting, brothels, procuring) varies by jurisdiction. Yet even where it is illegal, a thriving underground business usually exists because of high demand and the high income that can be made by pimps, brothel owners, escort agencies, and traffickers.[5]

A brothel is a commerical establishment where people may engage in sexual activity with a prostitute,[11] though for legal or cultural reasons they may describe themselves as massage parlors, bars, strip clubs or by some other description. Sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution.[12]

Prostitution and the operation of brothels is legal in some countries, but illegal in others. For instance, there are legal brothels in Nevada, USA, due to the legalization of prostitution in some areas of the state.[13] In countries where prostitution and brothels are legal, brothels may be subject to many and varied restrictions. Forced prostitution is usually illegal as is prostitution by or with minors, though the age may vary. Some countries prohibit particular sex acts. In some countries, brothels are subject to strict planning restrictions and in some cases are confined to designated red-light districts. Some countries prohibit or regulate how brothels advertise their services, or they may prohibit the sale or consumption of alcohol on the premises. In some countries where operating a brothel is legal, some brothel operators may choose to operate illegally.

Some men and women may travel away from their home to engage with local prostitutes, in a practice called sex tourism, though the destination pattern tends to differ between them.[14] Male sex tourism can create or augment demand for sex services in the host countries, while female sex tourism tends not to use existing sex facilities.[14] Like tourism in general, sex tourism can make a significant contribution to local economies, especially in popular urban centers. Sex tourism may arise as a result of stringent anti-prostitution laws in a tourist's home country, but can create social problems in the host country.

Businesses that offer prostitution services tend to cluster around military bases. The British naval port of Portsmouth had a flourishing local sex industry in the 19th century, and until the early 1990s there were large red light districts near American military bases in the Philippines. The Monto red-light district of Dublin, one of the largest in Europe, gained most of its custom from the British soldiers stationed in the city; indeed it collapsed after Irish independence was achieved and the soldiers left. The notorious Patpong entertainment district in Bangkok, and the city of Pattaya, Thailand, started as R&R locations for US troops serving in the Vietnam War in the early 1970s. Sex industries are also small but growing in several college towns.[15]

Prostitution is extremely prevalent in Asia, particularly in Southeast Asian nations such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.[16] Due to the longstanding economic instability of many of these nations, increasing numbers of women have been forced to turn towards the sex industry there for work. According to Lin Lim, an International Labour Organization official who directed a study on prostitution in Southeast Asia, "it is very likely that women who lose their jobs in manufacturing and other service sectors and whose families rely on their remittances may be driven to enter the sex sector."[16] The sex industry of these countries has consequently grown to become their dominant commercial sector. Conversely, the sex industry in China has been revived by the nation's recent economic success. The nation's liberal economic policies in the early 1980s have been credited with revitalizing the sex industry as rural communities rapidly expand into highly developed urban centers.[17] A typical example of this can be found in the city of Dalian. The city was declared a special economic zone in 1984; by the twenty-first century what had been a small fishing community developed an advanced commercial sector and a correspondingly large sex industry.[17] A large portion of China's sex workers are immigrants from other Asian nations, such as Korea and Japan.[18] In spite of these circumstances, most Asian countries do not have strong policies regarding prostitution. Their governments are challenged in this regard because of the differing contexts that surround prostitution, from voluntary and financially beneficial labor to virtual slavery. The increasing economic prominence of China and Japan have made these issues a global concern.[16] As a result of Southeast Asia's lax policies regarding prostitution,[16] the region has also become a hotbed for sex tourism, with a significant portion of this industry's clients being North American or European.[19]

Other participants

The sex industry employs millions of people worldwide,[20] mainly women. These range from the sex worker, also called adult service provider (ASP) or adult sex provider, who provides sexual services, to a multitude of support personnel. Sex workers can be prostitutes, call girls, pornographic film actors, pornographic models, sex show performers, erotic dancers, striptease dancers, bikini baristas, telephone sex operators, cybersex operators, or amateur porn stars for online sex sessions and videos.

In addition, like any other industry, there are people who work in or service the sex industry as managers, film crews, photographers, website developers and webmasters, sales personnel, book and magazine writers and editors, etc. Some create business models, negotiate trade, make press releases, draw up contracts with other owners, buy and sell content, offer technical support, run servers, billing services, or payroll, organize trade shows and various events, do marketing and sales forecasts, provide human resources, or provide tax services and legal support.

Usually, those in management or staff do not have direct dealings with sex workers, instead hiring photographers who have direct contact with the sex workers. Pornography is professionally marketed and sold to adult webmasters for distribution on the Internet.

Other members of the sex industry include the hostesses that work in many bars in China. These hostesses are women who are hired by men to sit with them and provide them with company, which entails drinking and making conversation, while the men flirt and make sexual comments.[21] A number of these hostesses also offer sexual services at offsite locations to the men who hire them. Although this is not done by every woman who works as a hostess in the bars of China, the hostesses are all generally labeled as "grey women". This means that while they are not seen as prostitutes, they are not considered suitable marriage partners for many men. Other woman who are included in the "grey women" category are the permanent mistresses or "second wives" that many Chinese businessmen have.[21]

The Chinese government makes efforts to keep secret the fact that many of these hostesses are also prostitutes and make up a significant part of the sex industry. They do not want China's image in the rest of the world to become sullied. Hostesses are given a significant degree of freedom to choose whether or not they would like to service a client sexually, although a refusal does sometimes spark conflict.[22]

Pornography


Two sex workers preparing to shoot a scene for a pornographic film.

Pornography is the explicit portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual arousal and erotic satisfaction. A pornographic model poses for pornographic photographs. A pornographic film actor or porn star performs in pornographic films. In cases where only limited dramatic skills are involved, a performer in pornographic films may be called a pornographic model. Pornography can be provided to the consumer in a variety of media, ranging from books, magazines, postcards, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction of the act, rather than the act itself. Thus, portrayals such as sex shows and striptease are not classified as pornography.

The first home-PCs capable of network communication prompted the arrival of online services for adults in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The wide-open early days of the World Wide Web quickly snowballed into the dot-com boom, in-part fueled by an incredible global increase in the demand for and consumption of pornography and erotica. Around 2009, the U.S. porn industry's revenue of $10–15 billion a year was more than the combined revenue of professional sports and live music combined and roughly on par or above Hollywood's box office revenue.[23][24]

There is mixed evidence on the social impact of pornography. Some insights come from meta-analyses synthesizing data from prior research. A 2015 meta-analysis indicated that pornography consumption is correlated with sexual aggression.[25] However, it is unknown if pornography promotes, reduces or has no effect on sexual aggression at an individual level, because this correlation may not be causal. In fact, counter intuitively, pornography has been found to reduce sexual aggression at a societal level. A 2009 review stated that all scientific investigations of increases in the availability of pornography show no change or a decrease in the level of sexual offending.[26] The question of whether pornography consumption affects consumers' happiness was addressed by a 2017 meta-analysis. It concluded that men who consume pornography are less satisfied with some areas of their lives, but pornography consumption does not make a significant difference in other areas, or to the lives of women.[27] Additionally, a sample of Americans revealed in 2017 that those who had viewed pornography were more likely to experience romantic relationship breakup than their non-pornography watching counterparts, and that the effect was more pronounced with men.[28]

Use of children

While the legality of adult sexual entertainment varies by country, the use of children in the sex industry is illegal nearly everywhere in the world.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is the "sexual abuse by the adult and remuneration in cash or kind to the child or a third person or persons. The child is treated as a sexual object and as a commercial object".[29]

CSEC includes the prostitution of children, child pornography, child sex tourism and other forms of transactional sex where a child engages in sexual activities to have key needs fulfilled, such as food, shelter or access to education. It includes forms of transactional sex where the sexual abuse of children is not stopped or reported by household members, due to benefits derived by the household from the perpetrator. CSEC is prevalent in Asia and parts of Latin America.

Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico have been identified as the primary countries where the commercial sexual exploitation of children takes place.[30] Certain places around the world are recognized for child sex tourism. [7]

Adult entertainment

Adult entertainment is entertainment intended to be viewed by adults only, and distinguished from family entertainment. The style of adult entertainment may be ribaldry or bawdry. Any entertainment that normally includes sexual content qualifies as adult entertainment, including sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for "on demand", as well as adult movie theaters, sex shops, and strip clubs. It also includes sex-oriented men's magazines, sex movies, sex toys and fetish and BDSM paraphernalia

Opposition

The sex industry is very controversial, and many people, organizations and governments have strong moral objections to it, and, as a result, pornography, prostitution, striptease and other similar occupations are illegal in many countries.

The term anti-pornography movement is used to describe those who argue that pornography has a variety of harmful effects on society, such as encouragement of human trafficking, desensitization, pedophilia, dehumanization, exploitation, sexual dysfunction, and inability to maintain healthy sexual relationships.

Sociological objections

Dolf Zillmann asserts that extensive viewing of pornographic material produces many sociological effects which he characterizes as unfavorable, including a decreased respect for long-term, monogamous relationships, and an attenuated desire for procreation.[31] He claims that pornography can "potentially undermine the traditional values that favor marriage, family, and children" and that it depicts sexuality in a way which is not connected to "emotional attachment, of kindness, of caring, and especially not of continuance of the relationship, as such continuance would translate into responsibilities".[32]

Additionally, some researchers claim that pornography causes unequivocal harm to society by increasing rates of sexual assault,[31][33] a line of research which has been critiqued in "The effects of Pornography: An International Perspective" on external validity grounds,[34] while others claim there is a correlation between pornography and a decrease of sex crimes.[35][36][37]

Immigration and sex tourism

Some researchers have claimed that sex workers can benefit from their profession in terms of immigration status. In her essay "Selling Sex for Visas: Sex Tourism as a Stepping-Stone to International Migration" anthropologist Denise Brennan cited an example of prostitutes in the Dominican Republic resort town of Sosúa, where some female prostitutes marry their customers in order to immigrate to other countries and seek a better life.[38] The customers are, however, the ones that hold the power in this situation as they can withhold or revoke the sex worker's visa, either denying them the ability to immigrate or forcing them to return to their country of origin.[38] Some customers see sex workers from other countries as exotic commodities that can be fetishized or exploited.[38] Sex workers are also at risk of judgement from family members and relatives for having been associated with the sex tourism industry. It also must be noted that migrant sex work happens due to globalization. Globalization has produced growth both in sex tourism and in the migration of women to places where the sex industry thrives.[39]

Homophobia in sex work

Recently, LGBTQ+ communities have welcomed the creation of sex work through a homosexual lens. However, there have also been repercussions within this community due to the brutal treatment of the workers.[40] Many producers and proponents of pornography featuring gay actors claim that this work is liberating and offers them a voice in popular media while critics view it as a degradation of the eroticization of inequality and that advocates for this new line of cinema are only creating a new barrier for homosexuals to contend with.[40]

Feminist objections

British feminist and political theorist Carole Pateman, who has condemned the commodification of women caused by the sex industry

Feminism is divided on the issue of the sex industry. In her essay "What is wrong with prostitution", Carole Pateman makes the point that it is literally the objectification of woman. They are making their bodies an object that men can buy for a price. She also makes the point that prostitution and many other sex industries reinforces the idea of male ownership of a woman. On the other hand, some other feminists see the sex industry as empowering women. They could be seen as simply jobs. The woman who are working them are breaking free from social norms that would previously keep their sexuality under wraps as immoral.[41] Based on these arguments, Sweden, Norway and Iceland have criminalized the buying of sexual services, while decriminalizing the selling of sexual services.[42] (In other words, clients and pimps can be prosecuted for moneyed sexual transactions, but not prostitutes). Supporter of this model of legislation claim reduced illegal prostitution and human trafficking in these countries.[43] Opponents dispute these claims.[44]

Some feminists, such as Gail Dines, are opposed to pornography, arguing that it is an industry which exploits women and which is complicit in violence against women, both in its production (where they charge that abuse and exploitation of women performing in pornography is rampant) and in its consumption (where they charge that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment). They charge that pornography contributes to the male-centered objectification of women and thus to sexism. However, other feminists are opposed to censorship, and have argued against the introduction of anti-porn legislation in the United States—among them Betty Friedan, Kate Millett, Karen DeCrow, Wendy Kaminer and Jamaica Kincaid.[45]

Other objections

The sex industry often raises criticism because it is sometimes connected to criminal activities such as human trafficking, illegal immigration, drug abuse, and exploitation of children (child pornography, child prostitution). The sex industry also raises concerns about the spread of STDs.

See also

References

  1. ^ Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur - effets et symboliques. (pg. 39–63).
  2. ^ Report of the Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry, Volumes 4-5. Ontario Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. 1977. p. 210. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  3. ^ Russell Baker (14 December 1976). "No Biz Like Sex Biz". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Prostitution Reform Act 2003 No 28 (as at 26 November 2018), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  5. ^ a b Horning, Amber; et al. (2018). "Risky Business: Harlem Pimps' Work Decisions and Economic Returns". Deviant Behavior. 78: 12–27. doi:10.1080/01639625.2018.1556863. PMID 30670211. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  6. ^ a b c Monroe, Jacquelyn (27 September 2005). "Women in Street Prostitution: The Result of Poverty and the Brunt of Inequity". Journal of Poverty. 9 (3): 69–88. doi:10.1300/J134v09n03_04.
  7. ^ a b Lee, Janet; Shaw, Susan M. (March 2010). "Sex Toursim". Women Worldwide: Transnational Feminist Perspectives on Women. Oregon State University: McGraw Hill. p. 200. ISBN 978-0073512297.
  8. ^ Edlund, Lena; Korn, Evelyn (1 February 2002). "A Theory of Prostitution". Journal of Political Economy. 110: 181–214. doi:10.1086/324390.
  9. ^ Hood Brown, Marcia (22 June 1998). "Trading for a Place". Journal of Poverty. 2 (3): 13–33. doi:10.1300/J134v02n03_02. ISSN 1087-5549.
  10. ^ Poudel, Meena; Smyth, Ines (1 March 2002). "Reducing poverty and upholding human rights: a pragmatic approach". Gender and Development. 10 (1).
  11. ^ "Prostitution Reform Act 2003 No 28 (as at 26 November 2018), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  12. ^ Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity: Embracing Diversity - Page 527, Janell L. Carroll, 2009
  13. ^ Hayes-Smith, Rebbeca; Shekarkhar, Zahra (March 2010). "Why is prostitution criminalized? An alternative viewpoint on the construction of sex work". Contemporary Justice Review. 13: 43–55. doi:10.1080/10282580903549201.
  14. ^ a b Oppermann, Martin (1999). "Sex tourism". Annals of Tourism Research. 26 (2): 251–266. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00081-4.
  15. ^ Perry, Hannah (27 March 2015). "One in 20 Students Turning to Sex Industry to Pay their Way through University". Daily Mail.
  16. ^ a b c d "Sex industry assuming massive proportions in Southeast Asia", "ILO News", 19 August 1998
  17. ^ a b Zheng, Tiantian. Red Lights: The Lives of Sex Workers in Postsocialist China. University of Minnesota Press, 2008. p. 2.
  18. ^ Zheng, Tiantian. Red Lights: The Lives of Sex Workers in Postsocialist China. University of Minnesota Press, 2008. p. 3.
  19. ^ FRANCE 24 English (17 June 2010). "Asia's sex industry" – via YouTube.
  20. ^ "Sex Worker Myths vs Reality" "Working Group on Sex Work and Human Rights"
  21. ^ a b John Osburg, "Anxious Wealth"
  22. ^ Tiantian Zheng, "Red Lights"
  23. ^ Geisler, Erin (2009-02-11). "Pornography: A Mirror of American Culture?". University of Texas. Retrieved 2014-07-08. While statistics vary, watchdog organizations estimate the pornography industry generates between $10 and $15 billion a year in the United States. By comparison, the Hollywood box office generates about $10 billion a year.
  24. ^ Porndemic — Sex in the Digital Age (at 6.35), a 2009 documentary by Christopher Sumpton and Robin Benger in association with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  25. ^ Wright, Paul J.; Tokunaga, Robert S.; Kraus, Ashley (February 2016). "A Meta‐Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies". Journal of Communication. 66 (1): 183–205. doi:10.1111/jcom.12201.
  26. ^ Diamond, Milton (September–October 2009). "Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: A review". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 32 (5): 304–314. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.06.004. PMID 19665229.
  27. ^ Wright, Paul J.; Tokunaga, Robert S.; Kraus, Ashley; Klann, Elyssa (March 2017). "Pornography Consumption and Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis: Pornography and Satisfaction". Human Communication Research. 43 (3): 315–343. doi:10.1111/hcre.12108.
  28. ^ Perry, Samuel L.; Davis, Joshua T. (December 2017). "Are Pornography Users More Likely to Experience a Romantic Breakup? Evidence from Longitudinal Data". Sexuality and Culture. 21 (4): 1157–1176. doi:10.1007/s1211 (inactive 2019-12-05).
  29. ^ Clift, Stephen; Simon Carter (2000). Tourism and Sex. Cengage Learning EMEA. pp. 75–78. ISBN 978-1-85567-636-7.
  30. ^ "RIGHTS-MEXICO: 16,000 Victims of Child Sexual Exploitation | Inter Press Service". Ipsnews.net. 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  31. ^ a b "Report of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Pornography and Public Health: Background Papers: 'Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography' (August 4, 1986)". 1986-08-04. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  32. ^ Zillmann, pages 16-17
  33. ^ Malamuth, Neil M.: "Do Sexually Violent Media Indirectly Contribute to Antisocial Behavior?", [1], page 10
  34. ^ The effects of Pornography: An International Perspective Archived 2008-01-15 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Pornography, rape and the internet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
  36. ^ D'Amato, Anthony (2006-06-23). "Porn Up, Rape Down". SSRN 913013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ The Effects of Pornography: An International Perspective Archived 2012-02-03 at the Wayback Machine University of Hawaii Porn 101: Eroticism, Pornography, and the First Amendment: Milton Diamond Ph.D.
  38. ^ a b c Denise Brennan (2002). Ehrenreich, Barbara; Hochschild, Arlie Russell (eds.). Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. Metropolitan Books. pp. 243–248. ISBN 978-0805075090. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  39. ^ Lee, Janet; Shaw, Susan M.; Pereira, Charmaine; Kandaswamy, Priya (March 2010). "Sexualities Worldwide". Women WorldWide. Oregon State University. p. 171. ISBN 978-0073512297.
  40. ^ a b Kendall, C.N. (2003). "Gay Males Pornography's "Actors": When "Fantasy" Isn't". Journal of Trauma Practice. 2 (3–4): 93–114. doi:10.1300/J189v02n03_05.
  41. ^ J, Bell, Kelly (4 April 2018). "A Feminist's Argument On How Sex Work Can Benefit Women". Inquiries Journal. 1 (11).
  42. ^ "What is the Nordic Model?". Nordic Model Now!. 27 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  43. ^ Joan Smith (26 March 2013). "Why the Game's Up for Sweden's Sex Trade". The Independent.
  44. ^ Mudde, Prof Cas (8 April 2016). "The Paternalistic Fallacy of the "Nordic Model" of Prostitution". Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  45. ^ "The Harm of Porn". Fiawol.demon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-07-07.

External links