شرطی خلاف واقع

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یک شرطی خلاف واقع (مخفف CF) یک شرطی شامل یک قید «اگر» است که بر خلاف واقعیت است. اصطلاح خلاف واقع در سال ۱۹۴۷[۱] توسط نلسون گودمن ابداع شد، که مفهوم «شرطیِ بر خلاف واقعیت» رودریک چیشولم (۱۹۴۶) را گسترش می‌داد.[۲] مطالعه خلاف واقع‌ها به طور فزاینده‌ای مورد علاقه دانشوران در طیف گسترده‌ای از حوزه‌ها مانند فلسفه،[۳] روانشناسی،[۴] روانشناسی شناختی،[۵] تاریخ،[۶] علوم سیاسی،[۷] اقتصاد،[۸] روانشناسی اجتماعی،[۹] قانون،[۱۰] نظریه سازمان،[۱۱] بازاریابی[۱۲] و اپیدمیولوژی[۱۳] واقع شده است. در سال ۱۷۴۸، هنگام تعریف علیت، دیوید هیوم به یک مورد خلاف واقع اشاره کرد:

«... می‌توانیم علت را به عنوان یک شیء که با شیء دیگری دنبال می‌شود تعریف کنیم، که مشابه اولی، توسط اشیائی مانند دومی دنبال می‌شوند. یا به بیان دیگر، جایی که شیء نخست نبوده باشد، شیء دوم هرگز وجود نداشته است…»[۱۴]

دیوید هیوم، جستاری دربارهٔ فهم بشر

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

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  12. Hetts, J.J. , Boninger, D.S. , Armor, D.A. , Gleicher, F. & Nathanson, A. , "The Influence of Anticipated Counterfactual Regret on Behavior", Psychology & Marketing, Vol.17, No.4, (April 2000), pp.345-368; Landman, J. & Petty, R. , "“It Could Have Been You”: How States Exploit Counterfactual Thought to Market Lotteries", Psychology & Marketing, Vol.17, No.4, (April 2000), pp.299-321; McGill, A.L. , "Counterfactual Reasoning in Causal Judgements: Implications for Marketing", Psychology & Marketing, Vol.17, No.4, (April 2000), pp.323-343; Roese, N.J. , "Counterfactual Thinking and Marketing: Introduction to the Special Issue", Psychology & Marketing', Vol.17, No.4, (April 2000), pp.277-280; Walchli, S.B. & Landman, J. , "Effects of Counterfactual Thought on Postpurchase Consumer Affect", Psychology & Marketing, Vol.20, No.1, (January 2003), pp.23-46, etc.
  13. Randerson, J. , "Fast action would have saved millions", New Scientist, Vol.176, No.2372, (7 December 2002), p.19; Haydon, D.T. , Chase-Topping, M. , Shaw, D.J. , Matthews, L. , Friar, J.K. , Wilesmith, J. & Woolhouse, M.E.J. , "The Construction and Analysis of Epidemic Trees With Reference to the 2001 UK Foot-and-Mouth Outbreak", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol.270, No.1511, (22 January 2003), pp.121-127, etc.
  14. خطای یادکرد: خطای یادکرد:برچسب <ref>‎ غیرمجاز؛ متنی برای یادکردهای با نام ToolAutoGenRef1 وارد نشده‌است. (صفحهٔ راهنما را مطالعه کنید.).

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