شرکت ملی نفت ایران (بهاختصار: NIOC) (به انگلیسی: National Iranian Oil Company) شرکت دولتی نفت و گاز ایرانی است، که از طریق شرکتهای زیرمجموعه و فرعی خود، در زمینه اکتشاف و تولید نفت خام، گاز طبیعی و میعانات گازی، همچنین حفاری و توسعه مخازن هیدروکربوری فعالیت میکند.
شرکت ملی نفت ایران در سال ۱۳۲۷ پس از ملی شدن نفت ایران تأسیس و جایگزین شرکت نفت ایران و انگلیس شد. پس از انقلاب ۱۳۵۷ در ایران و تشکیل وزارت نفت، بخشهای پالایش و توزیع فرآوردههای نفتی، توزیع گاز و صنایع پتروشیمی، از این شرکت منفک شدند و به عنوان شرکتهای تابعه وزارت نفت، به فعالیت خود ادامه دادند. در حال حاضر همچنان تمرکز اصلی این شرکت بر بخش بالادستی نفت و گاز معطوف است.
ظرفیت تولید نفت خام شرکت ملی نفت ایران معادل ۴ میلیون بشکه در روز است. این شرکت روزانه ۸۴۰ میلیون متر مکعب گاز طبیعی تولید مینماید، همچنین میزان تولید میعانات گازی آن در حدود ۹۰۰ هزار بشکه در روز است. حجم ذخایر هیدروکربوری تحت مدیریت این شرکت در حدود ۱۵۷ میلیارد بشکه برآورد میشود. شرکت ملی نفت ایران از نظر میزان تولید معادل نفت و گاز، پس از شرکتهای سعودی آرامکو (عربستان سعودی) و گازپروم (روسیه) در رتبه سوم قرار دارد.
The NIOC is exclusively responsible for the exploration, drilling, production, distribution and export of crude oil, as well as exploration, extraction and sales of natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). the NIOC exports its surplus production according to commercial considerations in the framework of the quotas determined by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and at the prices prevalent in the international markets. in early 2015 NIOC's Recoverable liquid hydrocarbon reserves 156.53 billion barrels (24.886 km3) (10% of world's total) and Recoverable gas reserves 33.79×1012 m3 (15% of world's total). Current NIOC production capacities include over 4 million barrels (640×10^3 m3) of crude oil and in excess of 750 million cubic meters of natural gas per day. Iran's overall export crude oil was valued at US$85 billion in 2010.
The Shah opens the facilities of International Naval Oil Company of Iran in 1970
In May 1901, William Knox D'Arcy was granted a concession by the Shah of Iran to search for oil, which he discovered in May 1908. This was the first commercially significant find in the Middle East. In 1923, Burmah employed future Prime Minister, Winston Churchill as a paid consultant; to lobby the British government to allow the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) to have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were successfully granted.
In 1935, Rezā Shāh requested the international community to refer to Persia as 'Iran', which was reflected in the name change of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). Following World War II, Iranian nationalism was on the rise, especially surrounding the Iranian natural resources being exploited by the foreign companies without adequately compensating Iranian taxpayers. AIOC and the pro western Iranian government led by Prime Minister Ali Razmara, initially resisted nationalist pressure to revise AIOC's concession terms still further in Iran's favour. In March 1951, Ali Razmara was assassinated; and Mohammed Mossadeq, a nationalist, was elected as the new prime minister by the Majlis of Iran.
In April 1951, the Majlis nationalized the Iranian oil industry by a unanimous vote, and the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) was formed, displacing the AIOC. The AIOC withdrew its management from Iran and organised an effective worldwide embargo of Iranian oil. The British government, which owned the AIOC, contested the nationalization at the International Court of Justice at The Hague, but its complaint was dismissed.
In 1954, the AIOC became the British Petroleum Company. The return of the shah had not meant that British Petroleum was able to monopolise Iranian oil as before. Under pressure from United States, British Petroleum reluctantly accepted membership in a consortium of companies, founded in October 1954, to bring back Iranian oil to the international market. It was incorporated in London as a holding company called 'Iranian Oil Participants Ltd' (IOP). The founding members of IOP included British Petroleum (40%), Gulf (later Chevron, 8%), Royal Dutch Shell (14%), and Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later Total S.A., 6%). The four Aramco partners - Standard Oil of California (SoCal, later Chevron) - Standard Oil of New Jersey (later Exxon, then ExxonMobil) - Standard Oil Co. of New York (later Mobil, then ExxonMobil) - Texaco (later Chevron) - each held an 8% stake in the holding company.
All IOP members acknowledged that NIOC owned the oil and facilities in Iran, and IOP's role was to operate and manage them on behalf of NIOC. To facilitate that, IOP established two operating entities incorporated in the Netherlands, and both were delegated to NIOC. Similar to the Saudi-Aramco "50/50" agreement of 1950, the IOP consortium agreed to share profits on a 50–50 basis with Iran, "but not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its board of directors". The negotiations leading to the creation of the consortium, during 1954-55, were considered a feat of skillful diplomacy.
In Iran, IOP continued to operate until the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The new regime of Ayatollah Khomeini confiscated all of the company’s assets in Iran. According to the company's Web site: The victory of the Islamic revolution annulled the Consortium Agreement of 1954 and all regulations pertaining to it. The taking of power in Iran by the new Islamic Republic led to the withdrawal of foreign employees from Iran's oil industry, and Iranians took full control of its affairs.
Iran oil production, domestic consumption and exports
According to OPEC, NIOC recoverable liquid hydrocarbon reserves at the end of 2006 was 1,384 billion barrels (2.200×1011 m3).
NIOC oil reserves at the beginning of 2001 was reported to be about 99 billion barrels (1.57×1010 m3), however in 2002 the result of NIOC’s study showed huge reserves upgrade adding about 317 billion barrels (5.04×1010 m3) of recoverable reserves to the Iranian oil reserves.
After 2003 Iran made some significant discoveries which led to addition of another 7.7 billion barrels (1.22×109 m3) of oil to the recoverable reserves of Iran.
The vast majority of Iran's crude oil reserves are located in giant onshore fields in the south-western Khuzestan region near the Iraqi border. Overall, Iran has 40 producing fields – 27 onshore and 13 offshore. Iran's crude oil is generally medium in sulfur and in the 28°-35 °API range.
As at 2012, 98 rigs are in operation in onshore fields, 24 in offshore fields and a single rig is in operation in the Caspian Sea. Iran plans to increase the number of its drilling rigs operating in its onshore and offshore oilfields by 36 units to reach 134 units by March 2014.
Iran began in 2006 with plans to create a global strategic petroleum reserve with the construction of 15 crude oil storage tanks with a planned capacity of 10 million barrels (1,600,000 m3). The storage capacity of oil products in the country is around 11.5 billion liters (2011), but it will reach 16.7 billion liters by the end of the Fifth Five Year Development Plan (2010-2015). As of 2012, Iran is capable of storing crude oil in the Persian Gulf for a period of 10–12 days. The figure should hit 30–40 days after the construction of new storage facilities are completed.
NIOC holds about 1,000×10^12 cu ft (28,000 km3) of proven Natural gas reserves of which 36% are as associated gas and 64% is in non associated gas fields. It stands for world's second largest reserves after Russia.
Since 1995, National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) has made significant oil and gas discoveries, standing for some 84-billion-barrels (1.34×1010 m3) of oil in place and at least 175×10^12 cu ft (5,000 km3) of gas in place, which are listed below.
The GA is its highest decision making body, determining the company's general policy guide lines, and approving the annual budgets, operations and financial statements and balance sheets. The company's board of directors has the authority and major responsibilities to approve the operational schemes within the general framework ratified by the General Assembly, approve transactions and contracts, and prepare budgets and Board reports and annual balance sheets for presentation to the General Assembly.
The Board supervises the implementation of general policy guidelines defined by the General Assembly, and pursues executive operations via the company's Managing Director.
With appropriate division of tasks and delegation of responsibilities to subsidiaries- affiliates, NIOC has been able to establish acceptable degrees of coordination within its
organizational set up. In fact, NIOC's Directors act primarily in policy making and supervision while subsidiaries act as their executive arm in coordinating an array of operations such as exploration, drilling, production and delivery of crude oil and natural gas, for export and domestic consumption.
in charge of offshore oil fields in the Persian Gulf offshore oil and gas fields with the exception of South Pars. It focuses mainly on production platforms, ancillary facilities, and installations. Massive corruption in the lease of offshore platforms reported by the Iranian media in 2015.
supervises all upstream activities in the central oil and gas regions of the country, i.e. everything, excluding the oil-rich southern Khuzestan province, Caspian and offshore. As of 2015, it is the largest natural gas producer in Iran.
in charge of onshore oilfields in southern Iran. Focuses on onshore upstream activity in the province of Khuzestan. As Khuzestan is the main oil and gas-producing province, this entity is among the most significant in the NIOC family. It produces approximately 80 percent of all crude oil produced in Iran.
Khazar Oil Exploration and Production Company
in charge of Iran's Caspian Sea sector (onshore and offshore)
Karoon Oil and Gas Production Company (KOGPC)
Operating in Khouzestan, the company operates 538 wells and delivers natural gas to NIGC.
Petroleum Engineering and Development Company (PEDEC)
is the most important NIOC offshoot company. The responsibility for all buy-back projects under operation, study or negotiation has been given to PEDEC. This company enjoys full authority to manage the projects. Further information: Foreign Direct Investment in Iran
handles and organizes all activities in the Pars Special Economic-Energy Zone, located near the South Pars gas field (a subsidiary of Pars Oil & Gas Co.)
Iranian Oil Terminals Company
has four transport hubs including facilities on the three islands of Kharg, Lavan and Sirri consisting of 17 jetties capable of berthing tankers of all sizes to lift and export its crude oil that load more than 2,000 oil tankers per year. 2,000 of them dock in Bandar Abbas Port, 1,000 in Khark Island. Iran earned nearly $2 billion in 2009 from bunkering ships in the Persian Gulf (25% market share). Projected bunkering sites by 2015: Bandar Abbas (two sites), Kish, Qeshm, Bushehr, Mahshahr, Assalouyeh, Khark and Chabahar.Fujairah bunkering hub, UAE is Iran's main competitor in the Persian Gulf. The country's terminal storage capacity should soar to 100 million barrels by 2015 from the current 24 million barrels.
in charge of all offshore and onshore drilling activities. NIDC provides more than 90 percent of drilling services needed by the oil companies inside the country. In 2011, NIDC, drilled or completed 192 oil and gas wells, drilled 454 thousand meters of wells and provided more than 8 thousand expert or technical services to customers. As at 2012, 123 drilling rigs are in operation in Iran’s offshore and onshore.
Ahwaz Pipe Mills Company
manufacturing oil and gas pipes and has a capacity of up to 420,000 tons per year. It operates three plants.
Iranian Fuel Conservation Organization
regimenting the fuel consumption in different sectors through review and survey of the current trend of consumption and executing conservation measures nationwide. See also: 2007 Gasoline Rationing Plan in Iran
responsible for the development of the Arvandan oil & gas fields. AOGC was established in 2004 working as the main operator in oil and gas production from Azadegan, Yadavaran, Darquain, Jufeyr, Moshtagh, Khorramshahr, Arvand, Susangerd, Band-e-Karkheh, Omid and other fields which are located in west of Karun River.
Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)
NIOC will implement 69 research projects between 2010 and 2015 which include topics as enhancing recovery rate, modeling, control and management of reservoirs, production and exploitation, exploration, promotion and technology in drilling operations, establishment of an integrated data bank, industrial protection and environment, optimizing energy consumption, materials and equipments manufacturing, strategic and infrastructure studies, productivity and specialized maintenance. Iran is expected to launch its first gas to liquids (GTL) plant by 2018. See also: Science and technology in Iran.
The cost of producing each barrel will rise to $30 or more from $7 in 2012.
Iran currently allocates $20 billion a year to develop fields and $10 billion on maintaining output. In the next decade, maintaining production will cost $50 billion, with a similar sum required for development. This does not include development and investment costs in related fields such as Petrochemicals.
Although usually neglected and overlooked, Iran also has a number of very active private companies in the oil sector. The growing private sector activity is mainly active in projects involving the construction of oil field units, refinery equipment, tanks and pipelines, as well as engineering. Iranian manufacturers will supply oil industry with $10 billion worth of domestically-made goods and equipment in 2012.
In 2019, the government sub-contracted projects worth 6.2 billion to domestic contractors. Pending projects include domestication of wellhead equipment, desalinating packages, anti-corrosions, sulfur recovery catalysts, wellhead control panels, among others.
Iran has another 10% joint-venture participation with BP and other foreign oil companies in Azerbaijani Shah Deniz gas field, producing 8 billion cubic meters of gas per year, worth up to a reported $2.4 billion per year. The Iranian entity with which BP has partnered in these ventures is the Swiss-based Naftiran Intertrade, a subsidiary of NIOC. Shah Deniz is not subject to US sanctions.
According to geographer Richard Heede, is 3rd on the list of companies with the highest level of CO2 emissions globally with 739 million tonnes (727,000,000 long tons; 815,000,000 short tons) in 2013, amounting to more than 3.1% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions.
^The 8th IIES International Conference "Energy Security and New Challenges", held in 29–30 November 2003, IRIB Conference Center, Tehran, Iran "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
Bamberg, James H (1994). The History of the British Petroleum Company: The Anglo-Iranian Years, 1928–1954. vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521259507.
Bamberg, James H (2000). The History of the British Petroleum Company: British Petroleum and Global Oil, 1950–1975: The Challenge of Nationalism. vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521785150.